3. Gerundives and Absolutives

1. Verbal Adjectives are those which are not assimilated to the verbal system of Tense and Voice. Those which indicate need or possibility are called Gerundives.

NOTE. Verbal Adjectives and Adjectives cannot be easily differentiated.

2. While the same suffixes as for the Passive Participles are found, -to-, -no-, -mo-, there are two forms especially identified with the Gerundive:

a. In -lo or -li are found in arm., toc., and lat. As in bherelo-, ghabhili- (cf. able, from lat. habilis), etc.

b. In -io (which is also a common lengthening to differentiate adjectives) is sometimes a gerundive of obligation, as well as -tu-, -ti-, -ndho; as, dhrsio, visible; gnotinos, that has to be known; seqondhos, second, that has to follow; gnaskendhos, that has to be born; etc.

3. There are also some adverbial, not inflected forms usually called Absolutives or Gerunds. They are usually derived from the Gerundive, and are therefore built in our system with the indeclinable Gerundive Stem.

NOTE. This is obviously an extension of our modern Infinitive system, in which we use a non-inflected verbal root or stem for the infinitive (when it is inflected, it is a verbal noun); in this case, we use as the Gerund an indeclinable verbal adjective, the stem of the Gerundive, the declinable verbal adjective.

They are verbal nouns, corresponding in meaning to the English verbal noun in -ing: as, kausa werelo, for the sake of speaking.