8.5. Conjunctions

8.5.1. Conjunctions, like prepositions, are closely related to adverbs, and are either petrified cases of nouns, pronouns and adjectives, or obscured phrases: as, qod, an old accusative. Most conjunctions are connected with pronominal adverbs, which cannot always be referred to their original case-forms.

8.5.2. Conjunctions connect words, phrases or sentences. They are divided in two main classes, Coordinate and Subordinate:

a. Coordinates are the oldest ones, which connect coordinated or similar constructions. All of them are put behind and are normally used as independent words. They are:

I. Copulative or disjunctive, implying a connection or separation of thought as well as of words: as, qe, and; we, or; neqe, nor.

II. Adversative, implying a connection of words, but a contrast in thought: as, ma, but.

III. Causal, introducing a cause or reason: as, nam, for.

IV. Illative, denoting an inference: as, igitur, therefore.

NOTE. Newer particles usually come before, and some of them are general, as the copulative eti, and (et in lat., probably with nasal infix in ger.), and illative od, certainly, or odqe in lat. Others are not so generalized.

b. Subordinates connect a subordinate or independent clause with that on which it depends. They are:

I. jo, which has general subordinate value (relative, final, conditional), and it is possibly related to the relative pronoun.

II. Conditional, denoting a condition or hypothesis: as, man, if; neman, unless.

III. Comparative, implying comparison as well as condition: as, man, as if.

IV. Concessive, denoting a concession or admission: as, qamqam, although (lit. however much it may be true that, etc.).

V. Temporal: as, postqam, after.

VI. Consecutive, expressing result: as, ut(i), so that.

VII. Final, expressing purpose: as, ut(i), in order that; ne, that not.

VIII. Causal, expressing cause: as, qia, because.

Conjunctions are more numerous and more accurately distinguished in Europaio than in English.