4.3.1. Second Declension

1. The Stem of nouns of the Second Declension ends in sonant and consonant, that is: -n, -r, (rarely -l, -m), -s and occlusive (especially -t). The flexion of the animates is substantially the same as that of the First Declension.

The Nominative ending is -s (with occlusive, and -m, -l), but there is also a Nominative singular with pure stem vowel (declension -Ø and lengthened ending vowel), so that the full-grade Vocative is differentiated. And there is no confusion in Nom./Gen., as -s has a different vowel grade (Nom. -s, Gen. -es or -os)

2. Europaio nouns of the Second Declension have thus two models:



Occlusive, -m, -l

-r, -n, -s



-Ø (long vowel)


-m ['m]

-m ['m]



-Ø (full grade)




-i, -ei

3. Inanimates have pure vowel stems with different vocalic grades. In nouns there can be no confusion at all, as they are different words, but the neuter adjectives could be mistaken in Nominative or Vocative Animate. Distinction is thus obtained with vocalism, so in animate -on / inanimate -on, animate -es / inanimate -es (neuter nouns with -s theme are in -os).