6.2. Personal Pronouns

6.2.1. The Personal pronouns of the first person are eg, I, we, we; of the second person, tu, thou or you, ju, you. The personal pronouns of the third person - he, she, it, they - are wanting in Europaio, an anaphoric (or even a demonstrative) being used instead.

NOTE. IE III had no personal pronouns for the third person, like most of its early dialects. For that purpose, a demonstrative was used instead. It is this system the one used in Europaio; although no unitary form was chosen in IE III times, the general pattern (at least in the European or Northern dialects) is obvious.

6.2.3. The Personal Pronouns (Non-Reflexive) are declined as follows:



Singular eg-, me-

Plural we-, ns-


eg, I

wei, we; we


me, me

nos, nsme, us


mene, mei, of me

nso, of us


meghi, moi

nsmei, nsmi



Singular tu-, te-

Plural  ju-, ws-


tu, thou

ju, you


te, thee

wos, usme, you


tewe, tei, of thee

juso, of you


tebhi, toi

usmei, usmi

For the Personal Pronouns of the third person singular and plural the demonstrative i is used. See §6.5 for more details on its use and inflection.

a. The plural we is often used for the singular eg; the plural ju can also be so used for the singular tu. Both situations happen usually in formal contexts.

b. The forms nso, juso, etc., can be used partitively:

oinosqiqe nso, each one of us.

juso omniom, of all of you

c. The genitives mei, tei, nso, juso, are chiefly used objectively:

es mnamon nso, be mindful of us