Indo-European Etymological Dictionary - Indogermanisches Etymologisches Woerterbuch (JPokorny)

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A Proto-Indo-European Language Lexicon, and an Etymological Dictionary of Early Indo-European Languages

The database represents the updated text of J. Pokorny's “Indogermanisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch”, scanned and recognized by George Starostin (Moscow), who has also added the meanings. The database was further refurnished and corrected by A. Lubotsky. Pokorny's text is given practically unchanged (only a few obvious typos were corrected), except for some rearrangement of the material. The numbers in the lemmata are given after the root (e.g. Pokorny's 1. bher- appears as bher-1) because automatic alphabetization would otherwise too much affect the order of the lemmata.

Root / lemma: abhro- (*hebhro-)

English meaning: strong, mighty

German meaning: 'stark, heftig'

Note: The Root / lemma: apelo- : `strength' seems related to Root / lemma: abhro- (*hebhro-): `strong, mighty' [the shift l > r].

Material: to Mir. Prefix abor-, cymr. afr- `very much'; got. abrs `get strong, violent', adv. abraba `very much', bi-abrjan `before were astonished beside oneself', aisl. Prefix afar- `very much'; ill. VN Α῎βροι, thrak. PN Α᾽βρο-.

Maybe illyr. VN Α῎βροι, thrak. PN Α᾽βρο - : alb. (*Α῎βροι) afronj `bring close, squeeze', afër `near' similar to formations of lett. blaîzît `squeeze, clash, hit' : Old Church Slavic blizь, blizъ Adv. `nigh, near' (eigentl. `adjacent').

Here maybe got. aba (n- stem) `husband'.


The root abhro- :'strong, mighty' is related to the cult of fertility hence the goddess of love, beauty and sexual rapture' Αφροδίτη Aphrodite'. The name of Aphrodite derived from Gr. ἀφρός `sea foam' + Τι ̄ τα ̃ νες `titaness'. The name of Aphrodite is also related to Root / lemma: abō(n) : (ape, aquatic demon) and to Root / lemma: ab- : (water, river) [see below].

In Greek mythology, Aphrodite is the goddess of love, beauty and sexual rapture. According to Hesiod, she was born when Uranus (the father of the gods) was castrated by his son Cronus. Cronus threw the severed genitals into the ocean which began to churn and foam about them. From the ἀφρός `aphros ("sea foam")' arose Aphrodite, and the sea carried her to either Cyprus or Cythera. Hence she is often referred to as Kypris and Cytherea.

The name of Aphrodite is related to PIE Root / lemma: (enebh-2): nebh-, embh-, m̥bh- : (wet, damp; water; clouds) Old Indian abhrá- m. (*m̥bhros), av. awra- n.

References: WP. I 177, Feist 1 b f., 579 a., W. Schulze KZ. 52, 311 = Kl. Schr. 398.

See also: abh-

Page(s): 2

Root / lemma: abh- (*hebh-)

English meaning: quick, abrupt

German meaning: `rasch, heftig'

Note: alter r/n- stem

Material: Gr. ἄφαρ `straightway, forthwith, at once, quickly, presently' (old abstract noun `quickness'), for what, nevertheless, probably at first ἄφνω, ἄφνως `suddenly'.

Here at most Old Church Slavic abьje `straight away, directly', but uncertainly Old Indian ahnāya `directly, straight away, instantly, speedily' (rather to áhar, áhan- `day' p. 7).

References: WP. I 177, Feist 1 b f., 579 a., W. Schulze KZ. 52, 311 = Kl. Schr. 398.

See also: abhro-

Page(s): 2

Root / lemma: abō(n) (*hebō-)

English meaning: ape, *water demon

German meaning: `Affe'

Note: (kelt. neologism). The animal introduced by traveling merchants can have been named by the Celts with the name of her aquatic demon (see above ab-).

Material: Hes. ἀβράνας Κελτοὶ τοὺς κερκοπιθήκους is maybe ἀββάνας (Akk. Pl.) to read and still before the consonatic mutation in Germ. stubby; hence, in. api m. `Monkey, gate', as. apo, ahd. affo m., affa, affin f., ags. apa m. `Monkey', ačech. opice comes aruss. opica from the Germ.

References: WP. I 51 f.

See also: compare ab-`water' and Schrader Reallex., Hoops Reallex. s. v. ape.

Page(s): 2-3

Root / lemma: ab-

English meaning: water, river

German meaning: `Wasser, Fluß'


From Root / lemma: akʷā- (more properly ǝkʷā): ēkʷ- : `water, river' [through the shift -gʷ- > -b-, -kʷ- > -p- attested in Greek, Illyrian and Celtic languages] derived Root / lemma: ab- : (water, river) and Root / lemma: ā̆p-2 : `water, river'.

Material: Lat. amnis f., late m. c (*abnis); air. ab (*aba) Gen. abae `river', besides abann, cymr. afon, orn. bret. auon, gall. brit. FlN Abona, derived cymr. afanc `beaver, water demon, dwarf', to mir. abac (*abankos) `beaver, dwarf', schweiz.-frz. avañ `pasture' (*abanko-); lett. FlN Abava.

The West German FlN in -apa, nhd.-affa, probably go back partly to usually lost westgerm. *ap-(idg. *ab-), partly in ven.-ill. ap- (idg. *ap-).

rum. apă `water'

References: WP. I 46 f., WH. I 40, Feist 19a, 579a, GIPatSR. II 134.

See also: compare also āp-2 `water, river' and abō(n) `ape'.

Page(s): 1

Root / lemma: ades-, ados- (*heĝh-)

English meaning: sort of cereal

German meaning: `Getreideart, Spelt'

Grammatical information: n.

Material: Lat. ador, -ō̆ris n. `a kind of grain, spelt', maybe in got. atisk (*ades-ko-) `sowing field', probably m. as ahd. ezzisca Pl. `sowing', mhd. dial. Esch, schweiz. dial. Aesch, `field entrance of a village'; toch. AB āti `grass' [ B atiyo ( `grass' (Adams 9)] (differently Pedersen Toch. 641). about gr. ἀθήρ `an ear of corn' see under andh-.

Perhaps Armenian: hat `grain', Hittite: hattar n. `cereal'


It seems Root / lemma: ades-, ados- : `sort of cereal' evolved from an older root *heĝh- `a kind of grain'. This root was suffixed with common -ska formant in germ. branch Germanic: *at-isk-a-, while in Anatolian branch the root was suffixed with common PIE -tar formant. The old laryngeal (centum ḫ- > a-, e- : satem ḫ- > s-) was lost except in hitt. and arm. Clearly germ. tongues borrowed the cognate from a reduced lat. (*hattar-) adŏris > Germanic: *at-isk-a-.

Finally zero grade in alb. (*adō̆ris) *dris, drizë `thorny plant', (*dris) drithë `grain' where the lat. -is ending has been solidified.

The surprise is the phonetic mutation -ĝh- > -d- found only in av. - illyr.- balt. languages.

References: WP. I 45, Feist 61 a, anders WH. I 14.

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Root / lemma: ad-1 (*hed-)

English meaning: to, by, at

German meaning: `zu, bei, an'

Material: Phryg. αδ-δακετ `he does'; maked. ἄδ-δαι ῥυμοί (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 69); lat. ad `to, with, in', preverb and preposition m. Akk., also Gen. atque, ac `and in addition, and also, and' (*ad-que; not at + que; also umbr. ap `in which place, in what place, where, when, after, since, although' chronologically, with extended - ī in ape), umbr. ař- preverb, -ař ̌ postposition m. Akk., osk. adpúd `as far as', otherwise with s- extension osk. az `to, toward' preposition m. Akk .; air. ad- preverb (e.g., ad-glādur `call upon, appeal to'), cymr. add-, gall. ad- prefix (e.g., MN Ad-iantū: cymr. addiant `longing', Admārus: air. már `large'); cymr. , with vowel ag `with' (ad + ĝhe, Old Indian ha, not = lat. atque `and, as well as, together with'); germ. *at preverb and preposition mostly with `dative' = Lok., rare m. Akk. (got. westgerm. from the time, ags. also from the place), aisl. also with Gen.: got. at `to, by', aisl. at `to, by, against, after', ags. æt, as. at, ahd. az `to, by, in'.

zero grade: ved. t-sárati `creeps, creeps up', ahd. zagēn (: got. *-agan `fear'), ahd. z-ougen, mhd. zōugen, as. t-ōgian compared with got. at-augjan `with raised up eyes, point, show'.

References: WP.I 44 f., WH.I 11 f.

See also: Perhaps to ad-2.

Page(s): 3

Root / lemma: ad-2

English meaning: to establish, put in order

German meaning: `festsetzen, ordnen'

Material: Umbr. arsie (*adio-) `venerable, august, divine, sacred, pure, holy (very freq. and class.); of a divinity, and of things in any way belonging to one', arsmor (*admon) `a form of religious observance, religious usage, ceremony, rite', arsmatiam (*admatio-) `relating to religious rites or ceremonies, ritual', armamu `you shall be ordered, set in order, arranged, adjusted, disposed, regulated', Ařmune epithet of Jupiter, to *ad- `settle, order'; air. ad n. `law', Pl. ada `ceremonious customs', from it Adj. `lawful', adas `proper', cymr. addas `suitable', eddyl (*adilo-) `duty, purpose'; probably also germ. *tila- `suitable opportunity' in got. til n., ga-tils `suitably', ags. til `suitable, useful' as n. `goodness, suitability' = ahd. zil `purpose', preposition ags. aisl. til `to, for'.

References: WE. I 12, Devoto Mél. Pedersen 224.

Page(s): 3

Root / lemma: ad(u)-, ad-ro- (*heĝhero)

English meaning: water current

German meaning: `Wasserlauf'


From Root / lemma: angʷ(h)i- : `snake, worm' derived Root / lemma: akʷā- (more properly ǝkʷā): ēkʷ-

: `water, river'; Root / lemma: eĝhero- : `lake, inner sea'; Root / lemma: ad(u)-, ad-ro- : `water current': Illyr. pannon. VN ᾽Οσεριᾶτες [common alb.-illyr.-balt. -ĝh- > -d-, -z- phonetic mutation].

From Root / lemma: akʷā- `water, river' nasalized in *aku̯ent- (suffixed in -er, -or) derived Root / lemma: au̯(e)-9, au̯ed-, au̯er- : `to flow, to wet; water, etc. `

Material: Avest. aδu `water run, brook, canal', ven.-ill. FlN Ad(d)ua (for Po), *Aduli̯a> Attel (to Danube in Bavaria), Mons of Adula `St. Gotthard' (probably named after the rivers streaming there), oberösterr. FlN *Adra> Attersee, Attergau, FlN Adrana > Eder (Hessen), maybe also PN Adria in Venetien (afterwards mare Adriaticum), sizil. FlN Α᾽δρανός and ven.-ill. name of Oder Οὐι-αδούας; further lett. FlN Adula.


The name of the primordial hill in Egyptian mythology, the first mountain that raised from the ocean. The mountain god was borrowed by Hitties who called the dreaming god Upelluri. Greeks received Atlas from Hittites. Atlas `*mountain probably named after the rivers streaming there': Α῎τλας, -αντος m. `Atlas' (Od., Hes., Hdt., A. etc.), name of a God who carries the columns of the sky; originally probably name of Arcadian mountains which were spread then by the epic in general and especially (by Ionic seafarers) was transferred to the Atlas Mountains in West Africa, see Solmsen Wortforsch. 24; about Atlas as a personification of the world axis Tièche Mus. Helv. 2, 65ff. Berber ádrār `mountain'.

Derivatives: Of it `Ατλαντίς f. (Hes. etc.), name of a mythical island, according to Brandenstein Atlantis (Wien 1951, = Arb. Inst. Sprachw. 3) = Crete; further `Ατλαντικός (E., Pl., Arist. etc.) and `Ατλάντειος (Kritias).

References: Vasmer ZslPh. 8, 114 f., Pokorny Urill. 4, 70, 93, 109, 124.

Page(s): 4

Root / lemma: agh-(lo-)

English meaning: disgusting

German meaning: `widerwärtig'


Root / lemma: agh-(lo-) : `disgusting' derived from an extended Root / lemma: agos- : `fault, sin' produced.

Material: Got. agls `opprobrious, ignominious', agliÞa, aglō `hardship', us-agljan `press', ags. eg(e)le `offensive, unwieldy, unfortunate', eglan add `pain' (engl. ail `hurt; indisposed his'), eglian `to be felt painfully', mnd. egelen `cause grief', got. aglus Adv. agluba `δύσκολος, difficult'; also (with puzzling suffix) got. aglaitei f. -i n. `licentiousness, wanton violence, insolence, sexual offense', ahd. agaleizi f.,-i n. `discomfort; zeal', agaleizo, as. aglēto, agalēto Adv. `sedulous, keen'.

Possibly here ow. aghá- (=av. aɣō-) `nasty', n. `horrible, damage', aghalá- ` bad'.

Here maybe to mir. ālad n. `wound' (*agloton), mcymr. aele(u) `painful', aeleu m. `pain' (*aglou̯-).

References: WP. I 41, Feist 15 a, Specht Dekl. 136, Loth RC. 38, 56.

Page(s): 8

Root / lemma: aghl(u)- (*heghel-)

English meaning: rainy weather

German meaning: etwa `dunkle Wolke, regnerisches Wetter'

Material: Gr. ἀχλύ̄ς `fog, darkness'

Maybe alb. agull `bad vision'

Old Prussian aglo n. `rain' (u- stem), arm. *alj- in aɫjaɫj, aɫjamuɫjkh `darkness' (Meillet MSL. 10, 279).

References: WP. I 41. compare Petersen Ar. and Arm. Stud. 126.

Page(s): 8

Root / lemma: agh- (*hegh-)

English meaning: to fear

German meaning: `seelisch bedrückt sein, sich fürchten'

Material: Gr. ἄχος n. `fear, pain, grief', ἄχνυμαι, ἄχομαι `grieving, sorrowing, mourning' (Aor. ἥκαχε, ἠκαχόμην, Perf. ἀκάχημαι), ἀχεύων, ἀχέων `mourning, groaning', ἀκαχίζω `sadden'; here probably ἄχθος `load, grief' (*ἀχτος), thereof ἀχθεσθαι `to be loaded, be depressed'.

Maybe nasalized alb. (*aghos) ankth `fear' [common alb. -s > -th phonetic mutation].

Ags. ege m. `fear', egisi-grima gl. `ghost, spectre, evil spirit', n. es- stem *agiz = gr. ἄχος `get a fright';

Note: common gr. -ĝh- > - χ - phonetic mutation

compare ahd. egis-līh `dreadful', egisōn `get a fright' and to o- and en stems extended got. agis n. `fear, anxiety, fright', ahd. agiso, egiso m., egisa f. `fear, fright figure', ags. egesa m. `fear'; anord. agi m. (-en- stem)'Fear', ahd. egī; mhd. ege f. `fear, fright, punishment'; got. -agan in unḫagands `are not afraid', af-agjan `frighten', us-agjan `frighten somebody', `inḫagjan `snub somebody'; preterit present got. ōg (ōgum) `fears me', ni ōgs `fear nothing' (old short vocal subjunctive *ōgiz), anord. ōa-sk `be afraid'; got. ōgjan `snub somebody' = anord. ægja `get a fright'; anord. ōgn f. `fright', ōtti m. `fear', ags. ōga f. `fright'.

Air. ad-agor,-agur `fear' (because of the ablaut equality with got. ōg supposes Brugmann Grdr. II2 3, 484 origins from older Perf.), verbal noun āigthiunder

References: WP. I 40, Feist 14, 380.

See also: hereupon belongs probably also: agh-(lo-)

Page(s): 7-8

Root / lemma: agos- (*hege-)

English meaning: fault, sin, *blood guilt

German meaning: `Fehl, Schuld, Sünde'

Material: Old Indian ā́gas- n. `offence, injury, sin, fault', change by ablaut with gr. ἄγος `heavy guilt, blood guilt'; Old Indian ánāgas-, gr. ἀναγής `innocent, guiltless' ; ἀγής, ἐναγής `curses', ἄγιος μιαρός.

ags. acan, ōc `hurt' (engl. ache), ndd. äken `hurt, fester, dent, blow', mndl. akel `grief, wrong, pity', nfries. akelig, aeklig `wretched, vehement'.

Maybe nasalized alb. (*ángas) nëkónj, geg. angój `groan, sigh, complain of pain, evil' (*enq-); prove the link between Root / lemma: agos- : [fault, guilt, blame, sin (damage, injury, sacrilege, evil)] and Root / lemma: enq-, onq- : (to sigh, groan) [see below]

Note: It is possible Root / lemma: agos- (*hege-): `fault, sin, *blood guilt' is a zero grade of lat. sangue `blood', alb. gjak `blood' see Root / lemma: s(u̯)ekʷo-s : `sap, pitch, *blood'.

References: WP. I 38.

Page(s): 8

Root / lemma: agro- (egro-) (*hekuro-)

English meaning: top, first, beginning

German meaning: `Spitze, oberstes, erstes, Anfang'

Material: Old Indian ágra- n. `point', agrē (Lok.) `at the top', also timewise `in the beginning, first', agrimá- `first', av. aɣra- `first, uppermost after time space etc. `, n. `beginning; the uppermost, point'; lett. agrs (Adj.) `early', agri Adv. `early, early on', agrums `the early morning'.

maybe alb. agu `dawn, morning, beginning of the day'.

Whether here lat. MN Agrippa from *agri-p(e)d- `breech birth (one who causes great pain at his birth', W. Schulze KZ. 32, 1721, in 1721, doubting Lat. Eig. 2305

If Old Indian ágra on *ogro- or *egro- retrograde, one could compare hitt. ḫé-kur, ḫé-gur 'cliff summit, rock, crag'.

Maybe Agrianes Illyr. TN, Agron `Illyrian king'.

References: WP. I 38 f., Pedersen Hitt. 183.

Page(s): 8-9

Root / lemma: agu̯(e)sī, aksī

English meaning: axe

German meaning: `Axt'

Material: Got. aqizi, anord. øx, ags. acus, æx, as. acus, accus, ahd. achhus, accus, aches, nhd. Axt (germ. forms *aqwizi and *akusi have maybe derived according to Zupitza GG. 89 from a gradating *agu̯ésī : *agusi̯ā́s), gr. ἰξός `ax, hatchet'

Note: common gr. -ĝh- > - ξ- phonetic mutation

lat. ascia `ax of the carpenters' (from *acsiā like viscus: ἰξός, vespa from *vepsā).

maybe alb. (*asca) ashka `shavings, wood splinter', (*viscus) vishk, fishk `make thin, wither'.

References: WP. I 39, WH. I 71, Feist 54 b, Specht Dekl. 150, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 4654.

Page(s): 9

Root / lemma: aĝh-

English meaning: plough animal

German meaning: `trächtiges Tier'

Material: Old Indian ahī `cow', av. azī f. Adj. `pregnant' (from cows and mares), mir. ag (s- stem) m., f. `bovine animal, cow', ag allaid `deer' (actually, `wild ox'), ál `brood, throw' (*aglo-), cymr. ael ds., mcymr. aelaw `abundance, fertility', eilion (*agliones) `fallow deer, horses'; here with e- vocalism arm. ezn `bovine animal'

References: WP. I 38, Loth RC. 38, 55.

Page(s): 7

Root / lemma: aĝro-s

See also: s. aĝ-

Page(s): 9

Root / lemma: aĝ- (*heĝ-)

English meaning: to lead, *drive cattle

German meaning: `treiben' (actually probably `mit geschwungenen Armen treiben'), `schwingen', in Bewegung setzen, führen'

Grammatical information: originally limited to the present stem.


old laryngeal centum ḫ- > a-, e- : satem ḫ- > s- ;

Material: aĝō: Old Indian ájati `drive', ajá- m. `a drove, troop; a driver'; ājí- m./f. `running match, combat', av. azaiti `drive, lead away', arm. acem `lead, bring';

maybe alb. geg. (*ἄγω), ago `leader, chief'; ag- `dawn, beginning of the day', agon `to dawn, start the day' : lat. ago agere egi actum `to set in motion, drive; of animals, to drive or hunt', agon -onis m. `a contest in the public games', agonalia -ium and -orum n. `a festival of Janus'.

gr. ἄγω'lead' (Aor. Aor. ἤγαγον, ἤξα are new), lat. agō `to set in motion, drive, lead, negotiate' (Pf. ēg ī with ablaut innovation), osk. Imper. actud = umbr. aitu `agito', osk. acum `agere', air. ad-aig (*aget) `adigit', acymr. agit, hegit, more recently ëyt (*agīti), besides the strong inflection in cymr. corn. bret. a (*aget) `goes'; t- Preterit air. ro-da-acht `driven away', cymr. aeth (*ag-t) `to put in motion' etc., see Pedersen KG. II 451 following, air. āin `activity, play' (from *agnis), gallo-rom. *and-agnis `big step', frz. andain `swath, scythe slash', afrz. `wide step', anord. aka `driving' (Preterit ōk like Old Indian Gram. āja); ags. ac `however, but, yet' (wörtl. `go!' like lat. age); toch. B ak-, AB āk- `travel, lead';

Maybe alb. ec- `walk, travel on foot', vocative hec, eja `come!'.

to- participle: ἀκτός, lat. āctus ' put in motion, moved, driven, tended, conducted', *amb (i)-aktos, actually, `sent around (: air. imm-aig) messenger, servant' in gall. (-lat.) ambactus `vassal, slave', cymr. amaeth `servus arans' (from Kelt. derives got. andbahts, ahd. ambaht `servant', from which the kinship with nhd. Amt).

As idg. Instrumental noun in-trā here Old Indian aṣ̌ṭrā `goad to drive the livestock', av. aštrā `whip, scourge'.

Maybe Tokharian: B āk n. `zeal' (Adams 35), AB āk- `lead, guide, drive' (36).

lengthened grade formations: Old Indian ājí-ḥ m. f. `race, fight', mir. āg (Gen. āga, u- stem) `fight', āga, āige `leaders' (cf also gall. PN Ago-mārus = air. ágmar `warlike'; Com-āgius), lat. only in compounds: ambāgēs, around `a roundabout way, winding. Hence, in speech, etc., either circumlocution or obscurity' (conservative stem like Old Indian áj-ē `to lead' = lat. agī Inf. Pass., and like Old Indian aj- in pr̥tanā́j- `in the fight pulling', however, with stretch in the composition), indāgēs and indāgo,-inis `surrounding and driving of game', co-āgulum `a means of coagulation, a coagulum or coagulator (the curdled milk in the stomach of a sucking animal, the stomach itself, etc.), rennet or runnet; the curdled milk; that which holds or binds together, a bond, tie', Old Indian samāja-ḥ `meeting, society', gr. ἀγωγός `leading, leadingly', ἀγωγή `guidance, management, freight', Hes. ὤγανα `spokes', στρατ-ηγός (see under). about dor. ἆγον (Old Indian ājam) `I lead' see, nevertheless, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 654, 4.

o- stem: ved. ajá-ḥ ̣ `activity, train; driver', gr. ἀγός `leader, military leader', στρατ-ᾱγός, att. ion. στρατ-ηγός'military leader', λοχᾱγός (originally Doric) `leader', lat. prōdigo -igere -egi -actum `to drive forth; to spend, waste', prōd-igus `profuse, extravagant; rich, abounding in. Adv. prodige' (from prōd-igere), abiga `plant which has the power of producing abortion; ground-pine' (`close to miscarriage' from ab-igere = ἀπάγω, Old Indian apa-ájati `to drive away, drive off').

i̯o- stem: ir. aige `race', Old Indian in pr̥tanājyam `competition'.

aĝmn̥, aĝmos: Old Indian ájman- n. `road, train', ájma-ḥ ds. (however, about jman, pari-jman-, pr̥thu-jman-, jma-yā́- s. ĝhÞem- `earth'): lat. agmen `a driving movement or a mass in (orderly) movement, a stream, band, train; esp. milit., an army on the march' (to neologism agō for *ammen), exāmen `a swarm; a throng, crowd, shoal. (2) the tongue of a balance; testing, consideration'; then `to check, to weigh; to consider' (from *agsmen), ammentum (*agmen-to-m) `in loop form - possibly in the middle of the spear - fixed with throw straps'; maybe (Schw. Gr. Gr. I 49210) with o- graduation gr. ὄγμος `field furrow, road of heavenly bodies; swath by mowing'.

lo- stem: Old Indian ajirá- `quick, nimble' (however, lat. agilis `flexible, nimble' is a neologism); gr. ἀγέλη `herd, crowd', lat. agolum `shepherd's stick'.

Gr. ἀγών `race, competition'; ἄγυια'street' (part. Perf.), from which about newer *ἄγεια lat. agēa `a gangway in a ship'; lak. kret. ätol. ἀγνέω `leads, brings', ep. ion. ἀγῑνέμεναι, ἀγῑνέω ds. (:ἀγνέω and ἄγω, like ὀρῑ-νω towards ὄρ-νυ-μι and ὠρ-όμην, also from an ī̆ ending root form; cf Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 694, 696). about ἡγεμών see Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 5227 and under sāg-.

Lat. rēmex, rēmigāre, rēmigium, lītigāre `a rower, oarsman' and other verbs in -(i)gāre. - Presumably lat. indigitēs `the local divinities and heroes' (indigitāre `a divinity call', indigitāmenta `invocation formulae'), as *end(o)-aget- ` the indigenous, native'.

formation development to'to weigh' (from `bring in oscillation') in lat. exagium `a weighing, weight; a balance', exigere [ex + ago]'to drive out, push forth, thrust out, take out, expel: -- To weigh, try, prove, measure, examine, adjust, estimate, consider': among other things `weigh, measure', exāctus `precise, accurate, exact', exiguus `strict, exact, scanty, small, little, petty, short, poor, mean, inadequate, inconsiderable, paltry', exīlis (*ex-ag-slis) `strict, narrow, thin, slender, lank, small, meagre, poor', exāmen (see above), agīna `the opening in the upper part of a balance, in which the tongue moves' (formation as for example coquīna), gr. ἄγειν also `weigh' (with Akk. of the weight), ἄξιος `weighing as much, of like value, worth as much as' (from *ἄκτιος, on the grounds of *ag-ti-s `weight', actually:) `from suitable weight', hence, `worth, solemnly', ἀντάξιος'worth just as much as, equally'.

still cf WH. I 9, 10, 24 about acnua, āctus quadrātus `a field measure of 120 feet in the square', and actūtum `straight away, immediately, forthwith', agāsō `footman, driver, hostler', agō, -ōnis `of the priests killing the sacrificial animal' (from agere in meaning `sacrifice'), agōnium `a victim, beast for sacrifice' below likewise

Here maybe gall. exacum `the herb centaury' if prescribed for *exagum (= *exago-`pure-craving'). But better to *ak̂- `sharp', see there.

Further belong here:

aĝes-, ak̂s . . . `(fulcrum, pivot:) axis - shoulder':

Old Indian ákṣ̌aḫḥ `axis', gr. ἅξων ds., ἅμ-αξα `carriage, wagon' Gl. 12, 217; KZ. 40, 217 f.);

Note: common gr. -ĝh- > - ξ- phonetic mutation

lat. axis `axis' = lit. ašìs, Old Prussian assis, Old Church Slavic osъ f. ds .; ahd. ahsa, nhd. Achse, ags. eax ds .; in. ǫxull (from urg. *ahsulaz)'axis'; mir. ais `axis' (*aksiḫlā in cymr. echel f. `axis', bret. ahel).

Lat. āla `shoulder', from which the usual meaning `wing', from *agslā (cf Demin. axilla `armpit') = in. ǫxl, ags. eaxl, ahd. ahsala, nhd. Achsel, where near lengthened grade ndl. oksel ds., and without l- formant: ahd. uochisa, mhd. uohse, üehse and ahd. uochsana, ags. ōxn `armpit', in. ōst f., ōstr m. `Cervical pit', ags. ōcusta, ōxta m., engl. oxter `armpit'; av ašayạ̄ Gen. Du. `of both shoulders', arm. anut `shoulder pit' (at first from *asnut `).

maybe zero grade in alb. geg. (*aksla-të) sqetla `armpit'.

aĝḫrā `rush, hunt', aĝḫroḫs `driving, rushing':

Old Indian in ghasēḫajra- `to drive consuming, exciting appetite', av. (vehr-kąm) azrō-daiδīm `doing the hunt, outgoing on prey (she-wolf)'; gr. ἄγρᾱ, ion. ἄγρη `hunt, catch', πάναγρος `catching everything, catching', κρεάγρα `meat tongs', πυράγρα `tongs', ποδάγρα `prostration, enuflection', Μελέαγρος originally name of a `demon which as a quick-tempered fever seizes the limbs' (?), ἀγρεύς `hunter', ἀγρεύω `catch'; but ἀγρέω `take' according to Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 7271 from *ἁ-γρο-; ir. ār n. `defeat' (*agron) `battle, fight' (*agrā), actually, `rush', acorn. hair `destruction, injury, mischief, harm, misfortune, disaster, loss, detriment, calamity', abret. airou PI. `an overthrow, destruction, ruin, defeat, slaughter, massacre, butchery, carnage', gall. VN Veragri `the immense combatants'.

maybe alb. Agron `appellation of an Illyrian king'.

aĝḫroḫs `field, camp' (to *agō as herd to drive wie, also originally `place where the cattle is being driven, pasture').

Old Indian ájraḫḥ `surface, camp, fields' (without respect on agriculture), gr. ἀγρός `field, land' (in contrast to town), lat. umbr. ager `field', got. (etc.) akrs, ahd. ackar, ahhar, nhd. Acker (Acker and ags. æcer also a certain land measure, `so much a bottom plate can oxen plow during one day'), arm. art `field' (with puzzling t about *atgr-, *atr-, see Pedersen KZ. 39, 352; thereof artak `s `out', prefix arta-` from').

Old Indian ajríya- `located in the plain' = gr. ἄγριος `on the field, outside growing or living, wildly'; ἀγρότερος `wildly living', lat. agrestis `a countryman, peasant, rustic, rural, crude'. (about got. akran, dt. Eckern, however, see under *ōg- `grow'.)

maybe alb. egër `wild, rural, crude', ager `donkey (pulling a wagon)', illyr. TN Agrianes.

References: WP. I 35 f., WH. I 22 f., 89, H. Reichelt WuS. 12, 112.

Page(s): 4-6

Root / lemma: agʷh-no-s (*hegʷh-no-s)

English meaning: `lamb'

German meaning: `Lamm'

Note: (z. T. also *agʷnos)

It seems that from Root / lemma: aĝ- : `to lead, *drive cattle' derived Root / lemma: agʷh-no-s : `lamb'.



The old laryngeal centum ḫ- > a-, e- : satem ḫ- > s- in PIE; only alb. and umbr. and Slavic preserved the old laryngeal through alb. ḫ- > k- phonetic mutation.

alb. geg. kinxh, tosk (*ḫegh-) qengj `lamb' : umbr. habina(f) `of a lamb' : lat. haedīnus `of a kid' : Old Church Slavic: (j)agnę `lamb' [common alb. gh- > gl- > gj- : lith. gh- > dz- phonetic mutation].

Gr. (*agʷnos, abnos) ἀμνός derived from an earlier *abnos `lamb' [common gr. kʷ > p, gʷ > b phonetic mutation, later b > mb > m common illyr.-gr. phonetic mutation]

gr. ἀμνός m. f., ἀμνή f. `lamb';

lat. agnus, - ī, fem.-a `lamb' (agnīle `sheep stable', lacking suffix affinity with Old Church Slavic jagnilo `place where the sheep lamb', a derivative of the verb jagniti `to lamb'); air. ūan cymr. oen, acorn. oin, bret. oan `lamb' (urk. *ognos with -gn- would have derived from *-gʷhn-, not-*gʷn-, in spite of Pedersen KG. I 109-bn-;

o- probably influence from *ou̯is `sheep'); ags. ēanian, engl. to yean `to lamb', ndl. oonen ds. (from *aunōn from *auna- = idg. *agʷhno-); Old Church Slavic (j)agne ̨ `lamb' (with formants -et- broadened around popular names of young animals), (j)agnьcь `lambkins' contain full gradation. Or is placed idg. *ōgʷ(h)no- : to *ǝgʷ(h)no-

Through the Germ. and Kelt. presumed voiced-aspirated also would underlie the basis of lat. and slav. forms, so that gr. ἀμνός (at first from *ἀβνός) remains the only dependable indication in voiced-nonaspirated . If umbr. habina(f) `of a lamb' could be explained from intersection from *hēdīno- = lat. haedīnus `of a kid' and *abnīno- = lat. agninus `of a lamb; f. as subst., lamb's flesh', however, would point umbr. b to voiced-nonaspirated. But maybe it has become gʷh in Osk.-Umbr. to b.


Celtic Illyrian concordances: common illyr. -gʷ- > -b-, -d- : alb. -gʷ- > -d- phonetic mutation.

Lat. avillus `lambkin' because of the suffix formation not to ovis, but from *agʷhnelos.


[common lat. - Italic gw- > v- phonetic mutation] Lat. avillus (*abillus) `lambkin' : rum. (*agʷenus) ageamiu `lamb'.

References: WP. I 39, WH. I. 23.

Page(s): 9

Root / lemma: ai-dh-, i-dh-, nas. i-n-dh- (*heu̯i-ĝh-)

English meaning: to burn


Common illyr. -ĝh- > -dh- phonetic mutation

German meaning: `brennen, leuchten'

Material: Old Indian inddhḗ `inflamed, is aroused' (pass. idhyáte, Perf. īdhḗ, part. Perf. Pass iddhá-ḥ), indhana-m `lighting'.

Gr. αἴθω `lights, burns' (αἰθόμενος), αἴθων, αἶθοψ `igneously, sparkling', ἰθαίνεσθαι θερμαίνεσθαι Hes., hylleisch αἰδῶσσα αἴθουσα'loggia'; changing by ablaut κακ-ιθής Hes. `ravenously' (W. Schulze KZ. 29, 269 = Kl. Schr. 329). common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation

o-St.:gr. αἶθος m. `fire' (αἰθός `burntly') = Old Indian ēdha-ḥ ̣m. `Firewood' = ags. ād, ahd. mhd. eit m. `Glow, pyre': zero grade probably norw. schwed. id `leuciscus idus' (a bright carp kind), cf nhd. dial. aitel `leuciscus cephalus' as the `shining'; besides u- stem *aidhu- in gall. VN Aedui, air. áed `fire', also as MN; lat. aedēs `a dwelling of the gods, a sanctuary, a temple', ursprüngl. `the domestic stove', also aedis = maked. ἄδις ἐσχάρα Hes.

From the verbal adjective in -to- derived probably lat. aestās, - ātis `warm season, summer' (from *aisto-tāt-, idg. *aidh-to-); aestus, - ūs (from *aidh-tu-) `heat, glow, surf', aestuāre `cook, surge, roar';

Maybe alb. (*aestā-, *vesna, *vièsientá) vjeshta `autumn, harvest time (long summer)': Go. asans `harvest time, summer' [common alb. prothetic v- before bare initial vowels] hence Vesta `goddess of hearth and its sacred fire' was an Illyrian goddess, also alb. vatra (*vas-tra) `hearth' with -tre suffix.

agerm. MN Aistomōdius (`with quick-tempered courage'), ags. āst f. `dried stove', engl. oast `drying room, drying loft'.

r- formants: gr. αἰθήρ `the upper air' (maked. ἀδῆ), αἴθρα `the cheerful sky' (maked. ἀδραιά), αἴθριος `brightly, cheerfully (from the weather)', for what changing by ablaut ἰθαρός'cheerfully', Old Indian vīdhrá- (=vi-idh-rá́-) ds.

l- formants: gr. αἰθάλη, αἴθαλος `soot', maked. ἄδαλος; under acceptance of a development from `shining, appearing' `too apparently' one puts a little bit constrainedly here ags. īdel `vain, pointless, trifling', ahd. ītal, nhd. eitel.

In idg. *aidh-lo- is based germ. ail- in ags. ǣlan `burn' to āl n. `Flame', and in ags. ǣled m., aisl. eldr (Gen. elds) `fire, flame'. From different development-grading ags. ǣled are borrowed cymr. aelwyd, bret. oaled `from fire, stove' (M. Förster Themse 4872). Mir. āel `lime' could have originated from *aidhḫlo-. However, could germ. and kelt. words be formed also directly by the root 4. 4. ā̆i- with -lo-suffix.

s-formants: es-St. gr. αἴθος n. `Glow, fire' = Old Indian ḗdhas- n. `Firewood'.

Continuing formation: aisl eisa f. (*aidhḫsḫōn) `fire', norw. `Hearth', mnd. ēse f. `chimney, fire stove' (however, ahd. essa `chimney, hearth' see under ā̆s- `burn'); av. aēsma m. `Firewood' (*aidh-s-mo-, cf without s Old Indian idhmáḫḥ m. ds.); in addition balt. *aismiā in lit. íesmė `firewood'; lit. aistrà f. `passion'; ačech. niestějě (fem. Pl.) `stove', later nístěj (with n- suggestion by wrong decomposition of the connections *vъnḫěstěję, vъn-ěstějachъ, Berneker 275) from *aidh-s-to; in addition zro grades *idh-s-to- in slov. istė́je, stė́je Pl. `stove hole'; to Johansson IF. 19, 136 also Old Indian iṣ̌ṭakā `of burnt bricks', av. ištya- n. `brick, (backed brick)'.

In *indh- goes back: alb. geg. idhunɛ, tosk. idhëtë `bitter', tosk. idhɛrím `bitterness, anger, irritation', hį̄dhitë Pl. `nettle' (Jokl studies 29).


Alb. and gr. are the only IE languages to preserve the old laryngeal ḫ- in : alb. geg. hidhun `bitter', hithra `nettle';

References: WP. I 5, WH. 15, 20, 843, Trautmann 3, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 347.

Probably to ā̆i-4.

Here also belongs aisk-, if originated from aidh-s-k- .

Page(s): 11-12

Root / lemma: aid-

English meaning: `swell'

German meaning: `schwellen'

See also: s. oid-.

Page(s): 11

Root / lemma: aig-1, nas. ing-

English meaning: disspirited, sick, ill

German meaning: `verstimmt, unwirsch, krank'

Material: Alb. kë-ék `nasty, bad, evil' (from kë + *aigi̯o-);


Alb. solidified the old laryngeal ḫ- > k- (*ḫeigi̯o-) kë-ék, keq `nasty, bad, evil' similar to abbreviated alb. (*ḫabeō) kam `hold, possess, have', common alb. ḫ- > k- ; -b- > -mb- > -m- phonetic mutations found in corn. caf(f)os, cafes, mbret. caf(f)out, bret. kavout `have'; also zero grade in alb. preterite (ha)pata `I held, possessed, had', see Root / lemma: ghabh- : to grab, take

lat. aeger, aegra, -um, aegrotus `unwell, ill, sick, diseased, suffering, feeble'; anord. eikenn dismays `wild, furious', ags. ācol `excited, dismayed', nnorw. eikja, eikla `continually with attacks, contradictions, assertions torment', eikjen `argumentative'; toch. В aik(a)re (= lat. *aegro-), A ekro `ill';

nasalized: *ing-: lit. ìngis `lounger, idler', ìngas and angùs `idle, sluggish';

lett. îgstu, îgt `have internal pain, be sullen, morose', îgnêt `have disgust', îgnis `sullen person' (lit. éngti `choke, torment' probably stays away); Old Church Slavic jędza `illness', nslov. jeza `rage', poln. jędza `fury, witch' ('gruff, sullen'), čech. jezinka `forest woman' (etc., see Berneker 268 f. ; in *jęga, not *aigā, is consequently to be led back also:) russ. bába jagá 'witch' (s. Brückner KZ. 45, 318);

aisl. ekki `pain, grief' = ags. inca `pain, suspicion, quarrel', afries. inc (d. i. jinc)'angry', also nengl. inkle `anticipate, foresee', inkling `whispering, notion, indication, sign'.

References: WP. I 9, WH. I 16, 843, Trautmann 70.

Page(s): 13

Root / lemma: aig-2

English meaning: oak

German meaning: `Eiche'

Material: Gr. αἰγίλωψ `an oaken kind' (see under), presumably also κράτ-αιγος, κρατ-αιγών `an uncertain type of tree' (possibly `hard oak').

The outcome from αἰγίλωψ appears λώψ λώψ χλαμύς Hes., cf . λωπίον, λώπη, λοπός `bowl, bark' and Plin. n. h. 16, 6, 13 aegilops fert pannos arentes ...non in cortice modo, verum et e ramis dependentes, Kretschmer Gl. 3, 335.

Anord. eik (conservative stem) f. `oak', as. ēk, ags. āc (engl. oak), ahd. eih, mhd. eich, eiche, nhd. Eiche;

All other cognates are dubious: gr. ἄιγῑρος (more properly than αἴγειρος, s. Fick BB. 30, 273) possibly'aspen' could be created as' tree trembler, (*oak shaker)' also derivative like οἰκτί̄ρω from *αἰγί̄ρω `swing, tremble' (: *aig- `move violently');

lat. aesculus `(mountain oak), the winter or Italian oak' (*aig-sklos) is still unclear after its formation, maybe Mediterranean word.

Maybe alb. geg. (*asi) ahi `*oak, beech' [the common alb. s > h phonetic mutation in the middle of the word (See Root / lemma: su̯ekrū́- Meaning: `mother-in law or father-in-law' shift s > h in alb. (*śváśura-) vjehërr `father-in-law').

Root / lemma: *ōs, ōs-i-s, ō̆s-en-, os-k- : `ash tree (alb. ahi `beech')' must have derived from Root / lemma: aig-2 : `oak (alb. ahu `oak')'.

References: WP. 110, WH. I 20, 844, Specht KZ. 68, 195 f. S. unten S. 18 Z. 1/2.

Page(s): 13

Root / lemma: aig-3

English meaning: to move swiftly, swing, vibrate

German meaning: `(sich) heftig bewegen, schwingen, vibrieren'

Material: Old Indian ējati `stirs, moves, trembles', ējathuḫḥ ̣ `the quake of the earth', vic̨vamējaya- `making everything shake', nasal present iŋgati, iŋgate `stirs, moves', Kaus. iŋgáyati `sets in motion, touches, shakes', udiŋgayati `swings', samiŋgayati `sets in shaking movement' (form relation like between αἴθω: Old Indian indhate);

from Gr. here very probably αἶγες τα κύματα. Δωριεῖς Hes. (also Artemidor Oneirokrit. 2, 12: και γὰρ τὰ μεγάλα κύματα αἶγας ἐν τῇ συνηθείᾳ λέγομεν), αἰγιαλός'strands' (probably from arise the connection ἐν αἰγι ἁλόs `in the surf of the sea'; differently Bechtel Lexil. 16), αἰγίς `gale, storm cloud;

the shield of Zeus' (probably originally understood as the storm cloud shaken by Zeus,'thunderstorm shield'), καταιγίς `gust of wind moving down suddenly' from καταιγίζειν `storm, attack down, drive off' (from πνοαὶ ῎Αρεος, ἄνεμοι, θάλασσα), ἐπαιγίζειν `attack near, thrust near'; probably also αἰγανέη'lance' (on the grounds of *αἴγανον `the catapults' or'projectile'); presumably also αἴγλη'shine', from the flickerof the light and the warm air to the south; common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation

The very name of the root lemma for goat derived from the shield of Zeus which after the crash with clouds created thunderstorm. Since the shield of Zeus was covered with goat's skin the very name of the goat was stamped with the name of the cloud shaker.

Hence Root / lemma: aiĝ- : (goat) is identical with Root / lemma: aig-3 : (to move swiftly, move violently, swing, vibrate).

in addition germ. name of the squirrel: ahd. eihhurno, eihhorn, mhd. eichorn (nhd. Eichhorn with support of Eiche `oak' and Horn `horn', ags. ācweorna,-wern, mnd. ēkeren, ēkhorn, anord. īkorne (īk old ablaut or impairment from aik- in addition), neunorw. also eikorne, aschwed. ēkorne (was based on the concept `flexible, swinging itself from branch to branch'; in earliest with one to *u̯er-, u̯ēu̯er- `squirrel, weasel' the belonging second limb: *aik-werna); aksl Old Church Slavic igrъ, igra `play', igrati, perfective vъzigrati `σκιρτα̃ν, hop, jump, dance' (from *ьgrа; lit. with Berneker 422).

References: WP. I 11, Trautmann 103.

Page(s): 13-14

Root / lemma: aiĝ-

English meaning: goat


Root / lemma: digh- : `goat' derived from a zero grade of Root / lemma: deiĝh- : `to prick; tick'. From the older root Root / lemma: deiĝh- : `to prick; tick' derived Root / lemma: aiĝ- : `goat' and Root / lemma: ā̆ĝ- : `goat' [common balt. - illyr. - alb. de-, da- > zero phonetic mutation]. Hence the gr. cognate derived from proto illyr.

German meaning: `Ziege'

Material: Gr. αἴξ, - γός'nanny goat', arm. aic `nanny goat'; zero grade av. izaēna- `from leather' (actually, `from goatskin' as gr. αἴγειος, cf the same importance relations with *aĝo- `goat').

References: WP. I 8, Specht KZ. 66, 13.

Page(s): 13

Root / lemma: aigʷh-

English meaning: to be ashamed

German meaning: `sich schämen'

Material: Directly from the root word: ags. ǣwan `despise','be disgusted' also mnd.eichelen, ēchelen, ēgelen (from *aiwilōn) (from it borrows mhd. ekeln `be disgusted').

Gr. αἶσχος n. `disgrace' (from *aigʷh-s-kos, k- derivative of a s-St. *aigʷhes-, as:) got. aiwiski n. `disgrace, embarrassment'; cf further αἰσχύνη `shame, sense of honor, disgrace', αἰσχύνω `dishonors, violates, disfigures', med. `avoids me, is ashamed of me', αἰσχρός `ignominious, full of disgrace; rebarbative'; got. unaiwisks `unharmed', aiwiskōn act `shameful', ags. ǣwisc(e) n. `disgrace, offense', Adj. `shameless', mnd. eisch `nasty, hideous', nnd. eisk, aisch `revolting, rebarbative'.

References: WP. I 7, Feist 30.

Page(s): 14

Root / lemma: aik-

English meaning: to call (?)

German meaning: `anrufen' (?)

Material: Gr. αἰκάζει καλεῖ Hes., lett. aîcinât `load, shout'.

But καλεῖ can be prescribed for αἰκάλλει `flatters', and aîcinât a derivative from aĩ `hears!' explain (cf vaicāt `ask' to vai).

References: WP. I 8, Mühlenbach-Endzelin I 12.

Page(s): 15

Root / lemma: ai-2

English meaning: to drive, to overwhelm, harm

German meaning: `worauf eindringen, treiben, überwältigen, kränken'

Material: present *(a)iḫneuḫmi : Old Indian inóti, ínvati, Imper. inuhí, participle -inita- (úpenita- `pushed, cut into'), `penetrate into something, master', av. inaoiti, Inf. aēnaŋhe `violate, hurt', ainita (from *an-inita by haplology) `not violated, not painedly' (from ai énas- n. `Crime, sin, misfortune' = av. aēnah- `act of violence, crime', in addition m. `evildoer'?), av. intay-` rape, injury; torture', Old Indian iná- `strong; m. master', maybe also ītiḫḥ f. `plague, need'; gr. αἰνός `tremendous';

maybe alb. inati `anger; ire; rage; dander; dudgeon; rampage; down; disappointment; malice; blood; rancour; rancor; pique; spunk; miff; temper; must'.

maybe here-in- in got. faír-ina `guilt, reproach', ahd. firinōn `sin', aisl. firn n. Pl. `the extraordinary' (cf Weisweiler IF. 41, 29 f.), if original meaning (as in the Heliand) `act of violence'.

References: WP. I 1, Feist 139/140.

Page(s): 10

Root / lemma: ai-3, (*hei-, heiu̯ā)

English meaning: to give

German meaning: `geben, zuteilen', about mediales `sich geben lassen' dann also `nehmen'


From the reduced Root / lemma: ghabh- : `to grab, take', derived Root / lemma: ap-1 (exact ǝp-) : ēp- : `to take, grab, reach, *give' > Root / lemma: ēpi- : `comrade' > Root / lemma: ai-3 : `to give'.

Maybe alb. tosk. (*ḫeḫipḫmi) ep, jap, geg. nep (*na `us' + ep `give') `give us (*take)' : hitt. eḫipḫmi (ē̆pmi) `take', 3. Pl. ap-pa-an-zi (apanzi) : gr. ἅπτω `give a hand.

Material: Gr. αἴνυμαι `take, pack, touch', only present and imperfect tense.


Gr. αἴνυμαι derived from a reduced (*heiu̯ān-); compare the formation gr. οἴη, ὄη, ὄα `service-tree, rowan tree' (*oiu̯ā) = lat. ūva `a grape, berry of the vine'; [see Root / lemma: ei-3 : `multicoloured; reddish']

Also illyr. (*avetor) Aetor : Ven. (*avimos) Aimos suffixed with the common satem -tar formant as IE roots are suffixed with -tar or -ska formants. Tocharian cognate belongs to the (-ts <*-tska) suffixed roots.

Ven. MN Aimos, illyr. MN Aetor.

Maybe alb. (*ḫ-eip) geg. ep, tosk. jap `I give' : Lycian pije, pibije `to give' : Hittite pai, pija `to give' alb. j- stands for the lost laryngeal ḫ-.

hett. pí(-ia)-an-`they give' : mess. pi-do `to give' are zero grades of Root / lemma: ai-3 : `to give'


The old laryngeal ḫ- could have been created from balt.-illyr. d- > zero phonetic mutation.

Root / lemma: dō- : dǝ-, also dō-u- : dǝu- : du- : `to give' > Root / lemma: ai-3, (*hei-) : `to give'

Lat. (*ave-mulus) ae-mulus `emulous, rivalling; in bad sense, jealous. M. or f. as subst., a rival, esp. in love', probably as `reaches for something' (Frisk Eranos 41, 53).

Toch. В ai-, А е-, infinitive В aitsi, А essi `give'; hett. paḫaḫi `he gives', 3. Pl. pí(-ia)-anḫzi with preverb pe `there'.


Toch. В ai-, А е -, infinitive В aitsi, А essi `give' display the common Toch. ts > ss mutations.

References: Pedersen Groupement 20, Hittitisch 115, Tocharisch 227; Frisk Indo-germ. 10 f.

See also: Here belongs certainly: ai-ti-, ai-to-

Page(s): 10-11

Root / lemma: ai-5 : oi-

English meaning: important speech

German meaning: `bedeutsame Rede' (?)

Material: Gr. αἴνημι, αἰνέω `praises', αἴνος m., αἴνη f. `significant speech, praise'; αἰνίσσομαι `talks in riddles', common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation; αἰνιγμα n. `dark speech' (however, ἀν-αίνομαι `says no, deny' -i̯o- appears derivative of the negation ἀν-);

ablaut, mir. ōeth m. `oath' (acymr. anutonou Pl., gl. `the perjured, the perfidious', ncymr. anudon `perjury, act of lying under oath') = got. aiÞs m., aisl. eiðr, ags. āÞ, as. ēđ, ahd. eid m. `oath' (probably kelt. Lw.).

References: WP. I 2, 103, Osthoff ВB. 24, 208 f.

Page(s): 11

Root / lemma: ai-rā

English meaning: a k. of grass

German meaning: `Grasart'


Root / lemma: ai-rā : `a k. of grass' is a reduced root *ai-tra from which derived also Root / lemma: ai-tro- : `bitter, sharp'.

Material: Old Indian ērakā `a grass kind', gr. αἶρα `weed in the wheat, ryegrass, darnel' αἰρικός, αἴρινος `from ryegrass, darnel'), lett. aĩres, aĩrenes `ryegrass, darnel'.

maybe through metathesis alb. (*aĩres > ēser) egjër `Lolium temulentum, ryegrass, darnel' [common alb. -s- > -gj- shift].

References: WP. I 12, Specht Dekl. 2061.

Page(s): 16

Root / lemma: aisk-

English meaning: bright, shining

German meaning: `klar, hell, leuchtend'

Material: Awnord. eiskra `rage before hot excitement', nisl. iskra also from burning pain.

Lit. áiškus, where beside zero grade alit. iškùs `clear, bright'.

Russ. dial. jáska, demin. jásočka `bright star', beside it abg. jasno Adv. `clear, bright, distinct', russ. jásnyj `light, clear, bright' from *aiskno-; poln. jaskry, jaskrawy `blinding, dazzling, brilliant' from *aiskro-; abg. iskra `spark' etc. from *iskrā.

Maybe zero grade in alb. (*aiskno-) shkëndijë `spark' [common alb. n > nd phonetic mutation].

Also alb. zero grade (*jaskry), shkrinj `melt, burn', participle *scrum > shkrumb `ashes' [common alb. m > mb shift] loaned in rum. scrum `ashes'.

Russ. dial. jáska, demin. jásočka `bright star', besides abg. jasno Adv. `clear, distinct', russ. jásnyj `bright, clear' from *aiskno; poln. jaskry, jaskrawy `brilliant, sparkling' from *aiskro; abg. iskra `spark' etc. from *iskrā.

Here the FlN nhd. Aisch (Bavaria), Eysch(en) (Luxembourg), nengl. Axe from kelt. or ven.-ill. *Aiskā.

Maybe alb. (*aiskā) eshkë `mushroom (when dried used to kindle the fire)' related to lat. esca -ae f. `food, victuals, esp. as bait',

References: WP. I 2, Trautmann 4, Pokorny Urill. 70, 113, M. Förster Themse 839.

See also: perhaps originated from *aidh-sk-, or from *ai-sk- in ā̆i-4.

Page(s): 16-17

Root / lemma: ais-1

English meaning: to wish for, search for

German meaning: `wünschen, begehren, aufsuchen'


The Root / lemma: ais-1 : `to wish for, search for' is a truncated root of ai-ska. The formant -ska is a common Germanic suffix added to Root / lemma: ai-2 : `to drive, to overwhelm, harm'

Material: Old Indian ḗšati `looks', ēṣ̌áḫḥ m. `wish, choice', anv-iṣ̌áti `looks for = av. išaiti `wishes', Old Indian iccháti (*is-sk̂ō) `looks, wishes' = av. isaiti ds., Old Indian icchā `wish', iš ̣ (2. compound part) `searching, striving after' = av. ds., f. `Wish, the object of the wish', Old Indian iṣ̌ta- ` desiredly' ī̆ṣ̌má- m. `Love God';

arm. aic ̣ (*ais-sk̂ā) `investigation'; umbr. eiscurent (Bugge KZ. 30, 40) `they will have caused to come, called, sent for, invited, summoned, fetched' (probably as *eh-iscurent `they will have driven out, pushed forth, thrusted out, taken out, expelled');

Maybe zero form in alb. (*assa-) shanj `curse, blame'.

lat. aeruscāre `to beg, to get money by going about and exhibiting tricks of legerdemain, to play the juggler' as *aisos-k̂o- `demanding' to av. Imp. išasā `longs for' (-esk̂o- besides -sk̂o-: isaiti `wishes'); ahd. eiscōn `research, ask, demand, (nhd. heischen `demand' with h after heissen `hot'), as. ēscōn, ēscian `demand', ags. āscian, āxian `try, demand, ask', ahd. eisca `demand', ags. æsce f. `investigation';

in Balt.-Slav. with non-palatal k of the present suffix-skō (towards ar. arm. -sk̂-), what is not to be explained by borrowing from the Germ.; lit. íeškau, ieškóti `look', lett. iẽskât `to delouse', Old Church Slavic iskǫ (and ištǫ), iskati `look', iska `wish'.

References: WP. I 12, WH. 19, Trautmann 67.

Page(s): 16

Root / lemma: ais-2

English meaning: to be in awe, to worship

German meaning: `ehrfürchtig sein, verehren'


The Root / lemma: ais-2 : `to be in awe, to worship' is a truncated root of ai-ska. The formant -ska is a common Germanic suffix added to Root / lemma: ai-3 : `to give'

Material: Ahd. ēra, nhd. Ehre, ags. ār `Relief, considerate treatment, honour, luck', anord. eir `considerate treatment, peace, also name of the medicine goddess'; of it ahd. ērēn, ērōn `honor, spare, betake', ags. ārian `honor, spare, betake', anord. eira `spare'.

Osk. aisusis Abl. Pl. `sacrifices', marruc. aisos D. Pl. `gods', pälign. aisis `gods', volsk. esaristrom `sacrifice', umbr. esono- `divine, sacred', come from Etruscan. Differently Devoto St. Etr. 5, 299 f.

d- extension: gr. αἴδομαι (from *aiz-d-) `shies, reveres', αἰδώς, -οῦς `reverence, shyness, shame', αἰδέομαι (*αἰδέσ-ομαι) `αἴδομαι'; got. aistan, -aida `avoid, pay attention'; zero grade Old Indian īḍḗ `reveres, praises, implores'.

References: WP. I 13, WH. I 20, 419, 844; Feist 28 a, Kretschmer Gl. 30, 882.

Page(s): 16

Root / lemma: ai-ti-, ai-to- : oi-to-

English meaning: part, share, allotment, quantity, quota, portion, stake, stock, proportion, cut, contribution

German meaning: `Anteil'


Root / lemma: ai-ti-, ai-to- : oi-to- : `part, share, allotment, quantity, quota, portion, stake, stock, proportion, cut, contribution' is a truncated root *ai-tra into the suffixed Root / lemma: ai-2 : `to drive, to overwhelm, harm' with the formant -tra.

Material: Av. aēta- `the proper part'(' punishment'; dual `guilt and punishment').

Gr. αἶσα (*αἰτι̯α) `interest, destiny', hom. ἴσα, better ἴσσα `the proper interest', common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation; ἰσσασθαι κληροῦσθαι. Λέσβιοι Hes.; αἴσιος `promising good talent, favorabe', αἴσιος `certain from the destiny, proper', ἀναισιμόω `apply, use, consume', αἰσυμνάω `dispenses justice, it rules';

διαιτάω (maybe dissimilated from *διαιτιάω) `be a referee, leads; divide (the way of) life = leads a certain way of life; prescribe a certain measure in food and drinking', hence, δίαιτα' referee's office' and `life-style, life arrangement', ἔξαιτος `well-chosen, particular'.

Osk. Gen. aeteis `partis', aíttíúm `portionum'.

From Gr. here probably also αἴτιος `responsible, guilty' (τ after αἰτέω), from which later αἰτία `guilt, cause'; also αἰτέω, αἰτίζω'demands' as `requires his interest'; ablaut. οἶτος m. `Destiny'.

Air. āes n., cymr. oes f. `period, age' from *aitḫto-, air. āes m. `People' from *ait-tu-, cymr. oed m. `Age' from *aito.

References: WP. I 2, Hirt Idg. Gr. II, 82 f. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1 4213, 6969, 7057.

Page(s): 11

Root / lemma: ai-tro-

English meaning: [bitter, sharp]

German meaning: [bitter, scharf]


Root / lemma: ai-tro- : `bitter, sharp' is a truncated root *ai-tra into the suffixed Root / lemma: ai-2 : `to drive, to overwhelm, harm' with the formant -tra.

Material: lit. aitrùs `bitterly, harsh', aitrà f. `sharpness' (also figurative); the nasal formation *intro- perhaps in abg. ob-ętriti `set on fire', o. sę `burn, be quick-tempered', wru. zajátřič `anger', klr. roz-jatrýti ša `fester'.

Maybe alb. hithrë `nettle, throny plant'. Alb. has preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-.

References: WP. I 3, Berneker 269.

See also: perhaps in ā̆i-4.

Page(s): 17

Root / lemma: aiu̯-, ai̯u-

English meaning: `vital energy, vitality'

Material: Old Indian ā́yu- n., a nominalized adjective to āуú- `flexibe, active'; āyú- m. `Genius of the vitality', thereof derived s-stem ā́yuḥ n., Gen. āyušaḥ `vitality' (*ā́iu̯os, Gen. *ai̯usḫés); n-stem in the locative. āyuni, Instr. āyunā; yúh ̣`vitality';

av. āyū n. `Life span', Gen. yaoš, dat. yavōi, Instr. yavā, of it yavaētāt- `duration', yavaējī- `living always'; yuš m. `Life span';

Gr. s-stem: kypr. υFαις ζαν (= διὰ βίου); locative without suffix. lakon. αἰές'always'; hom. αἰεί, att. ἀεί (*αιFεσι), Akk. att. αἰῶ (*αιFοσα); Dat.-Lok. without extension in ion. αἰί, lesb. ἄι (*αιFι) (afterwards ἀί̄διος'forever', δην-αιός'long-living'); n-stem: αἰών m. (and f. after αἰώς) `vitality, life span', αἰέν'always';

alb. eshë `period of time; span; space; stretch; lapse' from *aiu̯esi̯ā (Jokl L.-k. U. 34);

lat. o-stem aevus m. and aevum n. `eternity, age, time, lifetime, or time of life, a period of life'; however, are based aetas f. `age: of human life, either a lifetime or time of life, age, a period of time, epoch', old aevitas (from it osk. Gen. aítateís, Akk. aítatúm, päl. Abl. aetatu) `age, time of life', aeternus `of an age, lasting, enduring, permanent, endless, forever' in adverbial *aiu̯i.

maybe zero grade in alb. (*aetas), jetë `life, lifespan'.

Got. o-stem aiws m. `time, eternity, world'; i- stem adverbial aiw (*aiu̯i) = aisl. æ, ei (also in ei-gi `not'), ags. ā, ō, ahd. io `ever, always', got. ni aiw `never', ahd. neo, nio, nhd. nie; ags. n-ā, engl. no `not, no';

maybe alb. (*nio) jo `not, no'.

aisl. lang-ǣr = lat. longaevus `of great age, aged, ancient'; i-stem also in aisl. ǣfi, ǣvi f. (*aiu̯i-) `life, age'; ā-stem in ahd. ēwa f. `time, eternity', thereof ahd. ēwidō `eternity', ēwīg `forever'; got. aju-k-dūÞs f. `eternity' from *ajuki- (= ags. ēce `forever'), with idg. g-suffix + idg.-tūti;

toch. A āym- `mind, life' which m attributed to āñm- `life'.

References: WP. I 6, WH. I 21, EM. 21, Feist 30, 32, Benveniste BSL 38, 103 ff, Dumézil BSL 39, 193, Specht KZ. 68, 196, Dekl. 88 ff., Van Windekens 15.

See also: From this derived *i̯uu̯en- (i̯eu̯-3) 'young'; Specht also wants very much risquely be put in addition *aig-, oak' (= `vitality'?).

Page(s): 17-18

Root / lemma: ai 1

English meaning: `exclamation'

German meaning: Ausruf

Material: Old Indian ē exclamation of remembering, address, compassion;

Old Indian ai the same; ayi interjection with the vocative;

av. āi interjection of the phone call (before the vocative);

gr. αἴ, αἶ, αἰαἶ exclamation of the surprise, of astonishment or pain (thereof αἰάζω `sighs, deplores', αἴαγμα'Sigh');

lit. aĩ and ái `oh! blows!' and before vocatives.

References: WP. I 1, WH. I 396, Benveniste Origines 130 f.

See also: see also *aik-.

Page(s): 10

Root / lemma: ai̯os-

English meaning: `metal (copper; iron)'

German meaning: `Metall', under zw. probably `Kupfer ('brandfarbig'?), Bronze'; im Arischen also `Eisen'


Root / lemma: ai̯os- : `metal (copper; iron)' derived from Root / lemma: eis-1 : `to move rapidly, *weapon, iron'.


Old Indian áyas- n., av. ayaŋh- n. `metal, iron';

lat. aes, g. aeris; got. aiz (proto germ. *a(i̯)iz- = idg. *ai̯es-) `copper ore, and the alloy of copper, bronze. Transf., anything made of bronze; a vessel, statue, trumpet, kettle', ahd. ēr `ore', anord. eir n. `ore, copper'.

thereof av. ayaŋhaēna- `metallic, iron', lat. aēnus (*ai̯es-no- = umbr. ahesnes `of copper, of bronze'), aēneus, ags. ǣren, as. ahd. mhd. ērīn, nhd. ēren (ehern). despite Pokorny KZ. 46, 292 f. is not idg. ai̯os old borrowing from Ajasja, older Aɫas(ja), the old name of Cyprus, as lat. cuprum : Κύπρος, there according to D. Davis (BSA. 30, 74-86, 1932) the copper pits were tackled in Cyprus only in late Mycenaean time.


Ajasja, older Aɫas(ja) (Cyprus) : Hittite PN Wilusa (gr. reading Ilios) [common phonetic mutation of the old laryngeal ḫ- > a-, i-] : gall. Isarno- PN, ven. FlN'I σάρας, later Īsarcus, nhd. Eisack (Tirol); urir. PN I(s)aros, air. Īär, balkanillyr. iser, messap. isareti (Krahe IF. 46, 184 f.); kelt. FlN Isarā, nhd. Isar, Iser, frz. Isère; *Isiā, frz. Oise; *Isurā, engl. Ure, etc. (Pokorny Urillyrier 114 f., 161); nhd. FlN Ill, Illach, Iller, lett. FlN Isline, Islīcis, wruss. Isɫa, alb. VN Illyrii.

Here lat. aestimō, old aestumō `to appraise, rate, estimate the value of; to assess the damages in a lawsuit; in a wider sense, to value a thing or person; hence, in gen., to judge', Denomin. from *ais-temos `he cuts the ore' (to temnō).

References: WP. I 4, WH. I, 19, 20, Feist 31.

See also: To ā̆i-4 `burn'?

Page(s): 15-16

Root / lemma: akkā

English meaning: `mother (children's speech)'

German meaning: `Mutter' (Lallwort)

Material: Old Indian akkā `mother' (gram.), gr. ᾽Ακκώ `nurse of Demeter', ἀκκώ' ghost', ἀκκίζεσθαι `be coy, position oneself stupidly', lat. Acca Lārentia `Laren mother, Roman hall goddess' (probably Etruscan); also into Small-Asian languages; compare lapp. Madder-akka `earth mother'.

Maybe alb. Ajkuna `great mother' in alb. epos.

References: WP. I 34, WH. I 5. about toch. ammaki see under am(m)a.

Page(s): 23

Root / lemma: ak̂-, ok̂- (*hekʷ-)

English meaning: `sharp; stone'

German meaning: `scharf, spitz, kantig' and `Stein'

Material: 1. e/o- and ā-St:

Npers. ās (lengthened-grade form) `millstone, grindstone'; gr. ἀκή `point', lengthened-grade form ion. ἠκή ἀκωκή, ἐπιδορατίς, ἠκμή Hes., redupl. ἀκωκή `point, edge' (as ἀγωγή : ἄγω); after Kretschmer KZ. 33, 567 and Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 348 belongs ἀκούω `hears' as *ἀκ-ους- `having sharp ear' here, see, however, 1. keu-; alb. athëtë `sharp, sour',


In alb. athëtë (*ake-) `sharp, sour' + common alb. suffix -të [common alb. -k > -th phonetic mutation as in alb. (*mag-) math `big'].

lat. acēre `sharp, cutting, keen. Hence, to taste, biting; to touch, sharp; of sounds, shrill; of smells, penetrating; of sight, keen; of emotions, painful; of understanding, quick, vigorous, energetic', acidus `sour, acid, tart', acētum `vinegar';

maybe alb. acar `frost, sharp steel'.

with o: mbr. convoc ar vilin `sharpen the millstone', cymr. hogi `sharpen', acymr. ocoluin, ncymr. hogalen, mbret. hygo(u)len, nbret. higolenn `whetstone' (with the unclear second component; to explain bret. vocalism of the initial sound by the pretone); mc. cyfogi `vomit, fight', with secondary i̯o-suffix acymr. cemecid, ncymr. cyfegydd (*k̂om-ok̂íi̯o-)' pickaxe';

with zero grade: acymr. diauc, ncymr. diog, mbr. dieuc (*dēḫāk̂o-)'decayed, spoiled', mcymr. ym-am-ogawr (*-āk̂āḫr) `one stirs, is active' (Loth RC. 45, 191) and mbr. eaug, nbret. eok `ripe, made soft' (*eks-āk̂o-), to gall. exācum `centaurion lepton' (Ernault Gloss. MBret. 201); compare also above S. 5;

schwed. ag m. `marsh grass, Cladium mariscus, edge, blade' (*ak̂o ́-), mhd. ag `perch', egle, eglinc ds., nhd. schweiz. egel, Demin. egli, aschwed. agh-borre ds., maybe also schwed. agg `rancor, hatred', agga `sting, torment', norw. dial. agge `tooth, point' (*ak̂uko- or expressive Gemination?), as well as (with secondary germ. vowel gradation a : u or from *ak̂uko- with assimilation a in u?) norw. dial. ugg `sting, frightening', schwed. dial. ugg `point, tooth', anord. uggr `fear', norw. dial. ugge `fin'; lit. akúotas* `awn', ãšaka (*ak̂o-kā) `fish bone, bran' = wruss. osoka `sedge', аpr. ackons (*ak̂ōno-) ds.

maybe (*esel), egjër `Lolium temulentum, ryegrass, darnel' [common alb. -s- > -gj- phonetic mutation], zero grade in alb. (*osoka-) shqirë `sedge'.


*baltoslav. forms with k prove none idg. beside the form ak-, but is partially loanword from Veneto-Illyrian, whose area would be occupied by people from the Baltic and Slavs (Kretschmer Gl. 21, 115). Also g in Church Slavic igla explains itself on top S. 15.


2. i- and j- stems:

Arm. aseɫn `needle' (from *asiɫn, Meillet Esquisse 43); gr. ἀκίς, -ίδος `point, sting'; lat. aciēs `keenness, edge; of the mind, penetration, insight; of the eye, a piercing look or keen vision; sometimes the pupil of the eye, or the eye itself. Milit., battle line; hence battle, battlefield'; as. eggja f., ahd. etc ekka `point, sword edge', nhd. Ecke (proto germ. *aʒi̯ō, anord. egg `edge, cliff backs', eggja `sharpen, spur on', ags. ecg `edge, blade, sword' (from it borrows mir. ecg `edge', nbret. ek `point'), egle Pl. `awns', engl. ails; Old Church Slavic osla (*osъla), russ. osëɫok m. `whetstone', čech. osina f. `awn'.

Maybe zero grade in alb. (*askel), halë `needle, fishbone, awn', [common alb. sk- > h- phonetic mutation], older alb. (*haskel) hakël `needle, fishbone' : lat. aculeus -i m. `sting, point; fig., esp. in plur., painful thoughts, cutting remarks'. It seems alb. [together with cymr. hogi `sharpen', ncymr. hogalen, mbret. hygo(u)len, nbret. higolenn `whetstone'] has preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-.

about ags. eher `ear' see under s- formant.

3. u-stem:

Gr. ἄχυρον `chaff' see under s-formant; lat. acus, - ūs f. `needle; fish name', acuere `sharpen', acūmen `sharp point; hence the point of remarks, etc.; sharpness of intellect; cunning, trickery', acia (*acu-i̯ā) `thread to the sewed', aquifolium (beside ācrifolium) `holly', aculeus `sting', accipiter `hawk, falcon' (*acu-peter `quick-flying');

Maybe alb. (*ak̂u̯-īli̯o-) akull `ice, sharp ice', (*accipiter) skifter `falcon, hawk', skip(ë)tar `eagle-man', truncated skipe, shkabë `eagle', suffixed geg. Shkipni `land of the eagles'.

From lat. aquila -ae f. `an eagle; milit., an eagle as the standard of a Roman legion; architect., gable or pediment'. aquilo -onis m. `the north wind; the north'. aqua -ae f. `water' it seems that Root / lemma: akʷā- (more properly ǝkʷā): ēkʷ- : (water, river) derived from Root / lemma: ak̂-, ok̂- : (sharp; stone).

gall. acaunum (*akounon) `rock'; ill. ONAcumincum today Szlankamen `salt stone' (Banat);

Note: ill. PN Acu-mincum `salt stone' : alb. (*ak̂u̯-īli̯o-) akull `ice, sharp ice'.

nhd. Achel f. `ear point, awn' from ndd. aggel (with spirant. g) from idg. *ak̂uḫlā; ags. āwel m. `fork', anord. soð-āll `meat fork' (germ. *ahwala-, idg. *ák̂u̯ḫolo-); if here gallo-lat. opulus `common maple' (Marstrander, Corr. germ.-celt. 18), would be placed idg. *ok̂u̯-olo- ; about anord. uggr etc. see e/o-stem, about ags. éar see s-formant; cymr. ebill `drill', mbr. ebil `peg, nail' (*ak̂u̯-īli̯o-);


The mutation kw > p, b in Celtic tongues, lat. and gr.

balt. *ašus in lett. ass `sharp, pointed', lit. ašutaĩ m. Pl. `coarse horse hair' = slav. *ošuta m. `Thistle' in Church Slavic оsъtъ, russ. osót. On account of here toch. A āc̨āwe `rough' (Van Windekens Lexique 15)?

see under *ōk̂u-s `fast (sharp in the movement)'.

4. With m-formant:


Gr. ἀκμή `point, edge, sharpness; the highest point, climax, decisive point' (ἀκμήν Adv., ἀκμαῖος, ἀκμάζω); schwed. dial. åm `marsh grass, Cladium mariscus' (germ. *ahma-, compare finn. Lw. ahma `equisetum').


Old Indian aśman- n. `Stone, sky' (as a stone vault, Reichelt IF. 32, 23 ff.), aśmará- `stone', av. asman-`stone, sky' (Old Indian Gen. áśnaḥ, Instr. áśnā, av. Gen. ašnō, Abl. ašnāat̃ with -n- from -mn-; Instr. Pl. Old Indian aśnāih ̣ after o-stem); phryg. PN ᾽Ακμονία; gr. ἄκμων' anvil', ἄκμων ὁ οὐρανός; lit. ãšmens m. Pl. `Edge', akmuõ, -eñs m. `stone'.

5. With n-formant:


Old Indian aśáni-ḥ `head of the arrow, missile'; av. аsǝŋgа-, Old pers. aϑanga- `stone' (*akḫenḫgo, Benveniste Orig. 28); gr. ἄκαινα `point, sting; longitudinal dimension' (however, about lat. acuna `a cavity, hollow, dip; esp. a pool, pond. Transf., gap, deficiency, loss' see WH. I 9), ἀκόνη `whetstone', ἄκων, - οντος `spear' (for older ἄκων, *-ονος after the participles), ἀκοντίζω `throw the spear', ἄκανος `thistle kind, prickly head plant', ἀκανίζειν `fruit carry prickly heads', ἄκανθος `thistle' (from *ἀκαν-ανθος `sting flower'), ἄκανθα `thistle, sting, thorn, spine, esp. of the fish', ἀκαλανθίς' goldfinch' (from *ἀκανθαλίς), ἄκαθος `barque', ἀκάτη, ἀκάτιον `woman's shoe' (*ak̂nṭo-, probably from the pointed form); lat. agna `ear of grain' (from *ak̂nā); got. ahana f. `chaff', anord. ǫgn, ags. egenu f. and äegnan Pl., ahd. agana ds., nhd. Ahne, dial. Agen `stalk splinter of the flax or hemp' (germ. *ag-, *ahanō, idg. *ak̂ǝnā); lit. žem. ašnìs `edge, sprouting, germinating, sowing', lett. asns m. `germ bursting out'.

6. With r-formant:

ak̂er-, ok̂er-


Many Germanic cognates prove that the real roots were the labiovelars: ak̂ʷer-, ok̂ʷer-

Air. a(i)cher `sharp (from the hoist)', because of the Gen. Sg. Akeras (PN in the Ogham) not lat. Lw .; abret. acer-uission `with sharp fingers' (biss), ocerou Pl. `sharpened', acymr. ar-ocrion gl. atrocia; lit. ašerỹs, ešerỹs `river perch'; pol. dial. jesiora (from *aserā); anord. ǫgr ds. (from proto germ. *agura-, idg. *ok̂r̥-o-), westnorw. augur (from *ǫ̣gurr, newer development from ǫgr), influenced from auga `eye',

From the extension of Root / lemma: ak̂-, ok̂- (*hekʷ-): `sharp; stone' with r-formant derived the labiovelars: ak̂ʷer-, ok̂ʷer- whose zero grade produced alb. (*k̂ʷerna), gurrë `stream' [common alb. rn > rr shift], (*k̂ʷer-) gur `stone';

Here also maybe the name of the maple (due to the pointed leaf sections):

lat. acer, -eris n. `the maple tree or maple wood' (from acer arbor became vlat. acerabulus, Meyer-Lübke REW. 93), dän. ær ds. (germ. *ahira-); nhd. dial. Acher ds. (germ. *ahura-);

gr. ἄκαστος ἡ σφένδαμνος Hes. (*ἄκαρστος, meaning as πλατάνιστος beside πλάτανος; to stem compare also ἄκαρνα δάφνη Hes.); gallo Rome. *akaros, *akarnos `maple' (Hubschmied RC. 50, 263 f.); ahd. ahorn `maple'

(from schweiz. and other oral kinds would devop certainly ā -, however, ā -would have arisen also of people's etymological distortion, like mnd. ānhorn, ālhorn;ahorn (idg. *ak̂rno-) is up to the declension class = ἄκαρνα, while lat. acernus `of maple' is syncopated from *acer-inos; however, that n has probably also arisen from the former adjective material developing formants -no- and not from r/n-stem by accumulation of both elements.

Rather that counts for gr. ἄκορνα (*-ι̯α) `yellow thistle kind' ἄκανος ds., maybe here also ἄκορος `Kalmus', ἄκορον `his spicy root', compare with other forms still ἄκινος f. `odoriferous flower', ὤκιμον `basil' (if here suitablly, named after the sharp smell?).

ak̂ri-, ak̂ro-

Old Indian áśrih ̣ `corner, edge, border', catur-aśra-ḥ ̣ `square'; gr. ἄκρος `sharply', ἄκρον, ἄκρα, ἄκρις `point, mountaintops' (also in ἀκροάομαι as `have sharp hearing, sharpen the ear', and ἀκρίς, -ίδος `grasshopper', short form for ἀκροβατοῦσα `tiptoe', ἀκρίζουσα; ἀκρεμών `point of the boughs', see to the formation Brugmann Grdr. II2 1, 241);

lat. (to ā see Frisk IF. 56, 113 f.) ācer, ācris,-e (alat. ācra, -um) `sharp, piercing, penetrating, cutting, irritating, pungent', osk. akrid `sharply, fiercely, keenly', umbr. peracri- `fat, plump, corpulent' (= lat. perācer `very sharp', compare to meaning gr. ἄκρος, also `uppermost, excellent', and ἀκμαῖoς), lat. acerbus `acidic, sad, harsh, bitter, unripe' (from *ăcri-bho-s); compare gall. AXPOTALVS `with high forehead', air. ēr `high' (from *akros); lit. ašrùs, aštrùs, alit. aštras, Old Church Slavic ostrъ `sharp' (t - interpolated wording).

Maybe alb. geg. (*akri) hakërronj `threaten, frighten'.

ok̂ri-, ok̂ro-

With shading o-: gr. ὄκρις f. `sharp' mountain point, corner, edge', alat. ocris m. `rough mountain', lat. mediocris `average, mediocre, of middling size, medium, middling, moderate, ordinary', actually `to be found halfway up' (here ablaut could be displayed in the compound like in extorris: terra, meditullium: tellūs), Ocriculum, Interocrea, ocrea `splint, a greave, legging', umbr. ocar, ukar, Gen. ocrer `mountain, castle mountain', marr. ocres `a mountain, mount, range of mountains', mir. och(a)ir `corner, edge', from it borrows cymr. ochr `edge'.

To the heteroclite paradigm *ak̂-r-(g), *ak̂-n-es (also the i- stem *ak̂i- can have combined with it) compare above ak̂men/mer-, Pedersen KZ. 32, 247, Johansson Beitr. 9, Petersson IF. 24, 269 ff.; as notable the apposition appears thereof from gr. Κράγος `name of different mountains', ᾽Ακράγ-ας the'Agrigentum' which might have signified originally `rocks, stones'.

7. With s-formant:

ak̂es- : ak̂s-

Gr. ἄχνη `chaff' from *ak̂-sḫnā, afterwards reshuffled ἄχυρον ds. instead of *ἄκυρον; gr. ἀκοσ-τή'Barley' (`awned, bristly', formation like lat onus-tus, venus-tus); gr. ἠκές ὀξύ, Hes. πυρι-ήκης `with igneous point', ἀμφήκης `two-edged', τανύηκης `with long point' (maybe only with stretch in the compound, after which the length also in simple ἠκές; however, lies lengthened grade *āk- also before in ion. ἠκή ἀκωκή, ἐπιδορατίς, ἀκμή Hes., ἠκάδα ἠνδρωμένην γυναῖκα Hes., compare to meaning ἀκμή `climax of life').

maybe zero grade in alb. (*ἀκοσ - τή) kash-të `chaff (*barley)' where -të is the neuter ending, (*ἄχνη), sanë `chaff'.

additional formations in gr. ὀξύς `sharp', compare to formation lit. tamsùs to Old Indian tāmas-, lit. tamsa ̀ (in addition ὀξίνη `harrow' Hes.), ὄξος `wine vinegar'. - Also *ἀκαχμένος `sharpened' seems to be *ἀκ-ακσ-μένος, Hirt IF. 12, 225.

Note: common gr. -ĝh- > - ξ- phonetic mutation

Lat. acus,-eris `a needle' acervus (*aces-vo-s) `a heap, mass; in logic, argument by accumulation'; got. ahs Gen. *ahsis n., aisl. ax n., ahd. ahir, ehir n. (germ. *ahiz), from the Pl. nhd. `ear of corn' f., but ags. ear (*ahuz), dat. Sg. nordhumbr. æhher, eher ds. (about the coexistence from i-, u- and s-stems, partly already idg., but esp. in Germanic, compare Brugmann compare Gr. II 1, 522, under Specht Idg. Dekl. 152. On account of originally idg. -es- or -is-, or-us-stem display, is difficult in the isolated case to decide. compare also Sievers-Brunner Aengl. Gr. pp. 128, 2 under 288 f.)


Cymr. eithin m. Pl. `gorse, furze' (*akstīno-), from it borrows mir. aittenn ds. (with unclear sound gradation); lit. akstìs following'smoked spit' (= russ. ostъ `point, ear, spike'), ãkstinas m. `Sting, spur' = Old Church Slavic ostъnъ m. `Sting', čech. osten ds.

maybe alb. (*osten) hosten `stick for driving cattle' [alb. has preserved the old laryngeal ḫ- so this cognate is not a Slavic loanword], zero grade (*ak̂-sti-) heshtë `spear', [lat. hasta `spear, sting']. alb. suggests that Root / lemma: ĝhasto-1, ĝhazdho- : (twig; pole) derived from Root / lemma: ak̂-, ok̂-, (ak̂-sti-): (sharp; stone)

8. With t- formant:

Old Indian apāṣ̌ṭhá- m. (from *apaḫaśḫtha) `barb in the arrow'; gr. ἀκτή `gruff coast with breaker; headland, elevation'; toch. В āc ̨-, āc̨c̨e-` head, beginning' (from *ak̂ḫt-).


Again there has been the shift gr. kw > p in Old Indian

ok̂etā `harrow, device with points':

Lat. occa `harrow' from *otika by rearrangement from *okitā (Hirt IF. 37, 230) compare different formations gr. ὀξίνη `harrow';

Note: common gr. -ĝh- > - ξ- phonetic mutation

acymr. ocet, corn. ocet, bret. oguet: ahd. egida, mhd. eg(e)de, ags. eg(e)de f. (nhd. Egge renewed from the verb eggen from ahd. egen, ecken, proto germ. *agjan, on its part only from the Subst. *agiđō revert formation);

lit. akė́čios, ekė́čios `harrow', Old Prussian aketes `harrows', ē instead of e derives from the verb *akēi̯ō in lit. akė́ju, akė́ti, besides akė́ju, ekė́ti; the anlaut (initial sound) a- frequently has become e in an unstressed position a before palatal vowel (Endzelin Lett. Gr. 36).

References: WP. I 28 ff., WH. I 6 ff., Specht Dekl. 24, 69, 125, 271, 331. Specht KZ. 62, 210 ff. (unglaubhaft).

See also: S. under *ok̂-tōu `eight', actually `both points of the hands (without thumb)'.

zero grades k̂- stuck probably in stems k̂emen-, k̂emel-, k̂ōmen- `stone, skies', k̂omor- `stone hammer', k̂ēi-, k̂ōi-, ǝi- `sharpen, whet', k̂ū̆- `sharp, spit, spear'.

Page(s): 18-22

Root / lemma: ak̂-1, ak̂ō- (*hek-)

English meaning: `to eat'

German meaning: `essen'


From Root / lemma: ak̂-, ok̂- (*hekʷ-): `sharp; stone' derived Root / lemma: ak̂-1, ak̂ō- (*hek-): `to eat'

Material: Old Indian aśnāti (inserted Inf. aśi-tum etc.) `eats, consumes', áśanam n. `food', áśna-ḥ `greedy', lengthened grade āśayati `allows to dine', prātar-āśa-ḥ `breakfast'; av. kahrk-āsa `chicken eater = vulture' etc.;

gr. ἄκυλος f. `acorn' (as `food', compare formally Old Indian aśú-ṣa-ḥ `greedy'), ἄκολος `bite';

Maybe alb. ha `eat, bite, consume' : ἄκολος `bite';

Root / lemma: ak̂-, ok̂- (*hekʷ-): `sharp; stone' : Root / lemma: ak̂-1, ak̂ō- (*ḫek-): `to eat'.


Only gr. and alb. have preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-

an. agn n. `bait for fish' (*ak̂ǝ-nó-), ǣja `allow to graze' (*ahjan).

References: WP. I 112 f., WH. I 210 f.

Page(s): 18

Root / lemma: ak̂ru

English meaning: `tear'

German meaning: `Träne'

Material: Ved. áśru n., later also áśram `tear', av. asrū- n., lit. ašara ̀ and ãšara f., toch. А ākör Pl. ākrunt ds., compare Old Indian aśrāyāmi, lit. ãšaroju `cries'. The relationship to idg. *dak̂ru `tear' is unsettled. compare Meillet BSL. 32, 141.


Root / lemma: ak̂ru : `tear' derived from Root / lemma: dak̂ru- : `tears'. The phonetic shift da- > a-, zero is a common Baltic Illyrian phonetic mutation. Compare Root / lemma: del-5 : `long': balt. with unexplained d-loss (see under): lit. ìlgas, f. ilgà, lett. il̃gs, Old Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long' : hitt. Nom. Pl. da-lu-ga-e-eš (dalugaes) `long', da-lu-ga-aš-ti (dalugasti) n. `length'. This is a sound proof of Aryan migration from the Baltic region to North India.

References: WP. I 33, WH. I 746.

Page(s): 23

Root / lemma: akʷā- (more properly ǝkʷā): ēkʷ-

English meaning: `water, river'

German meaning: `Wasser, Fluß'


From Root / lemma: angʷ(h)i- : `snake, worm' derived Root / lemma: akʷā- (more properly ǝkʷā): ēkʷ-

: `water, river'; Root / lemma: eĝhero- : `lake, inner sea'; Root / lemma: ad(u)-, ad-ro- : `water current': Illyr. pannon. VN ᾽Οσεριᾶτες [common alb.-illyr.-balt. -ĝh- > -d-, -z- phonetic mutation].

From Root / lemma: akʷā- `water, river' nasalized in *aku̯ent- (suffixed in -er, -or) derived Root / lemma: au̯(e)-9, au̯ed-, au̯er- : `to flow, to wet; water, etc. `


Lat. aqua `water, water pipe' (thereof aquilus `dark', aquila `eagle', eigentl. `the swarthy', aquilō `north wind', eigentl. `the darkening sky') = got. aƕa f. `river, body of water', aisl. ǫ́, ags. ēa, as. ahd. aha, nhd. Ache ds. (germ. *ahwō, thereof derived *ahwjō, *awjō `surrounded by the water' in aisl. ey f. `island, pasture, grassland', ags. íeg, ahd. -ouwa, -awa, mhd. ouwe f. `water, peninsula in the river, grassland rich in water';

maybe alb. (*aquilō) akull `frozen water, ice'

It seems that Root / lemma: akʷā- (more properly ǝkʷā): ēkʷ- : (water, river) derived from Root / lemma: ak̂-, ok̂- : (sharp; stone).

nhd. Aue, compare afries. ei-land `island', Sca(n)din-avia Kretschmer Gl. 17, 148 ff.), russ. FlN Oká, pannon. PN Aquincum `stove (*cooking stove where water boils making bubbles)', apul. FlN Aquilō, ven. PN Aquileia (also in South Germany); with ablaut (idg. ē) in addition aisl. ǽgir (*ēkʷi̯ós) `God of the sea', ags. ǽg-weard `watch at the sea', éagor `sea, flood' (the initial sound after ēa); maybe here Old Indian kām `water', dak. plant N κοαδάμα ποταμογείτων `water colonist' (*kʷa-dhēmn̥), poln. (nordill.) FlN Kwa.

The affiliation from hitt. e-ku-uz-zi (ekuzi) `drinks', 3. Pl. a-ku-wa-an-zi, seems not unlikely. Moreover also toch. AB yok-tsi `drink'. Air. oiche `water' does not exist; cymr. aig `sea' is neologism to eigion from lat. oceanus.

alb. (*oceanus) oqean `ocean'.

From PIE the root for water, ocean, passed to Altaic:

Protoform: *ōk`e (˜ -k-)

Meaning: `deep place, place far from the shore'

Turkic protoform: *ȫkö

Tungus protoform: *(x)uK-

Japanese protoform: *ǝki

Note: The parallel seems plausible; the common meaning here may be formulated as "a place (in the sea or river) distant from the shore".

References: WP. I 34 f., WH. I 60, 848, Feist 18 f., Pedersen Hittitisch 128, Tocharisch 190.

Page(s): 23

Root / lemma: akʷ-

English meaning: `to hurt'

German meaning: `schädigen'?

Material: Old Indian áka m `grief, pain', av. akō `nasty, bad', axtis ̀ `grief, pain, illness'; gr. noun *ἄπαρ, *ἀπνός, thereof ἠπανεῖ ἀπορεῖ, ἠπανία ἀπορία, ἠπεροπεύς'swindler'; Verbalst. ἀπ- in ἀπάτη'deception' (*apn̥tā), redupl. Present ἰάπτω'damage'.

Note: common gr. -kʷ- > -p-, -gʷ- > -b- phonetic mutation

References: Kuiper Gl. 21, 282 f.

Page(s): 23

Root / lemma: albhi-

English meaning: `barley'

German meaning: `Gerste'


Root / lemma: albhi- : `barley' derived from a truncated Root / lemma: eregʷ(h)o-, erogʷ(h)o- : `pea' [common gr. -kʷ- > -p-, -gʷ- > -b- phonetic mutation].

Material: Gr. ἄλφι, ἄλφιτον `barley, pearl barley, barley flour', lakon. ἀλίφατα ἄλφιτα ἤ ἄλευρα Hes. (with gradual growth vowel ι; Ehrlich KZ. 38, 55, in ἄλφι : ἄλφατα from which by intersection with ἄλφι then ἄλφιτ-α, -ον - sees a relation as between Old Indian ásthḫi : asth-n-áḥ, what would guarante older proto idg. of the word); alb. elp (elbi) `barley' (N. Pl. *albhī-). Iran. *arbhi- conclusions Vasmer Stud. z. alb.Wortf. I (Dorpat 1921) S. 16 ff. from turko-tatar. etc arba `barley'.

relationship to *albh- `white' assumes Specht Dekl. 68 an.

From Iranian branch the name for barley passed to Altaic family:

Protoform: *àrp`á

English meaning: `barley, millet'

Turkic protoform: *arpa

Mongolian protoform: *arbaj

Tungus protoform: *arpa

Japanese protoform: *àpá

Note: EAS 90, KW 15, Poppe 87. АПиПЯЯ 67. The Mong. form cannot be explained as a Turkism (despite TMN 2, 24, Щербак 1997, 100). The Turkic form is sometimes compared with Proto-Iran. *arba- (corresponding to Gr. alphi), cf. East Iranian forms going back to *arpasyā- (or *arbasyā) (Стеблин-Каменский 1982, 23), but it is not identical (loss of the final syllable is hard to explain); on the other hand, the Jpn. parallel is a strong argument in favour of the Altaic origin of the Turkic form.

References: WP. I 92, Jokl Festschrift Kretschmer 78 f., Kieckers IE. 41, 184, Wahrmann Gl. 17, 253.

Page(s): 29

Root / lemma: albho- (*hele-bho-)

English meaning: `white'

German meaning: `weiß'


Root / lemma: albho- (*helba-): `white' derived from Root / lemma: el-1, ol-, el- : red, brown (in names of trees and animals) extended in -kʷho-, -bho- formants. see lat. olor `swan' (*elōs); gr. ἔλαφος m. f. `stag (white spotted)'.


Maybe alb. geg. alka, alkë (*alkʷha) `white cream, dirt, spot, fat of wool'.

Gr. ἀλφός `white rash', ἀλφούς λευκούς Hes. (also ἀλωφός λευκός Hes., s. below), FlN ᾽Αλφειός; common illyr.- gr. -kʷ- > -p- phonetic mutation.

lat. albus `white, dead white; hence pale or bright; sometimes making bright; fig., fortunate', umbr. alfu `white', osk. Alafaternum Alafaternum `Alfaternorum', prälig. Alafis `Albius' (and many other names partly Etruscan coinage due to osk.-umbr. root alf-, as lat. alb-, s. Schulze Lat. Eig. 119 f.; etr. Pronunciation from lat. albus also must be that of Paul. Diac. 4 L. as Sabine called alpum); in addition albula, alburnus `whitefish', albarus `white poplar', albūcus `asphodel plant' etc.;

Maybe lat. albulus -a -um `whitish; f. as subst. Albula -ae (sc. aqua), old name of the Tiber'.

cymr. elfydd m. `earth, world' from *albíi̯o- (compare Old Church Slavic světъ `light, world');

ahd. albiz, elbiz, ags. aelbitu, ielfetu, anord. elptr, ǫlpt f. (germ. *alƀ-it-, -ut-) `swan', (forms -d- in animal names: s. Brugmann Grdr. II2 1, 467, Charpentier KZ. 40, 433 f., Specht Dekl. 229; also:) Old Church Slavic lebedь, russ. lebedь lebjadь, in the ablaut to poln. ɫabędź, serb. lȁbud, čech. labud ``swan' (proto slav. *olbḫedь, -ędь, -ǫdь, compare to the latter suffix form lit. bal-añdis `pigeon, dove', actually `white';

Maybe through rhyme effect alb. (*m'elm) mjellm `swan' similar to alb. ját()rë, t'jetër `other' see Root / lemma: e-3, ei-, i-, fem. ī- : `this, etc. (demonstrative stem); one' [rhyme of m- the same as rhyme of t-] common alb. -mb- > -m- phonetic mutation; [illyr. names ending in -m- suffix like alb. delmë `sheep', VN Dalmatae, Delmatae (see Root / lemma: dhē(i)- (dh-ei-?): to suck); therefore an early Slavic loanword in Illyrian .

see Meillet Et. 322, MSL. 14, 377, Schulze SBprAk. 1910, 800 = Kl. Schr. 122 f.; named after the color russ. lebedá, poln. lebioda, ɫoboda `atriplex, goosefoot', Lidén Stud. 97); ndl. alft, elft `whitefish' (formally = ahd. etc albiz `swan'; to loanword from lat. albula `whitish' in contrast to it Falk-Torp 189 f. are against, mhd. albel `whitefish', nhd. Albe, nd. alf, albe `whitefish'), compare lat. alburnus `a white fish, bleak' ds .;

nhd mdartl. Albums `hard sand under the fertile earth', schwed. mdartl. alf ds .;

probably also anord. alfr, ags. ælf, engl. elf (from which nhd. Elf m., Elfe f. borrowed), mnd. alf `Аlp, grand, evil spirit', mhd. nhd. Alp, Pl. the Alben (originally probably `whitish nebulous figures'), as well as ahd. alba `insect larva, locusta quae nondum volavit', ndl. elften f. Pl. `cock chafer grubs', norw. alma ds. (m from the Gen. Pl. *albna, from which *almna).


The Illyr. TN Albanoi is the plural form mhd. nhd. Alp, Pl. the Alben (originally probably `whitish nebulous figures') a primitive Indo European people who believed in evil spirits before an elaborate mythology developed later.

Arbën `name of alb. during Middle Ages'

see to these germ. words esp. Falk-Torp under aame (4, 1428), al (19, 1431), alv (22, 1431), elv I (188 f., 1454), emd (189, 1454); as `white water' also the name of Elbe (lat. Albis, Albia, from germ. *Alƀī, Gen. Alƀiōz =), anord. elfr `river' and river name (in addition probably also mnd. elve `riverbed'), compare gall. FlN Albis, Albā (now Aube; contrast Dubis, Dubā, i.e. `black, deep water'), lat. Albula, gr. ᾽Αλφειός (see esp. Schulze SBprAk.1910, 797 = Kl. Schr. 120).

Note: common gr. -kʷ- > -p-, -gʷ- > -b- phonetic mutation

In contrast to this assumption, it is doubtful from or in which circumference names like gall.-lat. Albiōn, mir. Albbu, Gen. Albban (stem *Albḫi̯en-) `Britain' (to cymr. elfydd or from the white chalk rocks), lat. Alpēs, ῎Αλπεις (high mountains?) and in ital., ligur. and kelt. areas frequent local name like Alba, Albium likewise below go back or, however, are not idg. derivation of the concept `white' (Bertoldi BSL. 32, 148, ZrP. 56, 179 f.).

Arm. aɫauni `pigeon, dove', barely for *alabh-n- (Bugge KZ. 32, 1, Pedersen KZ. 38, 313), see below. About the affiliation of *albhi- *albhi- `barley' s. d.

Maybe here belongs Hett. al-pa-áš (alpas) `cloud' in spite of Couvreur (H ̯ 106, 149) here.

To the ablaut: beside *albho-s seems to be two-syllable root form in gr. ἀλωφός (also ἐλεφιτίς?) and arm. aɫauni, and in addition tuned slav. intonation (serb. lȁbūd), s. Osthoff IF. 8, 64 f., Pedersen aaO.

This additional -bho- one syllable is in color names frequent suffix (e.g. lat. galbus lit. raĩbas `in different colors, multicolored, dappled' beside raĩnas; Brugmann Grdr. II2 1, 388 f), *albhos is obtainable in monosyllabic root *al- and on the other hand ἀλωφός is possible according to Brugmann aaO.

to lit. al̃vas `tin' (`white metal'), Old Prussian alwis `lead, plumbum', russ. ólovo `tin' (from idg. *alǝu̯o-? Balt. correspondences are borrowed according to Niedermann from the Slav.) stand in a similar relation, as gr. κορω-νός to lat. curv-us `crooked, curved, bent', Old Indian palāḫlaḫḥ (: palāvḫaḥ) to Old Prussian pelwo, also go back to a word root *alō[u]-: *alǝu-: *alu- (in arm. aɫawni and slav. words);


From balt. - slav. the notion for `white metals, white color, sick white' passed to Altaic family:

Protoform: *ni̯ā̀lpá

Meaning: `tin, lead'

Tungus protoform: *ńālban

Japanese protoform: *nàmári

Note: An interesting TM-Jpn. isogloss; cf. also Old Koguryo *naimul (see Miller 1979, 8). Jpn. *nàmá-ri < *nàpan-(r)i, with usual regressive nasalization.


Protoform: *ălpa

Meaning: `unable, sick; being at service, man-at-arms'

Turkic protoform: *ălp-

Mongolian protoform: *alba-n

Tungus protoform: *alba-

Korean protoform: *àrphằ-

Japanese protoform: *apar-

Note: Poppe 85, 121 (Turk-Mong.); TMN 2, 110-111.

gr. ἐλεφιτίς is sufficient by the reshuffle to which animal names and plant names are exposed everywhere, in order to ensure in addition still *aleḫbh-;

here as `the shining one' gall. alausa `European shad, twaite shad' (frz. alose, span. alosa), compare also gall. GN Alaunos, Alounae, brit. FlN Alaunos (nengl. Aln), cymr. PN Alun as well as arm. aɫauni `pigeon, dove' from *alǝu-n-.

A stem form ali- `white' is not provabe, in spite of Specht Dekl. 114, because hett. ali- `white' appears very uncertain (Couvreur H̯ 149 f., Friedrich IF. 58, 94) and gr. ἀλίφαλος, ἀλίφατα, ἄλiξ are to be explained differently.

Here, however, probably (as a `pale yellow plant') hisp.-lat. ala `elecampane' (Isid.), span.-portug. ala ds., furthermore with -nt-suffix ahd. alant ds., with it etymological identically the fish name ahd. alunt (newer alant), as. alund `whitefish, Alant' = (with gramm. alteration) aisl. - ǫlunn `a fish', idg. basic form *al-n̥t-/*al-ont-. The original meaning of al- is probably`white, shining', hence, then also `pale yellow' etc.

A precise separation of the meanings of al- and el- is not always possible, which is why Specht (Idg. Dekl. 59, 160) explained both stems as originally identical, thus al- as el- leads back to el-, with which he associates further (aaO. 114) the color root ar- (see below areĝ-), er- .

References: WP. I 92 ff., WH. I 26 f.

Page(s): 30-31

Root / lemma: aldh-

English meaning: `trough'

German meaning: `Trog'

Material: Altn. alda f. `wave, upsurge, hostility, warfare'; norw. dial. olda f. `trough'; schwed. dial. ålla `deep cavity'. compare ags. ealdoÞ, aldot, aldaht `trough, tub, container', nhd. bair. alden `field furrow'.

In addition baltoslav. *aldii̯ā- in Church Slavic ladiji, alъdiji f. `small boat', lit. aldijà, eldijà f. `river small boat', also lit. eldijė̃lė `smoking frying pan'.

Norw. lodje `Russian vessel, boat', schwed. lodja, mnd. lod(d)ie, loddige are borrowed from russ. ɫodьjá (= asl. ladiji). Falk-Torp 652 (see also 789 under`olde').

References: WP. I 92, WH. I 35, Trautmann 6.

Page(s): 31-32

Root / lemma: aleq-

English meaning: `to hit back, shoot'

German meaning: `abwehren, schätzen', presumably actually `abschließen and dadurch schätzen'

Material: Old Indian rákṣ̌ati `defended, protected, preserved', arm. aracel `graze, protect, watch, guard' (Pisani KZ. 68, 157), gr. ἀλέξω `prevent, protect, fight off' (so- present; rakṣ̌ati because of this correspondence not more probably to equally meaning root areq-), ᾽Αλέκτωρ, ᾽Αλεκτρυών the epic proper names, after becoming known as the cock were used for the name of this contentious bird (Fick Cstem 9, 169, Kretschmer KZ. 33, 559 ff., Boisacq 1091 f.); ἀλαλκεῖν' defend, refuse, fend', ἀλκάθω `defends, helps', ἄλκαρ `Protection, defense, help', ἔπαλξις `Protection, parapet, (esp.) battlement of the walls; help' (*αλκ-τι-ς), ἀλκή `defense, help' and `thickness, strength' (latter meaning, although in itself from `vigorous defense' understandable, maybe by flowing together with another, mpers. ark `work, effort, trouble' to suitable words, see Bartholomae Heidelbg. SB. 1916, IX 10); ἀλκὶ πεποιθώς Hom.; ἄλκιμος `strong, hard, potent; from weapons: `resistable, suited to the fight';

ags. ealgian `protect, defend' (*algōjan); got. alhs (f., conservative stem) `temple', ags. ealh, as. alah m. ds., urnord.-run. aluh `amulet' (?), alit. elkas, al̃kas m. `holy grove, place on a hill where one has made of early victims', lett. èlks m. `Idol, god' (germ. and balt. words originally `holier, seclusive or the usufruct deprived grove');

maybe alb. alka `protective layer of milk, cream, isolating layer of milk'.

toch. В alāsk `remove'.

References: WP. I 89 f.

See also: S. similar root areq-`close, protect'.

Page(s): 32

Root / lemma: algh- (*helgh-)

English meaning: `frost, cold'

German meaning: `Frost, Kälte'


Maybe alb. geg. alka, alkë `white (cold white), cream, wool' fat';

Lat. algor `frost, cold', algeō, -ēre `freeze, to be cold', belong algidus `cold' according to Lidén, studies z. Old Indian and compare Sprachgesch. 66, to aisl. Gen. Sg. elgiar, nisl. elgur m. `snow flurry with strong frost, half-molten snow'. Germ. s-stem *alʒiz- disguised itself with lat. algor, idg. *alghes-.

References: WP. I 91, WH. I 29. compare Petersson Ar. under Arm. Stud. 126.

Page(s): 32

Root / lemma: algʷh-

English meaning: `to earn, price, value, *precious bright metal'

German meaning: `verdienen, Gegenwert'

Material: Old Indian árhati `is worth, earns, is obliged, debit,', argháḫḥ `value, validity, price' (=osset. arɣ `price, value'), av. arǝjaiti `is worth, amounts for value' (npers. arzīdan `earn'), arǝjah- (es- stem) n. `value, price'.

maybe alb. (*árhati) argat `worker, serf', argëtoj `entertain, reward, please, become lazy', argomë `barren, unproductive'.

Gr. ἀλφή `acquisition, purchase' = lit. algà, Old Prussian Gen. Sg. ālgas `wage', gr. ἀλφάνω, ἀλφεῖν `profit, earn' (ἀλφεῖν = Old Indian árhati, but by the more complete present ἀλφάνω in the validity embedded as an Aorist), ἀλφεσίβοιος `cattle earned'.


Common gr. gʷ> b, kʷ > p phonetic mutation

maybe alb. geg. (*ἀλφή) ble- `to buy, purchase'.

An additional form on voiced-nonaspirated is Old Indian arjati `acquires, earns, fetches'.

References: WP. I 91.

Page(s): 32-33

Root / lemma: al-1, ol-

English meaning: `besides; other'

German meaning: Pron.-stem `darüber hinaus'


Root / lemma: al-1, ol- : `besides; other' derived from Root / lemma: alā : interjection.

Material: Lat. uls `beyond', *ulter, -tra, -trum `ulterior, situated beyond' (ultrō, ultra), compounds ulterior, Sup. ultimus = osk. últiumam `the utmost, extreme, the highest, first, greatest, lowest, meanest';

Maybe alb. ultë, ulët `low', ul `to low, sit below' : lat. ulterior -ius `compar. as from ulter, farther, more distant, more advanced, more remote'.

alat. ollus `that, that yonder, that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with hic, the former, (sometimes the latter)' (*ol-no-s, compare below ir. ind-oll and slav. *olnī), newer olle, ollī `then, next', ollīc `he, she, that, in that place, yonder, there'; lengthened grade ōlim `in the distant past, once' (probably after im, exim reshaped and with Old Indian par-āri `third-last year' [compare πέρ-υσι] to be equated *ōli, Lok. adverb, also the glosses olitana `the aged, old, ancient, of long standing', olitinata `old, inveterate, ancient, former, of old times' can reject - ō or -?), umbr. ulo, ulu `that, that yonder, that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with hic, the former, he, she, it yonder, that'; influenced by is, iste etc. the cognates ollus, olle would be uncolored to ille `that, that yonder, that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with hic, the former, (sometimes the latter)'.

Slav. *olnī (idg. *olnḫei) = Old Church Slavic lani, čech. loni, poln. loni `in the last summer, last year' (`that year', compare lat. ollī `at that time, then').

The meaning from ir. alltar, allaid (see below) also allows that the relationship of Old Indian áraṇa- `far, strange' (= av. auruna- `wild'?), árād `from a distance', ārḗ `far' seems possible. Moreover also maybe Old Indian arí `of strangers, stranger', ar(i)yá- `suitable, proper to the stranger' (compare ahd. eli-lenti `foreign land'), then Subst. `hospitable, lord, master, ruler, man', in addition ā́r(i)ya- `to ar(i)yá-, suitable, hospitable', hence, VN' Arier = Aryan', āryaka- `venerable man', aryamáṇ- n. `Hospitality', m. `Guest's friend';

maybe Arrianes Illyr. TN.

av. airyō (= ārya), Old pers. āriya (= ariya), `Aryan', av. airyaman `guest, friend', npers. ērmān `guest', in addition sarmat. VN ᾽Αλανοί (osset. *alan), osset. ir `Ossete', iron `Ossetic' `Ossetic' (P. Thieme*), the stranger in the Rigveda, fig. f. d. client d. Morgenl. XXIII 2, 1938; Specht KZ. 68, 42 ff.);

air. aire (*arios) and airech `nobleman, of noble people, suitor' can belong to preposition air- `in front of', thus `standing in the first place', (Thurneysen ZCP. 20, 354); mythical ir. ancestor Е́remón is scholar neologism to Ériu `Ireland'. see under ari̯o- `lord, god, master'.


*) Thus Thieme (aaO. 159 f.) properly puts here reinforcing prefix gr. ἐρι-(reduced grade ἀρι-), e.g. ἀρί-γνωτος `easily (the stranger) recognizable', Old Indian arí- etc surely must lead back to idg. *er- . Thieme puts further here Old Indian sūrí- `master, ruler, lord' as su-ri- `hospitable' and ri-śā́das `worry for sustaining the stranger'.


Air. oll Adj. `honorable, large, extensive', actually `above (the ordinary) going out' (formally = lat. ollus, idg. *olnos), compounds (h)uilliu `farther, more', Adv. ind-oll `ultra, extreme', from which maybe also innonn, innunn `over, beyond' (with assimilation in collaboration with inonn `the same, identical';

Thurneysen KZ. 43, 55 f.; Pedersen KG. II 195), ol-chen(a)e `in addition, but', actually `on the other side (and) therefrom on this side'; ol-foirbthe `pluperfect, past perfect', oldāu, oldaas `when I, when he', actually `about (the) outside, what I am, what he is', inaill `certain, sure', actually `situated on the other side' (of it inoillus `confidence, security';

inuilligud `protection, safety'; with ol(l) `ultra, beyond' maybe corresponds ol `says' as `ultra, beyond, further', originally in the report in a continuous speech). The conjunction ol `because, sice' keeps Thurneysen Grammar 559 against it for related with cymr. ol `footprint'.

Besides with a: air. al (with Akk.) `on the other side, over - beyond' (simplification from *all in the pretone), Adv. tall (*to-al-nā) `on the other side, there', anall `from on the other side, from there, over here', with suffixed Pron. of the 3rd person all, allae, newer alla `beyond, on the other side' (proves original dissyllabic old formation also of the prepositional form is not provided with pronominal suffix, see Thurneysen KZ. 48, 55 f., thus not from without ending idg. *ol or *al); derivatives: alltar `the world of the dead, the other world, hereafter', also from `to savage areas situated on the other side', alltarach `otherworld, ulterior, thithertho'.

Gall. alla `another, other, different', allos `second' (Thurneysen ZCP. 16, 299), VN Alloḫbroges = mcymr. all-fro `exiled, ostracized, banished' (to bro `land'), all-tud `foreigner', acymr. allann, ncymr. allan `outdoors, outside'; air. all-slige `the second cutting out'.

Got. alls, aisl. allr, ags. eall, ahd. all `all', besides in the compound germ. ala- (without -no-suffix) in agerm. matron's names Ala-teivia, Ala-gabiae etc, got. ala-mans `all people, humanity', ahd. ala-wāri `totally true' (nhd. albern); compare air. oll-athair (epithet of ir. God's father Dagdae `the good God') = anord. al-fǫðr (epithet of Odin),' all father'.

Lat. alers, allers `taught; learned, instructed, well-informed; experienced, clever, shrewd, skilful' according to Landgraf ALL. 9, 362, Ernout Él. dial. lat. 104 from *ad-ers, *allers (contrast to iners).

From an adverb *ali `there, in a specific place, in each case' (differently Debrunner REtIE. 3, 10 f.) have derived:

ali̯os `other':

arm. ail `other';

gr. ἄλλος `other' (kypr. αἴλος), n. ἄλλο, compare ἀλλοδ-απός `from elsewhere, from another place, strange' (= lat. aliud, forms as in lat. longinquus `far removed, far off, remote, distant'), in addition ἀλλήλων etc `each other', ἀλλάττω `makes different, changes', ἀλλαγή `variation, change, exchange, trade': ἀλλότριος `becoming another, strange', from Old Indian anyátra `somewhere else' corresponding adverb;

Maybe zero grade in alb. (*nyátra) tjetër `other' [common alb. n > nt > t phonetic mutation] : Old Indian anyátra `somewhere else'.

lat. alius = osk. allo `other things', n. aliud = gr. ἄλλο, in addition from the adverb ali: aliēnus `strange' (from *ali-i̯es-nos), ali-quis, ali-cubi etc; Comparative alter, -era, -erum `one from two' = osk. alttram `alteram' (from *aliteros-), by Plautus also altro-; in altrinsecus, altrōvorsum the syncope is caused by the length of the whole word; here also alterāre, adulter, alternus, altercāri;

gall. alios (Loth RC. 41, 35), air. aile (*ali̯os), n. aill (from adverbial all from *alḫnā; palat. l comes from aile), cymr. ail, bret. eil (from *eliüs, Comparative *alii̯ōs), doubled air. alaile, araile, n. alaill, araill, mcymr. etc arall, Pl. ereill (ll from the adverb all);

got. aljis `other', but only in compositions, as as. eli-lendi n. `foreign land', ahd. eli-lenti ds. = nhd. `woefulness', got. alja-leikō `other, different', aisl. elligar, ellar, ags. ellicor, elcor `other, otherwise,', ahd. elichōr `further', and in adverbs, like ags. elles, engl. else `other, different', anord. alla `otherwise' etc.; a comparative formation *alira is ags. elra `other';

toch. A ālya-kǝ, В alye-kǝ `ἄλλος τις' (*ali̯e-kǝ, Pedersen Groupement 26, Tocharisch 117); unclear is the absence of palatalization in A ā̆lakǝ `other', ālamǝ `each other', В āläm `somewhere else', aletste `strangers';

ostiran. etc hal-ci `any (thing) available, etc'.

References: WP. I 84 ff., WH. I 30, 32 f., Feist 33 b, 39 a, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 614.

About the sound change from *ani̯os to *ali̯os see Debrunner REtIE. 3, 1 ff., about angebl. pejorative character of a see Specht KZ. 68, 52, Die alten Sprachen 5, 115.

See also: About ani̯os s. under S. 37 (an2).

Page(s): 24-26

Root / lemma: al-2

English meaning: `to grow; to bear'

German meaning: `wachsen; wachsen machen, nähren'

Material: Old Indian an-ala- `fire' (' the glutton', W. Schulze KZ. 45, 306 = Kl. Schr. 216);

gr. νεᾱλής `cheerful, strong' (νέος + al-; about φυταλιή see below);

lat. alō, -ere, -ul, -itum `to nourish, support, rear, feed, bring up'; alēscere `grow up, prosper', coalēscere `grow together', adolēscere `grow up' (adultus `grown up, adult, mature'), abolēscere `to perish' (in addition appears aboleō, -ēre `destroy, exterminate' as a Transitive to be newly shaped, partly after (ad)augēscō : (ad)augeō, esp., however, after synonymous dēlēvī, dēleō;

the reminiscence in ὄλλυμι, ἀπόλλυμι would be then deceptive; (differently WH. I 4), lat. indolēs `native constitution or quality; nature, disposition, character, talents', subolēs `a sprout, shoot, offspring, progeny', prōles (*pro-olēs) `offspring, descendants, posterity; the young men of a race; of plants, fruit' (of it prōlētārius `a citizen of the lowest class, serving the state only by begetting children'; these three with o from a before dark l, not with idg. o- ablaut, wie Hirt Abl. 162 accepts); alimentum `food, nourishment', alimōnia,-ium `food, maintenance';

air. alim `be nourishing'; here probably also cymr. alu, mbret. halaff, nbret. ala `bear, give birth to', cymr. al f. `act of giving birth, progeny, people', alaf m. `wealth' = air. alam f. `herd', of it almae ds .;

got. ags. alan (ōl) `grow up' (intr. like lat. adoleō), aisl. ala (ōl) `be nourishing, produce', got. aliÞs `fattened' (participle of a Kaus. *aljan = norw. dial. elja); aisl. elskr `inspired by love', elska `love' (see to the meaning-development Falk-Torp below elske).

With t- formant:

Gr. ἄν-αλτος `insatiable, gluttonous'; ῎Αλτις, ἄλσος (*αλτι̯-ος) n. `holy grove', lat. altus `high' (i.e. `large-scale grown'), mir. old `height; shores, coast', cymr. allt `side of a hill, wooded hills', acorn. as, bret. aot, aod `coast', as. ald, ahd. (etc.) alt `old' (actually' grown tall'), ahd. altôn `put off, delay' (`make old');

maybe alb. geg (*n'alt) nalt `high' > alb. tosk (*nalt, lant) lart `high' [n/r rhotacism].

*alti also in got. alds f. `period, lifetime', ags. ield `period, lifetime, age, old age' (Pl. ielde, as. eldi `people, humans'), anord.ǫld f. `time, age, Pl. people'; *alti̯o in osk. altinúm, thus `food, provisions, aliment' = lat. *altiōnum; air. comaltae `foster brother' = mcymr. cyfeillt `serf, slave', ncymr. cyfaill `friend' (*komal-ti̯os), mcymr. eillt (*alti̯os) `pupil, hero', air. inailt (*eni-altī) `servant', got. alÞeis (*alti̯os) `old' = air. alt(a)e `brought up';

*altro- in air. altram `food', altru `nursing father' (cymr. athraw `teacher' etc., see Pedersen KG. I 137); anord. aldr m. (Gen. aldrs) `age, lifetime, old age', ags. ealdor `life', as. aldar, ahd. altar `old age, age'.

With m- formant:

Gr. ἄλμα n. `grove', φυτάλμιος epithet of Zeus and Poseidon (also Φυτάλιος, name of Poseidon in isthmian Troy, Φύταλος, for what hom. φυταλιή `tree nursery' as an abstract noun, see Bechtel Lexil. 331); lat. almus `nourishing, feeding (ager), blessing-donating, sweet, kind, sublime'. Maybe here FlN thrak. Almus, illyr. (?) Almō (Rom), Almā (Etruria), abrit. *Almā, engl. Yealm.

mabe alb. helm `healing drug, posion, medicine, herb' similar to Sanskrit āla- `poison'. obviously alb. and gr. have preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-.

clearly alb. shows that from Root / lemma: al-2 : `to grow; to bear; grove' derived Root / lemma: el-3 : ol-: `to rot, poison'.

Maybe illyr. Amalthea `the goat that nourished Zeus'.

Toch. А ālym- `life, mind'.

d- extensions: Old Indian íḍ-, íḍā `refreshment, donation, oblation, gift'; gr. ἀλδαίνω `allows to grow, strengthens', ἀλδήσκω'grows', ἀναλδής `not thriving; growth restraining', ἄλδομαι `brings forth, produce, create' (καρπούς).

Maybe alb. geg. ardh- [dh- extension as in satem languages] `come, (*climax), be born', ardhuna Pl. `yields, profits'.

dh- extensions: Old Indian r̥dhnóti, r̥náddhi, r̥dháti, ŕ̥dhyati `prospers, succeeds, does succeed, manages', av. arǝdat̃ `he allows to prosper', ǝrǝdāt- `cause prospering', Old Indian árdhuka- `thriving' (Specht KZ. 64, 64 f.);

gr. ἀλθαίνω, ἄλθω `heals', ἄλθομαι `grows, heals'; aschwed. alda `fruit-carrying oak', aisl. aldin `tree fruit, esp. eatable (fruit or seed of the oak tree, acorn)'.

References: WP. I 86 f., WH. I 4, 31 f.

Page(s): 26-27

Root / lemma: al-4

English meaning: `to burn'

German meaning: `brennen'

Material: Old Indian alātam n. `fire, blaze, coal' (also úlmukam `fire'); lat. adoleō `to worship, offer sacrifice, burn a sacrifice; to sacrifice on an altar; in gen., to burn; to smell', adolēscō, -ere `flare up (from altars), to grow up, come to maturity, to be heaped up, or perhaps to burn' (o from a as in etymological-different adolēscere `to grow up, come to maturity, to be heaped up, or perhaps to burn' to alō, see under *al-2 `grow'), altāre `fire altar' (with difficult o ablaut umbr. uṙetu `toward turning to vapor');

nschwed. ala `blaze, flame' (Johannsson ZfdtPh. 31, 285 following ms. Lit.); but in question gr. ἀλάβη ἄνθρακες Hes.; view also from lat. alacer `quick, lively, animated', got. aljan n. `zeal' etc. was possible as `igneous, quick-tempered' (Johansson aaO.); about ags. ǣlan `burn' see *aidh-.

Maybe belongs here gall. MS Alatus, mir. alad `multicolored, dappled, striped' (if originally'burnt') = nir. aladh `trout' (alā̆to-).

Maybe alb. alle `red color'.

References: WP. I 88, WH. I 13, EM. 88.

Page(s): 28

Root / lemma: al-5 (*hel-)

English meaning: `to grind'

German meaning: `mahlen, zermalmen'

Material: Old Indian áṇu- `fine, thin, very small' (*alḫnu-), Hindi and Bengali āṭā `flour' (below likewise; Kuhn KZ. 30, 355; different Specht Dekl. 125).

Av. aša (*arta-) `crushed, ground' (Hübschmann ZdMG. 38, 428, Spiegel BB. 9, 178 A. 1).

Arm. aɫam `grinds', aɫauri (*alatrio-) `mill', aleur- `flour' (in spite of l instead of ɫ not borrowed from ἄλευρον, Hübschmann Arm. Gr. I 414), aɫaxin `servant', aɫij `young girl' (Meillet BSL. 37, 72).

Gr. ἀλε: ἀλέω `grinds, crushes' *, ἀλέται λίθοι `millstone, grindstone', ἄλετος and ἀλετός `the milling, the grinding', ἀλετών `mill', ἀλετρεύω `grind', ἄλε[F]αρ, Pl. ἀλείατα (stretched from ἀλέατα; Schulze Qunder ep. 225) `flour' (from it contracted *ἀλῆτα called out of the new sg. ἄλητον ἄλευρον Hes.; ἀλητο-ειδής Hippokr., ἀλήτων ἀλεύρων Rhinthon), ἄλευρον (*ἀλε-Fρ-ον) `wheat flour', ἀλῑνός `flimsy' ( `pulverized, crushed, ground'), ἄλιξ `miller who grinds the spelt, wheat' (from it lat. alica `spelt, or a drink prepared from spelt' ds).


*) Also ἔλυμος `millet', ὄλυρα `spelt', οὐλαί, att. ὀλαί `ground coarse grain' (*ολF-, not after J. Schmidt KZ. 32, 382 from *αλF-) would be compatible, perhaps, phonetically (then word root would be *el-, *ol-, *el-).

maybe alb. (*hol-) hollë `flimsy, thin'


Only gr. and alb. preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-.

References: WP. I 89.

Page(s): 28-29

Root / lemma: al-6, alōu- : alǝu-

German meaning: Farbadjektiv `weiß, glänzend'

See also: s. albho- and Farbadjektiv el-.

Page(s): 29

Root / lemma: alā

English meaning: interjection

German meaning: under likewise `hallo!'

Material: Old Indian alalā(bhavant-) `alert, awake, smart becoming' (mind. arē, rē `du da!' rather to arí `foreigner, stranger', Thieme Der stranger in Rigveda 1 ff., see above S. 24).

Gr. ἀλαλά, ἀλαλαί `hallo, hurra!', ἀλαλητός, ἀλαλητύς `Schlachtruf', ἀλαλάζω `stoße den Schlachtruf from' (similarly ἐλελεῦ `Kriegsruf, Schmerzensruf', ἐλελίζω `stoße den Kriegsruf from'); lit. aluoti `hallo cry' (borrowing from dem Deutschen not provable) besides alióti `through Geschrei aufscheuchen'; Old Church Slavic ole, bulg. olele interjection; e.g. Fick I4 356 (nhd. hallo, holla are against it from dem Imperativ from ahd. halón, holón `get, fetch' entwickelte Rufworte).

Auf ähnlichem al- seems to based on lit. nu-aldė́ti `ring out; sound', uldúoti `coo' (Bezzenberger BB. 21, 315).

References: WP. I 89.

See also: S. die similar onomatopoeic words lā-.

Page(s): 29

Root / lemma: alp-

English meaning: `small, weak'

German meaning: `klein, schwach' ?

Material: Old Indian álpa-, alpaca ` small, slight, flimsy' (alpēna, alpāt `light, fast'); to unite heavily in the definition with lit. alpstù, alpaũ, al̃pti `become unconscious', alpùs `weak', lett. el̃pe `taking air, breath', alpa ̀ `one time, time, moment in time'.

apposition also from hom. ἀλαπαδνός (from Aeschylos λαπαδνός)'weak', ἀλαπάζω `empties, exhausts', att. λαπάζω'loots', λαπάττω `empties (the body)' is doubtful because of theirs to two-syllables root words compared with of the light ones Old Indian and lit. words;

also they suit, as well as to them, added to λαπαρός `slender, thin, having hollow body', λαπάρα `Flank, swell of the body in the hip', λάπαθος `cavity, pit', λάπαθος `sorrel, rumex' as `βοτάνη κενωτική' in the meaning colouring (`empty, sunken, shrunken') nevertheless, considerably ab. quite dubious also alb. (Jokl SBAk. Wien 168, I 48) laps `be tired of, sick of, bored with'.

maybe alb. (*λάπαθος) lëpjetë `sorrel, rumex', truncated (*λάπαθος), laps `be exhaused'.

Maybe lat. lapso -are `to slip, stumble'.

On account of here hett. alḫpaḫanḫda- (alpant-) `ill, weak, small, flimsy'?

References: WP. I 92, Couvreur Ḫ 106 f., WH. I 786, Hirt Idg. Gr. II, 158.

Page(s): 33

Root / lemma: alu- (-d-, -t-)

English meaning: `bitter; beer'

German meaning: `bitter, Bier, Alaun'

Material: Gr. ἀλύδ(ο)ιμον πικρὸν παρὰ Σώφρονι Hes., ἀλυδμαίνειν [πικραίνειν?] Hes. (see, however, to meaning Herwerden Lex. Graec. suppl. 45); lat. alūta `soft leather; a shoe, purse or patch, beauty patch' and alūmen `alum' are simply extensions from *alu-.

The root appears in Northern Europe with the definition `beer, mead' (compared to the meaning difference Church Slavic kvasъ `alum, beer'); in. ǫl n. `Beer, carousal', ǫldr n. `Carousal' (*aluÞra-), ags. ealu(đ) n. `beer', as. in aloḫfat, mhd. in al-schaf `drinking vessel';

maybe alb. alle `red (color of beer?)'

hence from Root / lemma: al-2 : (to grow; to bear) could have derived Root / lemma: alu- (-d-, -t-): (bitter; beer).

From it borrows Old Prussian alu n. `Mead', lit. alùs (m. become as medùs = preuß. meddo n .; J. Schmidt Pluralbild. 180), Church Slavic olъ (m. become like medъ) `beer'. is also borrowed by finn. olut `Beer' from Germ.

References: WP. I 91, WH. I 34.

Page(s): 33-34

Root / lemma: ambhi, m̥bhi

English meaning: `around, from both sides'

German meaning: `um-herum, zu beiden Seiten'

Material: Arm. amboɫj `entirely, unscathed' (to oɫj `healthy'), gr. ἀμφί `around' (ἀμφί-ς `to both sides', with the same adverbial -s as z. В. ἄψ, λικριφίς, s.Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 737);

lat. amb- (before vowel, e.g. ambigō), am-, an- (before consonant, e.g. amputō, amiciō from *am[bi]jaciō) inseparable prefix `round about, around, all around', alat. also preposition am `around' m. Akk. (ambi - for the purposes of `both' also anceps which is against late formation it points to ambō), umbr. amb- (amboltu), a- (a-ferum `to carry round, take round; esp. of the eyes, to turn all round; in religion, to lustrate, purify, by carrying round consecrated objects. Transf., to spread, spread news'), an- (an-ferener `bearing round'), osk. amvíannud `a going round, circling, revolving, revolution, detour', amnúd `a going round, circling, revolving, revolution, a cause, reason, motive, inducement, occasion, opportunity' (barely *amb-beno- : veniō, however no- derivation, s. v. Planta II 32, 623); with -er- extension after praeter-eō, intereō (see v. Planta II 455, WH. I 36);

umbr. ampretu, ambretuto `ambit, circuit', maybe also osk. amfret `flanked' (rather to Schulze KZ. 45, 182 = Kl. Schr. 468 to disassemble in *am-ferent `they bear round, περιάγουσι';

not lat. trails of the same -er- extension in amfrāctus `a turning, a bend. Transf., legal intricacies, circumlocution, digression', rather from am-frāctus); about PN Amiternum s. Schulze Lat. Eig. 541;

with ti- extension (after pos-t, per-t, Buck Elementarbuch 65) osk. ampt `around' (as umbr. ambr- at first due to from amf- before consonant simplified am-); alb. mbi, mbɛ `over, by, on, in' (G. Meyer Alb. Wb. 265).

m̥bhi: Old Indian abhí-taḥ, av. aiwito `to both sides, ringed' (about av. aibiš, Old pers. abiš more debatably meaning see Pedersen KZ. 40, 127, Bartholomae IF. 19, Beiheft S. 106; the ending -s in in historical connection with that of gr. ἀμφίς?);

Old Indian abhí is possible the meaning `around, circum', Old pers. abiy, av. aibī, aiwi in the meaning `about, in regard to, from' from derived *m̥bhi or idg. *obhi or continuing in *ebhi ; gall. ambi- `around, circum' (e.g. ᾽Αμβί-δραυοι `living on river Dravos'),

cymr. am- (through i- umlaut em-, ym-), corn. bret. am-, em-, air. imb-, imm- `around'; ahd. as. umbi, aisl. umb, ags. ymb, ymbe `around' (absorbed in Got. from bi).

bhi: got. bi in meaning `around', with final sound extension in stressed position as. ags. be-, -, ahd. bi-, -, nhd. bei (about dubious derivatives see Falk-Torp 37 and 1437 under bil II `space, period', 73 and 1437 under billede `image').

Maybe zero grade in alb. (*ambhe) mbë `at, in', (*ambhi) mbi `on upon'.

Falk-Torp 37 and 1437 under bil II `space, period', 73 and 1,437 under billede `picture').

ambhō(u) `both':

Gr. ἄμφω `both' (derivative ἀμφότερος); lat. ambō, -ae, -ō `both';

Old Indian ubhāu `both', av. uwa- ds.; lit. abù, Old Church Slavic oba ds.; got. bai m., ba n., Gen. *baddjē (bajōÞs, see to the formation Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 77; different - in the outcome to lat. nostrātes - `of our country, native' Fick III4 255), as. bē thie, ags. , Þā, engl. both, ahd. beide, bēde, anord. bāðer, Gen. beggja `both' (: got. *baddjē < bai̯i̯ē); toch. A āmpi, āmpe, В ant-api.

From these would be regarded Old Indian ubhāu, av. uwa yet as composition with u- `two' (lat. uīgintī); Sommer IF. 30, 404 denies such u- and regards the ar. forms as caused by the labial evaporation *abhāu = *m̥bhōu with reference to Old Indian Kubera-ḥ from *Kabēraḥ (compare patronymic Kāberaka-ḥ; Wackernagel KZ. 41, 314 ff). Lit. abù, Old Church Slavic oba are probably based on reorganization from *amb-o at a time, as preposition *ambhi `around' was given up in favour of *obhi (ab. obъ, s. lat. ob `with acc., in front of, before; in return for; because of, on account of').

The relation *ambhō (u), *ambhi: got. etc. bai, bi lets it be dubious barely that am- (maybe from an-4) is the first composition part, the second part is idg. *bhōu `both'.

References: WP. I 54 f., WH. I 36 f., Feist 74 a, 88, Pedersen Tocharisch 82.

Page(s): 34-35

Root / lemma: ames- or omes-

English meaning: `blackbird'

German meaning: `Amsel'

Note: (: mes- : ams- or *oms-)?

Material: Full grade would be located just before the first syllable in ahd. amusla, amsala, ags. ōsle `blackbird', full grade the second syllable in lat. merula `a blackbird; a fish, the sea-carp' (Kluge EWb.12 s. v.) and cymr. mwyalch, acorn. moelh, bret. moualc'h `blackbird' (possible basic form *mesalkā oder *misalkā after Pedersen KG. I 73, where difficult suppositions about ir. smōl, smōlach `thrush').

Differently - because of idg. meis-, mois-, mis- - Schrader Sprcompare2 367, 3II 140, Fick II4 205: merula from *misula, cymr. mwyalch etc from meisalkā, finally, with -oi- ahd. *meisa, ags. māse, aisl. meisingr `titmouse'.

However, will be gets covered latter in the meaning divergent group of Wood KZ. 45, 70 probably more properly in the Adj. *maisa-` small, tiny' because of norw. mdartl. meis `thin, frail person', meiseleg `thin and weak', wfläm. mijzen `crumble', mejzel `A little bit. Tiny bits'. The comparison of lat. with brit words is most reliable.

References: WP. I 53 f., WH. II 77 f.

Page(s): 35-36

Root / lemma: amǝ-

German meaning: `energisch vorgehen'

See also: see under omǝ-.

Page(s): 36

Root / lemma: am-1, mē-

English meaning: `to grab'

German meaning: `fassen'?

Material: Old Indian ámatram n. `vessel, jug, big drinking bowl', arm. aman `vessel', maybe to lat. ampla (*amḫlā) `handle, handhold', amplus (*am-los) `extensive, far, spacious, considerabe'.

References: WP. I 52 f., WH. I 41 f.

See also: S. under mē-1.

Page(s): 35

Root / lemma: am-2, mē-

German meaning: `mühen'

See also: see under mē-2 ds.

Page(s): 35

Root / lemma: am(m)a, amī̆

English meaning: mother

German meaning: `Mutter', Lallwort

Material: Alb. amë `aunt', `mother', out of it `riverbed', `residuum from Flüssigkeiten'; aisl. amma `grandmother', ahd. amma `mother, wet nurse', nhd. Amme; gr. ἀμμάς, ἀμμία `mother' Hes., osk. Ammaí, Ammae, i.e. Matri (Göttername)'. About Old Indian amba `mother' s. Kretschmer KZ. 57, 251 ff. Von amī-, amĭ- (see Brugmann II2, I 496) shaped are lat. amīcus `friend' and amita `Vaterschwester' (compare lit. anýta `Schwiegermutter' : lat. anus `altes woman'). About vlat. amma `owl' s. Sofer Gl. 17, 17 f.

Alb. mik `friend' zero grade of rum. amic `friend' not from lat. amīcus `friend'

A Verbalableitung is perhaps lat. amāre `lieben' (compare mhd. ammen `wait, hold on, care' to amme). After Kretschmer (Gl. 13, 114) rather Etruscan.

After Zimmermann KZ. 44, 368 f., 47, 174 belongs also lat. amoenus here. Von a lat. *amoi (compare Summoi CIL. II 1750) could amoinos = amoenus shaped sein, as Mamoena (to *mamoi) besides Mamana, further through gr. Γοργόνη; (to Γoργώ) besides Γόργοιτος (to Γοργώι) gestützt;

toch. В ammakki (Vok.) `mother' from *amma + akki (Old Indian akkā).

References: WP. I 53, WH. I 39, 41, Tagliavini Mél. Pedersen 163.

Page(s): 36

Root / lemma: andher-, n̥dher-

English meaning: `stem, spike'

German meaning: `Spitze, Stengel'

Material: Nur griechisch: ἀθήρ `an ear of corn', ἀνθέριξ `stalk point, stalk', ἀνθέρικος `Stalk, stem of a plant', ἀνθερεών `chin' as `bearded, shaggy place', ἀνθρίσκος `the common chervil', named after his prickly fruit, ἀνθρήνη, ἀνθρηδών `wasp, forest bee', word outcome after τενθρήνη `corneous';

τανθρηδών `wasp' (here maybe ἄνθρωπος from *ἄνθρο-ωπος `with bearded face = man', then `man, person', Güntert Heidelberg. SB. 1915, Abh. Xö; compare also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 4264.

After Kretschmer Gl. 28, 246 from *ανδρ-ὡπός, the rough breathing of ὁράω etc figurative?); from also ἀθάρη (*ἀθαρFᾱ), ἀθήρᾱ `wheat gruel, Spelt miller' (von Plin. n. h. 22, 121 however identified as ägypt. word)?

References: WP. I 45.

Page(s): 41

Root / lemma: andh-, anedh-

English meaning: `to grow, bloom, blossom'

German meaning: `hervorstechen, sprießen, blühen'

Material: Old Indian ándhaḥ n. `Soma plants'; arm. and `field'; gr. ἄνθος n. `Flower, bloom', ἀνθέω `blossoms', ἄνθηρός (*-es-ro-) `blossoming' etc; alb. ënde (*andhōn) `blossom, flower', ë̄ndem `blossoms' ( from present *ë̄ from *andhō); toch. A ānt, В ānte `open space, area'.

Mir. ainder, aindir `young woman', cymr. anner `young cow', Pl. anneirod, acymr. enderic `a bull-calf; also of the young of other animals', cymr. enderig `bull, ox', bret. ounner (Trég. annouar, Vannes an̄noér) `young cow';

moreover frz. (l)andier m. `Fire goat, Aries', also `poppy' (= `young girl', compare ital. madona, fantina `poppy'), further to bask. andere `woman', iber. FN Andere, Anderca, MN Anderus; maybe kelt. Origin? (*andero- `blossoming, young'?).

According to Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 339 here gr. ἀν-ήνοθε `came out, bubbled out;', ἐπεν-ήνοθε `reside on top of', κατεν-ήνοθε' canopied, covered', etc.

In spite of the a little bit divergent meaning probably also here with zero grade *n̥dh:

Old Indian ádhvan m. = av. advan m. `way, road', for what ai adhvará-ḥ ̣ `religious action (*Soma-) sacrifice, ceremony' (originally' course of action, way' - `ceremonious way') from *n̥dhu̯ero-, and probably also with suffix ablaut (*n̥dhuro-) isl. ǫndurr m. `a kind of snow shoe'.

References: WP. I 45, 67, P. Benoit ZrPh. 44, 3 ff., 69 ff.

See also: Here belongs probably: andher-, n̥dher-.

Page(s): 40-41

Root / lemma: andho-

English meaning: `blind, dark'

German meaning: `blind, dunkel'

Material: Old Indian andhá-, av. anda- `blind, dark', gall. andabata m. `a gladiator who fought with a helmet without openings' (to kelt. Lw. lat. battuō `to beat, knock').

References: WP. I 182, WH. I 46.

Page(s): 41

Root / lemma: an(ǝ)-3 (*ḫenaḫ-)

English meaning: `to breathe'


Root / lemma: an(ǝ)-3 : `to breathe' derived from a reduction of Root / lemma: anĝhen- : `smell, odour; person' as in arm. anjn (for older *anj), Gen. anjin `soul, being, person': anord. angi m. `odour, smell' : alb. anj `swell, puff' [common alb. ng > nj phonetic mutation].

German meaning: `atmen, hauchen'

Material: Old Indian ániti `breathes' (also thematically ánati), ánilaḫḥ ̣ `breath, breeze, wind', ānáḫḥ (maybe'breath' or `mouth, nose', āna-nam `mouth, muzzle, face' with ind. Vr̥ddhi;'mouth' as `breathe, the breathing'); prāṇiti `breathes';

av. ā̊ntya, parā̊ntya `of the inhaling and exhaling' (*anti- `breathing' with ā and parā; see Bartholomae IF. 7, 59; about ainiti- `mildness' see, however, Airan. Wb. 125 f.).

Gr. ἄνεμος `breath, wind', ἀνήνεμος (with stretch in the compound), νήνεμος `windless, calm', ἠvεμόεις `rich in wind' (ἠ- metrical stretch), ἀνεμώλιος (`windy', i.e.:) `trifling, in vain' (dissimilated from ἀνεμώνιος, see last Bechtel Lexil. 44, also 226, about that probably from *μετ-ανεμώvιoς by extreme dissimilation abbreviated ones μεταμώνιος `in vain, without success'); different Risch 113;

compare Frisk Indog. 15; ἄνται ἄνεμοι ἀντάς πνοιάς Hes. are to change in ἀῆται, ἀήτας. Maybe here νεᾱνίᾱς `youth' as νεFο-αν- `new wheeze', after Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 4263; also ἄσθμα `breathlessness, suffocation', aaO. 337.

Lat. animus `mind, soul', anima `wind, breath, soul, lives' (osk. anamúm `air, a current of air, breeze, breath, wind'), of it animal `living being, animal', hālō, - āre `breathe, smell' (Denominative *an-slo-; with phoney h, the sound value described here attained and also penetrated in an(h)-ēlāre; about latter see *an 4).

Air. anāl, cymr. anadl `breath', mbret. alazn (rearrangement), nbret. holan (*anǝ-tlo-); mcymr. eneit, ncymr. enaid `soul' (*anǝ-tī-), abrit. PN Anate-mōros `warmhearted, bighearted';

air. animm, nir. anam `soul', Gen. anman (stem *ana-mon; the i- color of the Nom. sg. after neutr. -men-stem s. Pedersen KG. II 61; to the intersection with lat. anima f. `breath, wind, air. Transf., the breath of life, vital principle, soul' see Pokorny ZfcPh. 10 69 f.), corn. eneff, mbret. eneff (Pl. anaffon) nbret. anaoun `soul' (umlauted corn. and bret. forms probably Lw. from Lat., see Vendryès De hib. voc. 112 f., Pedersen KG. I 170, II 111);

in addition air. osnad `sighs' (ussḫanad), further (`catch one's breath = rest, relax') anaid `remains, rests, stops', con-osna `desist, cease' (com-uss-an-) etc. (see Pedersen KG. II 455 f., 672); mcymr. anant Pl. `bards, poets', cyn-an in `word, praise';

got. uz-anan (preterit uzōn) `exhale'; with t-formant: anord. ǫnd, g. andar f. `breath, breath of life, life, soul' (= gr. ἄνται), anda, -aða `breathe, gasp' = ags. ōđian `puff strongly', anord. andi m. `breath, mind, soul', afries. omma (*anḫma) `breath', ags. oroð (*ŭz-anÞ-) `breath' *; maybe here ahd. unst, aisl. ags. yst f. `storm' from *n̥ḫsti-;

maybe alb. anda `taste, smell' [common alb. n > nd phonetic mutation] : anord. anda, -aða `breathe, gasp'.


*) In addition also as. ando, ags. anđa, anođa `excitement, rage, sorrow', ahd. anado, ando, anto `annoyance, rage', mhd. ande `feeling of insult', ahd. anadōn, antōn, mhd. anden `let out one's rage', nhd. avenge under a mid definition `gasp before excitement' (Kluge s. v., -Falk-Torp 5 and 1428 under aand; Schröder Аbl. 9). About second a from ahd. anado, ags. anođa see Specht Phil. Stud. Voretzsch 36.


Old Church Slavic vonja (*ani̯ā) `smell' (vonjati `scent, smell'), *ǫchati `smell' in aruss. uchati etc. (-ch- perhaps imitation from duchati, thus without historical connection with s from lat. hālāre `breathe, emit vapor, be fragrant' from *an-slo-);

Maybe nasalized alb. (*unhati) nuhat, nuhas `scent, smell'.

Nasals are the most important element of proto Indo Europeans since they indicate the homeland of Aryans in a cold, snowy territory. The prolongation of their nose must have taken place during thousands of years of habitat in the frosty climate. The long nose served Indo Europeans to warm the air while breathing which eventually caused the presence of nasal sounds.

alb. geg. âj, tosk. ēnj `I swell, impregnate', geg. âjun `conceited, puffed' kënjem, gnem `incense' (*kɛ-(a)nemo- Jokl Stud. 37);


Clearly the initial meaning in alb. geg. âj, tosk. ēnj `I swell, impregnate' was `puff with air'.

toch. AB āñm- `life, mind', В āñme `intention', A āñcām (*āntemo-) `existence, living, mind' (K. Schneider IF. 57, 203, Pedersen Toch. 48); also В onolme, wnolme `living being'?

arm. holm `wind' (Bugge IF. 1, 442) abides (in spite of Meillet lit. 6, 3) (see Lidén Arm. stem 38 f., Peterson KZ. 47). - Old Indian ātmán `soul' rather to ahd. ātum `breath', see ēt-men.

Root points beside to two-syllable forms, like Old Indian ani-ti, ani-laḥ, kelt.*ana-tlo- etc, and such like ἄνε-μος, also forms of the monosyllabic word roots, thus lat. *an-slo- > hālō, anord. ǫnd (etc).

References: WP. I 56 ff., WH. I 49 f., Feist 538.

See also: ansu-, antro-.

Page(s): 38-39

Root / lemma: anǝt-

English meaning: `duck'

German meaning: `Ente'

Material: Old Indian ātíḫḥ ātī f. `water bird' (or to aisl. ǣðr, nschwed. åda f. `eider duck' from germ. *ādī- ?); gr. νῆσσα, bäot. νᾶσσα (*νᾱτι̯ᾱ Old Indian ātíḫḥ) `duck'; common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation

Maybe zero grade alb. (*nossa) rosa `duck' rhotacism n/r : rum. (*rasta) RAŢĂ `duck'

lat. anas f. (Akk. anatem and anitem: G. Pl. also-tium) `duck', germ. *anud- and *anid in ahd. enit, anut, NPl. enti, as. anad, ags. æned, aisl. ǫnd, nhd. `Duck'; balto-slav. * ānt- from *anǝt- in lit. ántis, Old Prussian antis, proto slav. *ǫty, serb. ȕtva, aruss. utovь (Akk.), klr. utjá `duck'.

Lat. anatīna (scil. caro) `duck's meat': lit. antíena ds.

Maybe Swedish anka `duck'

References: WP. I 60, WH. I 44, Trautmann 10.

Page(s): 41-42

Root / lemma: anĝhen-

English meaning: `smell, odour; person'

German meaning: `Duft, Geruch, Person'

Material: arm. anjn (for older *anj), Gen. anjin `soul, being, person' = anord. angi m. `odour, smell'.

maybe alb. anj `swell, puff' [common alb. ng > nj phonetic mutation].

References: Lidén Arm. Stud. 38 f., WP. I 58, Meillet Esquisse 77 ff.

Page(s): 43

Root / lemma: anĝh- (*henĝh-)

English meaning: `narrow, *press'

German meaning: `eng, einengen, schnüren', partly also von seelischer Beklemmung, Angst

Material: Verbal: av. ązaŋhē `to press', lengthened grade av. ny-āzata `she squeezes herself into her corset', ny-āzayǝn `to wedge oneself in' (with ā = ; ved. ahēma possibly `let us arm = gird on the sword' is remote to the meaning; anāha RV. 8, 46, 5 is unclear);

Maybe zero grade alb. geg. (*anza-) zanë `to capture, grasp, press', tosk. : av. ązaŋhē `to press' [common alb. -ĝh- > -z- phonetic mutation].

gr. ἄγχω `ties up, strangles', lat. angō `to press tightly; of the throat, to strangle, throttle; in gen., to hurt, distress; of the mind, to torment, make anxious';

Old Church Slavic as i- verb ǫžǫ, ǫziti `restrain'; in addition with zero grade very probable Old Church Slavic vęžǫ, vęzati `bind' (suggestion that v- is filling hiatus, see Meillet MSL. 14, 369, maybe becomes steady through influence from viti `coil, bind, wind' which may also have influenced meaning?).

anĝhú-s `narrow': Old Indian only in aṁhu-bhēdī f. `narrow lacuna' and in the Abl. Sg. n. aṁhōḥ `crowdedness, quality of tightly packed together, affliction' (derivative aṁhurá- `pressed, unhappy'); gr. in ἀμφήν (see below); lat. in angiportus (*anguḫportus) `narrow alley, a narrow street';

got. aggwus `narrow' (at first from *aggus, as manwus from *manus; w comes from the oblique cases), anord. ǫngr, øngr, ags. enge, as. engi, ahd. angi, engi `narrow', mhd. bange Adv. (bi + Adv. ango), nhd. bange; furthur derivatives with g: arm. anjuk `narrow', mit k Old Church Slavic ǫzъ-kъ `narrow'.

Cymr. e(h)ang (*eks-angu-, idg. *n̥ĝhu-) `far, wide, extensive', mcymr. eingyaw `be restricted, be contained in ... `, air. cumcae (*kom-ingi̯ā) gl. `compression of the throat, suffocation; of the mind, distress, anguish, trouble', fairsing `far, wide' (*for-eks-ingi-), cumung (*komḫingu-, idg. *n̥ĝhu-) `narrow', ing f. (*n̥ĝhī) `crowdedness, affliction', from *kom-angi̯o- cymr. cyfyng, in this way yng (also ing, Morris-Jones, Welsh Gr. 110) `narrow', mbret. encq (*angi̯o-) `narrow'.

Maybe alb. eng `deaf and dumb (*narrowed)'

anĝhos-, anĝhes `oppression, affliction, crowdedness': Old Indian áṁhas- n. `Fear, distress, need' (as well as aṁhatí-ḥ f.), av. ązah- `badgering, need, captivity', ązō-jata `killed by strangulation': lat. angor m. `compression of the throat, suffocation; of the mind, distress, anguish, trouble', angus-tus `narrow' (from *anghos-to-s); angustiae `narrowness; hence, of space, a strait, narrow place;'spiritus', shortness of breath; of time, shortness; of supplies, shortness, poverty; of circumstances, difficulty, distress; of disposition, narrow-mindedness; of reasoning, subtlety';

maybe zero grade in alb. (*angus-tus) ngushtë `narrow'.

about Celtic see above; anord. angr m. (maybe originally more neutrally es-stem, Fick4 III 12) `Annoyance, loss, pity, affliction, frustration', afries. angost, ahd. angust, nhd. Angst (from *anghos-ti- changing the vowel after *anghu-); Old Church Slavic ǫzostъ `restriction, constriction, limitation, narrowing';

lit. añkštas `narrow' (k- insertion, not guttural change) cannot stand for *anž[a]sḫtas or *anž-tas.

Words for `nape' as `the narrowest place between head and trunk' (the idea also plays a role `where one strangles one' in light of this?): gr. äol. ἄμφην and αὔφην `nape' (after Schulze GGA. 1897, 909 A. 1, as *αγχF-ήν substantivization of u-Adj. *anĝhú-s by means of forms -en-;

about αὐχήν see also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 296), got. hals-agga `nape', klr. vjazy Pl. `Neck', čech. vaz `neck, nape' (to vęzati see above), Old Prussian (as slav. Lw.) winsus `neck' (also arm. viz `neck, throat, cervix' with preposition v-?), see Pedersen KZ.38, 311; 39, 402, Vondrák Sl. Gr. I 184, Adontz Mél. Boisacq I 10, as well as below under augh-, ugh.

Other formations: gr. ἀγχόνη `cord, choking, strangling' (from it lat. angina `the quinsy, as suffocating'), ἀγκτήρ m. `braces, bandage', ἄγχι, ἀγχοῦ, ἀγχόθι `close to' (compare frz. près `close to, near': lat. pressus `a pressing, pressure'), compounds ἀ̃σσον `nearer, very near' (*ἄγχι̯ον; ἄσσον hence has changed after μάσσων = *μακι̯ων, Osthoff MU. 6, 60 ff.); common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation;

bret. concoez `geode' (*kom-angeid-; compare also dial. añcoe `uvula in the throat'; Ernault RC. 7, 314; 19, 314 ff.); Old Church Slavic ǫzota `narrowness'.

Gall. PN Octodurus absents, because ir. ochte `narrowness, straitness' does not exist.

Van Windekens (Lexique 5) puts here toch. A aṃc̨är `weak. flimsy (?)'.

References: WP. I. 62 f., WH. I 47.

Page(s): 42-43

Root / lemma: angʷ(h)i- (*egʷhi-, ogʷhi- and eĝhi-)

English meaning: `snake, worm, *fish (*hedgehog = snake eater)'

German meaning: `Schlange, Wurm'

Note: egʷhi-, ogʷhi- and eĝhi- ds.; at least two etymological different, but early the crossed kinship whose relations still are often unclear.


Root / lemma: angʷ(h)i- : `snake, worm, *fish' derived from an extended Root / lemma: anĝh- (*henĝh-): `narrow, *press'

Material: Lat. anguis = lit. angìs (f.), Old Prussian angis `serpent, snake' (lett. ùodze f. `snake'), Old Church Slavic *ǫžь, russ. , poln. wąž `snake', arm. auj (Gen. -i) `snake' (Meillet Esquisse 154, Dumézil BSL. 39, 100);

mir. esc-ung `eel' (*`water snake', esc `water' + *angʷhō), cymr. llys-yw-en, Pl. -ywḫod ds. (Fick II4 15; to brit. zero grade from ŋg before see Pedersen KG. I 107).

In addition with zero grade and voiced-nonaspirated (the latter could be in itself also in the Lat. and Balt.-Slav.) ahd. unc `snake, adder', gr. (illyr). ἄβεις ἔχεις Hes. (*n̥gʷi-).


Common gr. gʷ > b, kʷ > p phonetic mutation.

To these forms with voiced-nonaspirated at first is ἴμβηρις ἔγχελυς, Mεθuμναῖoι Hes. (*engʷ-ēri-: to ι compare Solmsen Beitr. 1215), where because of r- suffixes are to be connected balto-slav. *anguria- in slav. *ǫgorь m. russ. ug(o)rь, poln. węgorz, čech. úhoř, serb. ȕgor, sloven. ogǫ́r `eel', lit. ungurỹs ds.

(assim. from *angurỹs, compare finn. ankerias), Old Prussian angurgis `eel' (Church Slavic ągulja, jęgulja `eel' probably from Lat.). Hirt IF. 22, 67 connects these gr. and balt.-slav. eel names to an independent equation (nevertheless, compare the r-suffix of ahd. angar etc, see under).

Another idg. equation for `eel' is perhaps gr. ἔγχελῦς f., lat. anguilla (see esp. W. Meyer KZ. 28, 163, Johansson KZ. 30, 425, J. Schmidt KZ. 32, 369, Osthoff IF. 4, 270, 292, Hirt IF. 22, 67, Idg. 619 f.), although the details are still unclear (in the Gr. *ἀγχέλυος assimilated etc. to ἐγχέλυος, or ε and the pure gutural through the influence from ἔχις; in Lat.-illa instead of-ella after the fluctuation in real diminutive under determining influence i of anguis?).

Illyr. TN Encheleae `snake menü': Hungarian angolna `eel' [from native illyr. TN Paeones].

While alb. ngjala (*Encheleae) `eel' similar to alb. gjëndem (*ghend-) `be found', gjënj, gjenj, geg. gjëj `find' (G. Meyer BB. 8, 187, Alb. Wb. 140, Alb. stem III 10; gjet `find, regain', s. Schmidt KZ. 57, 20ff.); from Root / lemma: ghend- and ghed- : `to grab, grip'.

Hence gr. (illyr). ἄβεις ἔχεις Hes. (*n̥gʷi-) : alb. ngjala `eel' the same as gr. χανδάνω (*ghend-) `take in, hold, contain, take; to be capable, able; catch', Aor. ἔχαδον (*ghn̥d-), Fut. χείσομαι (*ghendḫs-), Perf. κέχονδα : alb. gjëndem (*ghend-) `be found', gjënj, gjenj, geg. gjëj `find' [common alb. gh- > gl- > gj- : lith. gh- > dz- phonetic mutation].

Otherwise in alb. ch- > s- > gj- since the shift -s- > -gj- is a common alb. phonetic mutation.

In the meaning `worm, maggot' and with r-suffix (compare above ἴμβηρις etc): ahd. angar `grain maggot'' engirinc `larva', nhd. Engerling, lit. ankštiraĩ̃ `maggots, cock chafer grubs, grubs' (and similar forms, see Trautmann Old Prussian 301), lett. anksteri `maggots, cock chafer grubs', Old Prussian anxdris (i.e. anxtris), however, `adder' (about the -st- these balt. forms compare Mühlenbach-Endzelin Lett.-D. Wb. I 71), russ. ug(o)rь `blister, raised bubble on the skin that is filled with pus, fin' (also `eel', see above), poln. wągry `blister, raised bubble on the skin' (Bezzenberger GGA. 1874, 1236, BB. 2, 154; not better about angar, úgorь ders. GGA. 1898, 554 f.).

Nasalized forms:

Gr. ἔχις m. (f.) `snake', ἔχιδνα ds. (for *ἐχίδνια, Specht Dekl. 377), ahd. egala `leech, bloodsucking worm', dön. norw. igle `a parasite sheet worm in the viscera of the animals and in the skin and the branchia of the fish'.

Moreover gr. ἐχῖνος, ahd. ags. igil (idg. *eĝhinos), nhd. Igel, eigentl. `snake eater', W. Schulze Gnomon 11, 407, lit. ežỹs, Church Slavic ježь `hedgehog (snake eater)'.

Arm. `snake, viper' can be put as *ēgʷhis to ὄφις (Meillet Esquisse 75);

gr. ὄφις `snake' (*ogʷhis); cymr. euod (*ogʷh-) `sheep worms': Old Indian áhi-, av. aži- `snake'.

It is uncertain apposition from as. egithassa, mnd. egidesse, ags. (corrupted) āÞexe, ahd. egidehsa, nhd. Eidechse mit ewi-, egi-, idg. *ogʷhi- = ὄφις (Zupitza Gutt. 99 after Kluge; Falk-Torp under øgle) + germ. *Þahsiō, ahd. *dehsa `spindle, newel'.

Whether in this variety so order is to be brought that *aŋgʷhi- and *eghi-, *oghi- (ĝh) an intersection form would have caused *egʷhi-, *ogʷhi-, remains undecided. Taboo images have also probably helped in it.

References: WP. I 63 ff.. WH. I 48, Specht KZ. 64, 13; 66, 56 f., Havers Sprachtabu 44 f.

Page(s): 43-45

Root / lemma: ank-1

English meaning: `need, necessity'

German meaning: `Zwank, Notwendigkeit'

Material: Gr. ἀνάγκη `necessity, compulsion' (normally as reduplicated respectably), ion. ἀναγκαίη ds. (from ἀναγκαῖος `indispensable, necessary', ἀναγκάζω `compelled, forced, obliged');

air. écen (éc- from *ank- or *n̥k-), mcymr. anghen, cymr. angen, corn. bret. anken `need, necessity', im Ir. also `spoliation, act of violence'.

Although `compulsion' from `hostile distress, pursuit' were comprehensible, it makes does gr.-kelt. meaning - concordance, nevertheless, doubtful, whether phonetically correspondent ahd. āhta `hostile pursuit', nhd. Acht, ags. ōht (proto germ. *anχtō), germ. EN Āctumērus (i.e. n. χtumēraz, 1. year A.D.; Brugmann Grdr. I2382) wherewith ir. écht (*anktu- or *n̥ktu-, *enktu-) `manslaughter' at first is to be connected (see Falk-Torp 17, 1430), root-like with ank- `compulsion' (: `press, kill'ö) originally is same, or connected to *enek- `kill', as well as hitt. ḫi-in-kán, ḫé-en-kán (ḫenkan) `death'.

maybe alb. geg. hekë `agony': hitt. ḫi-in-kán, ḫé-en-kán (ḫenkan) `death'; both alb. and hitt have preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-.

References: WP. I 60. Pedersen Hittitisch 183 f., Hendriksen Unters. 28, Benveniste Origines 155.

Page(s): 45

Root / lemma: ank-2, ang-

English meaning: `to bend, bow, *flex; wangle; turn; curve, snake coil, anchor'

German meaning: `biegen'


illyr. TN Encheleae (Enchelleae) Illyr. TN associated with the coils of the snake, Ilirus and Kadmos.

Old Indian añcati (mpers. ancītan) and (zero grade) ácati `bent, crooked', participle -akna- (with ā-, ny-, sam-),-akta-(with ud-, ny-)'crooked, bent'; aŋká-ḥ m. `bend, hook, bend between breast and hip', áŋkas- n. `Bend, inflection, curve, crook' (= gr. τὸ ἄγκος `valley, gulch, canyon, gorge'), aŋkasám `side, points'; aŋku- in aŋkūyánt- `curvatures, bends, searching side ways';

maybe alb. (*anh-) anë `side', (*anho-), anoj `bend'

av. anku-pǝsǝmna- `with hooks, adorning themselves with clasps';

Old Indian ankuc̨á-ḥ `hook, fishhook, elephant's sting', aŋkurá-ḥ `young shoot, scion (originally germ point, crooked germ), hump, tumefaction, a heavy swell' (= gr. ἀγκύλος `crooked', dt. Angel, anord. ōll, āll `cotyledon, germ, sprout, bud' see below);

av. Aka m. `hook, bait', ąxnah (Bartholomae Stud. 2, 101, Airan. Wb. 359) `rein';

gr. ἀγκών `bow, elbow' (D. Pl. ἀγκάσι to ἀγκή = ἀγκάλη), ἐπ-ηγκεν-ίδες `fixed planks in the ribs of the ship' (Döderlein, Bechtel Lexil. 129), ἄγκοινα `all writhed, humped, curved, stooped', ἄγκιστρον `fishhook'; ἀγκύλος `crooked', ἀγκύλη `strap, thong, brace' (= anord. ōl, āl ds.), ἄγκυρα `anchor'; ἀγκάλη `elbow, bay, all stooped'; τὸ ἄγκος (see above).

maybe Ancyra -ae f. capital of Galatia, in Asia Minor. (ancient district in central Anatolia - a Celtic, (Illyrianö) settlement).

With o: ὄγκος `barbed hook' = lat. uncus `hooked, curved; Subst. hook' (ὄγκῑνος = uncīnus `hook, barbed hook'); ungulus `a finger-ring, a ring' Pacuvius, from Festus 514 L. as osk. called, ungustus `hook-shaped stuff' Paulus ex Fest. 519, see below under ang-); ὄγκη ɣωνία Hes.;

Maybe from also lat. unguiculus -i m. `a finger or toe-nail', unguis -is m. `a finger or toe-nail; of animals, claw, hoof', ungula -ae f. `a hoof, claw, talon' : rum. unghie `nail' and in zero grade alb. (*unguiculus), glisht `finger, toe' [common alb. -s > -st shift].

lat. ancus `somebody having a crooked arm', ancrae `an enclosed valley, valley, gorge' (`curve, canyon, a bay; an inlet' as τό ἄγκος = germ. *angra-);

air. ēcath `fish hook' = cymr. anghad `clutch, hand' (to craf-anc `claw') from *aŋkato- = Old Church Slavic ǫkotь `hook';

gallorom. ancorago, ancora(v)us from *anko-rākos `Rhine salmon, hook salmon' schwd. Anke `Lake of Constance trout' (gall. *anko- `curved, hooky' and *rāko- `in front' from *prōko-, cymr. rhag `before');

ahd. ango, angul `fish hook, sting', aisl. angi, ags. onga `point, sting' (*aŋkón-; about got. halsagga `cervical bend, nape' see rather anĝh-); *angra (up to gender = lat. *ancrae) in anord. angr `bay, curve' (in local names like Harðangr),

Maybe zero grade alb. (*angul) ngul `jab, stick, hook'

ahd. angar, nhd. Anger (germ. VN Angrivarii); synonymous aisl. eng (*angiō-) `grassland, meadow'; ahd. awgul (= gr. ἀγκύ-λος, see above), mhd. angel `the part of a blade that is connected to the handle (of a sword) by a tang', anord. ǫngoll `fishhook', ags. ongel `a fishing-hook. Also, a rod and line'.

Maybe zero grade in alb. (*angelos) ngec, ngel `be stuck, be hooked' : (*angul) ngul `to jab, claw'.

Much puts here lat.-germ. VN Anglii, ags. Angel, Ongel as `resident of the Holsteiner bay' to aisl. PN Ǫngull, which did not cover meaning `angle, bay' (Hoops Reallex. I 61);

with original initial stress anord. ōll, āll `cotyledon, germ, bud' (*anhla-, Noreen Ltl. 25; to meaning compare except Old Indian aŋkurá-ḥ yet norw. dial. ange `germ, point, prong' from *ankón-), anord.ōl, āl f. `long strips, thongs, riems' (basic form *ánhulō, compare ἀγκύλη, or at most *anhlō, standing near gr. ἀγκάλη);

slav. jęčьmy `barley' as `thistly, thorny, spiky' (Berneker 268), compare the above words for `point, sting, cusp';

lit. anka f. `noose, snare, loop' (= gr. ὄγκη γωνία Hes.); Old Church Slavic ǫkotь `hook' (see above);

toch. A añcöl `bow, arch, curve', āṅkar- `fangs, bulwark'; also A oṅkalöm, В oṅkolmo `elephant'ö Van Windekens Lexique 6, 13, 82.

ang-, esp. to the name of extremities (compare got. liÞus `limb, member': *lei- `bend'):

Old Indian áŋgam `limb, member', aŋgúli-ḥ, aŋgúri-ḥ f. `finger, toe' (thereof aŋgulīyam `a finger-ring, a ring'), aŋguṣ̌ṭhá-ḥ `big toe, thumb' = av. angušta- m. `toe', arm. ankiun, angiun `angle' and añjalí-ḥ m. `two cupped hands held together';

gr. ἄγγος n. `Bucket, bowl', ἀγγεῖον (*αγγεσ-ιον) `vessel', eigentl. `twisted vessel';

mir. aigen `frying pan' is dial. additional form of *aingen ds.;

ahd. ancha, enka f. `neck' and `thigh, osseous tube, bone tube' (*ankiōn-), anord. ekkja `ankle, heel'; Demin. ahd. anchal, enchil (reinterpreted anklão m., anchala, enchila f., mhd. mnd. enkel, afries. onkel, onklēu, nhd. Enkel,

ags. (reinterpreted) ancléow, engl. ankle, anord. ǫkkla (*ankulan-) `ankle on the foot'; also lat. angulus (which is unrelated to Old Church Slavic ǫg(ъ)lъ `angle, nook') `m. a corner, angle; nook, esp. either a quiet corner, retired spot or fig., an awkward corner, strait' (besides with o- grade lat. ungulus, ungustus see above).

References: WP. I 60 f., WH. I 46, 49 f., Meringer WuS. 7, 9 ff.

Page(s): 45-47

Root / lemma: an-1 (*ḫ-an-)

English meaning: `male or female ancestor'

German meaning: `Bezeichnung för mönnlichen oder weiblichen Ahnen'

Note: babble-word

Root / lemma: an-1 (*ḫan-) : `male or female ancestor' derived from zero grade of Root / lemma: ĝen-1, ĝenǝ-, ĝnē-, ĝnō- : `to bear (mother, father)' [origin of the old laryngeal ĝ- > ḫ-]

Material: Arm. han `grandmother', gr. ἀννίς μητρὸς ἤ πατρός μήτηρ Hes., compare Inschr. ἀνώ; lat. anna f. `nursing mother';

illyr. EN ῎Ανα, ῎Αννύλα, Annaeus etc, as well as messap. illyr. ana = πότνια illyr. origin (W. Schulze KZ. 43, 276 = Kl. Schr. 214, Krahe IF. 46, 183 f.); compare furthermore lat. anus, -ūs `an old woman; also used like adj., old', also Anna -ae f. sister of Dido;'Anna Perenna', an Italian goddess.


Arm., gr. and illyr. have preserved old laryngeal ḫ-;

Illyr. and lat. display common -ila diminutive suffix, suggesting the same origin.

Maybe alb. tosk. aneja `mother', alb. anë `side, bloodline' similar to germ. Ahnenreihe `genealogy, line of descent from an ancestor', alb. anoj `to incline, like'.

Ahd. ano, mhd. ane, an, ene, nhd. Ahn `grandfather, great-grandfather, forefather'; ahd. ana, mhd. ane `grandmother, great-grandmother, ancestress'. diminutive formations are: altn. Āli (*anilo), ags. Anela, ahd. Anelo family names; mhd. enel `grandfather, grandson'.

Further ahd. eninchil, mhd. enichlīn, nhd. Enkel (`the young ancestor'). The grandson was looked by Indo Aryans as an effigy or substitute of the grandfather; compare gr. ᾽Αντίπατρος.

Against this represented view of W. Schulze KZ. 40, 409 f. = Kl. Schr. 67 f. endorsed Hermann, Nachr. d. Ges. d. Wiss. to Göttingen, Phil.-hist. Klasse 1918, 215 f., the bayr. enl, önl, österr. ǣnl, ānl etc the meaning `of grandfathers' and `grandson' carry and the one here with same occurance has to do like with nhd. Vetter (originally `of the father's brother', then also `of the brother's son'); the salutation is returned by the grandfather to the grandson. This older view is notable (compare the literature by Hermann aaO.).

Preuß. ane `old mother'; lit. anýta `mother-in-law'.

Hitt. an-na-aš `mother'; ḫaḫanḫnaḫaš (ḫannaš) `grandmother', lyk. χñ̃na ds.

Probably rightly puts M. E. Schmidt KZ. 47, 189 arm. aner `father of the woman' moreover. It is similar formation like in lat. matertera `mother's sister, maternal aunt', cymr. ewythr `uncle', acorn. euitor; bret. eontr (proto kelt. *aventro-, see Pedersen Kelt. Gr. I 55). *anero- had the original meaning `anything like the forefather'.

It is unsafe ahd. hevianna from which reshuffled mhd. hebamme. Because ahd.*anna `woman' is not to be covered, Kluge11 238 origin from *hafjan (d) j ō accepts `the lifting' from which the later close interpretations have originated. However, compare PBB. 30, 250.

References: WP. I 55 f., WH. I 50, Pedersen Lyk. under Hitt. 26, 66.

Page(s): 36-37

Root / lemma: an-2

English meaning: there, on the other side

German meaning: Demonstrativpartikel `dort, andererseits'

Material: Gr. ἄν `probably, possibly, in any other trap' (ἐάν from εἰ ἄν, ion. ἤν from *ἠ ἄν, ἄν from αἰ ἄν); lat. an `conj.: in direct questions, or; in indirect questions, or whether', secondarily interrogative particle, extended anne, air. anḫd `here', got. an `then, now'; lit. an-gu `or', Old Prussian anga-anga `whether = or whether'.

maybe alb. (*ane) andej `there' : air. anḫd `here' [rather common alb. shift n > nd].

Thereof derived:

ani̯os `other' in:

Old Indian anyá- `other', av. anya-, ainya-, Old pers. aniya- ds. compare above S. 26.

anteros `other' (from second) in:

maybe zero grade in alb. (*anteros) ndërroj `change, alter', ndërresë `change, the other thing';

Old Indian ántara-, oss. öndör `other', got. anÞar ds., aisl. annarr `other, second', ahd. andar, ags. ōÞer `other', Old Prussian anters, antars (*antras) `other, second', lit. añtras, lett. ùotrs beside lit. añtaras, ostlett. ũtors ds., slav. *ǫterъ, *ǫtorъ in čech. úterý m. `Tuesday', osorb. wutory `other, second'. About Old Church Slavic vъtor-ъ `second' s. u̯i- `asunder, apart'.


It seems Root / lemma: an-2 : `there, on the other side' is a zero grade of the extended Root / lemma: al-1, ol- : `besides; other' into *alny-, *any-.

Maybe zero grade in alb. (*nyátra) tjetër `other' [common alb. n > nt > t phonetic mutation] : Old Indian anyátra `somewhere else'.

Perhaps alb. dial. (*anter) jatër, jetër, alb. [ attribute `of' + anter], tjetër `other, second'; similar to formation in alb. geg. (*të mel = of milk) tamli `milk' where të is the alb. attribute particle. Initial alb. j- seems to have substituted the old laryngeal form -.

References: WP. I 56, 67, II 337, WH. I 44, Trautmann 10/11, Debrunner REtlE. 3, 1 ff.

Page(s): 37-38

Root / lemma: an4, anu, anō, nō

English meaning: a preposition ("along a slanted surface, etc.")

German meaning: under likewise, Pröposition, etwa `an einer schrögen Flöche hin, hinan'

Note: (compare the summary by Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 798 f., also about the syntactic).

Material: Av. ana, Old pers. anā (urar. *ana or *anā) `about there' (m. Akk. or Instr.), `along, on' (m. Akk.), av. anu, Old pers. anuv `after, according to; up there' (m. Akk.), `lengthwise, along' (m. Lok.), also preverb;

maybe alb. anës `along'

Old Indian ánu `after (timewise m. Akk., Аbl., Gen.), after (order), after there, along, behind, according to, with regard to, against' (m. Akk.), Adv. `on it (auslaut-u appears to be comparable in lesb. thess. ἀπύ beside att. ἄπό. Against Wackernagels explanation from idg. *enu `along, according to' see WH. I 677; to-u see under apḫu); arm. am- in amḫbaṙnam ham-barnam `I raise, uplift', ham-berem `I endure' maybe from -an (the h by mixture with a borrowed sound from the Pers. ham- `together';

ion.-att. ἄνα, ανά `on, upwards, along', dor. böot. ark. kypr. ἀν, lesb. thess. ark., z. Part kypr. ὀν, isolates ark. kypr. ὐν (from ὀν) ds. (the monosyllabic form appears the original and to be extended ἀνά only after κατά; compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 622; it is likely according to Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 275 ὀν originated from ἀν; Adv. ἄνω `upward, up';

A lat. remainder appears an-hēlō `breathes strongly and with difficulty' (an + *anslō); umbr. an-, (with en `in' become synonymous and with it alternately, hence, en-tentu beside:) an-tentu `intendito', anseriato `observatum', anglar `oscines' (*anḫklā to clamo) etc

Maybe here air. an-dess `from the south' etc;

got. ana (m. dat. mid Akk.) `on, in, against, because of, about', anord. ā Adv. and preposition m. dat. and Akk. `on, in', m. dat. `on, in, up, by', m. Akk. `after, up, on, against', as. an, ags. on, ahd. aua, an, nhd. an (*ana or *anō, *anē) preposition m. dat. and Akk. and Instr. `on, up, in, to, against';

maybe zero grade in alb. (*ana) `on, in'.

lit. anóte, anót m. Gen. `accordingly, according to'; about the first on proto slav. *on going back to slav. slav. vъ(n)- `in, on' see Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 828 and *en `in'.

With zero grade of the first syllable, thus initial sound n:

lit. nuõ m. Gen. `from down, from away' (these where from meaning only from the connection with the ablative originated anew), as a Nominal pröf. nuo-, as a Verbal pröf. nu- (proklit. abbreviation as in pri- beside priẽ), let. nùo m. Gen. `from', as prefix nuo-;

Old Prussian no, na m. Akk. `on (where), against, about there', as prefix `after; from away' (see also BezzenbergerKZ. 44, 304); Old Church Slavic na m. Akk. and Lok. `on there; up, on, in' (in addition after prě : prě-dъ neologism na-dъ `upside, above, about' m. Akk. and Instr. and preverb); Old Indian nā- perhaps in nādhitá `pressed', see below nā- `help'.

Here presumably lit. -na, -n `in (direction where)', postal position with verbs of the movement, av. na-zdyah-, Old Indian nḗdīyas- `closer'(' *moved near'); root sed- `sit'; presumably similarly got. nēƕ, ahd. nāh Adv. `near' as `looking near, turned near' (with root oq ʷ- as 2nd part); see Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 798 f., where also about the ambiguous Old Indian ádhi `about, on', ap. adiy `in' (*-n̥dhi or *edhi, *odhiö).

maybe alb. (*nāh) nga `from' [common alb. n > ng shift]

About got. anaks adv. `suddenly, straight away', supposedly to abg. naglъ `suddenly, abruptly' (ö), s. Feist 42.

References: WP. I 58 f., WH. I 43 f., 49, 677, Feist 41 a, 373, Trautmann 200.

Page(s): 39-40

Root / lemma: anǝtā (enǝtā)

English meaning: door posts

German meaning: `Törpfosten'

Material: Old Indian ātā (usually PL ātāḥ as lat. antae) `Umfassung, Rahmen a door', av. ąiϑyā̊ Akk. Pl. `doorposts', arm. dr-and `doorpost' (Höbschmann Arm.Stud. I 19); lat. antae after Vitruv 3, 2, 2 `die frei endigenden and vornetwas verstörkten Wönde, die den Pronaos eines Tempels or die Prostaseines Hauses einschließen' = anord. ǫnd `Vorzimmer' (Bugge KZ. 19, 401).

References: WP. I 59, WH. I 52.

Page(s): 42

Root / lemma: ansā, ansi-

English meaning: noose, snare

German meaning: `Schlinge, Schleife', partly as Handhabe von Gefößen (Henkel) oder as dem Zugvieh umgelegter Zögel

Material: Lat. ānsa `clutch, handle, a handle; (hence), occasion, opportunity', ānsae crepidae `the eyelets on the straps of the shoe soles through which the shoelaces were pulled' = lit. ąsà f. (Akk. ą̃są) `pot handle, loop with the knot apron' (compare also lat. ansātus = lit. ąsótas `(furnished with or having a handle) with a handle'), lett. uosa `handle, loop, eyelet', next to which i-stem аpr. ansis `hook, pot hanger, kettle hanger', lett. ùoss (Akk. ùosi) `handle';

Maybe alb. (*ues) vesh `handle, ear'

aisl. ǣs f. (*ansjō) `hole in the upper edge of the shoe leather for pulling through of the straps' = mnd. ȫse f. `ring-shaped handle, loop' (out of it spötmhd. nhd. Öse; or wgerm. word to Ohr according to Kluge and Weigand-Hirt s. v.ö); mir. ē(i)si Pl. `rein', gr. ἡνία, dor. ᾱνία ds. (*ἀvσιᾱ).

Maybe truncated alb. (*enha) ena `pot (*pot handle)' [common alb. -s- > -h- phonetic mutation].

References: WP. I 68, WH. I 51, Trautmann 10.

Page(s): 48

Root / lemma: ansu-, n̥su-

English meaning: ghost, demon

German meaning: `Geist, Dömon'

Material: Old Indian ásu-, av. aŋhu- `breath of life, world', therefrom Old Indian ásu-ra-, av. ahura- `ruler, lord' (*n̥su-); ven. ahsu- (= āsu-) `cult effigy, cult figure' = germ. *ansuz `god, ace' in aisl. āss, run. a[n]suR, ags. ōs `ace', got.-lat. anses `demigods'.

References: H. Göntert Der ar. Weltkönig 102, Feist 52 b.

See also: Perhaps to an(ǝ)- `breathe'.

Page(s): 48

Root / lemma: ans-

English meaning: favourable

German meaning: `wohlgeneigt, gönstig sein'

Material: Got. ansts f., ahd. anst and (zero grade) unst, mhd. gunst from *geḫunst, ags. ēst `favour, mercy', anord. ōst, ǭst `favour, love', ahd. abanst, abunst, as. avunst, ags. æfest `distrust, resentment, disfavor'; mhd. gund m. `favour', anord. ǫf-and f. `disfavor';

preterit present ahd. an, unnum (Inf. unnan, preterit onsta, onda) `grant' (gi-unnan), as. ags. unnan `grant, concede, wish', anord. unna (ann, unnom, preterit unnan from *unÞa) `love, grant, concede'. un-nu-m (from *unzḫnuḫm-) is an old present the neu-, nu- class, wherefore the new Sg. ann.

Which root beginning as germ. an-, un-, has in ansts the suffix compound -sḫti- to see (see Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 437), while mhd. gund, an. ǫfund the easier one contained -ti-.

However, is because of gemeingerm. *anst(s) root probably as germ. ans-, uns- to begin (Kluge ZfdtWtf. 9, 317, Brugmann Grdr. II2 3, 332), unnum consequently originated from *unz-num (idg. *n̥s-nu-me), whereupon then Sg. ann, and new weak preterit *un-Þa (ahd. onda, anord. unna) beside ahd. onsta, as. gi-onsta; then also mhd. gund, anord. ǫfund (suffix-ti-) new creations have become after s- part to unnum, unnan.

Also gr. προσ-ηνής'friendly', ἀπ-ηνής `unkind, hard' (: ab-unst) is the most likely = *προσ-, ἀπ-ανσής (see Brugmann aaO.).

In divergent formal judgement Bechtel Lexil covers. 49 gr. - ᾱνής on neutr. Subst. *ănos whose suffixale zero grade lies as a basis germ. *anḫsḫti-.

References: WP. I 68, Feist 53.

Page(s): 47

Root / lemma: antro-m

English meaning: cave, hole

German meaning: `Höhle, Luftloch'

Material: Arm. ayr, Gen. Pl. ayric `cave, hole', gr. ἄντρον ds.

References: WP. I 561, Schwyzer Mel. Boisacq II 2341, KZ. 68, 222, Gr. Gr. I 532, Pisani KZ. 68, 161 f.

See also: Perhaps to an(ǝ)-`atmen', as originally `Luftloch'.

Page(s): 50

Root / lemma: ant-s

English meaning: forward, before, outer side

German meaning: `Vorderseite, Stirn'

Material: Old Indian ánta-ḥ `end, border, edge' (therefrom antya-ḥ `the last');

Alb. (*ánta) ana `side, end'.

gr. Gen. Sg. κάταντες (= κατ' ἀντες) `down the forefront', Dat.-Lok. ἀντί (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 5486, 6225), Akk. εἰσ-άντα `in the face' (*antḫṃ), ἔν-αντα, ἄν-αντα, κάτ-αντα etc (W. Schulze, Kl. Schr. 669, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 632under), adverbal ἄντα `towards, opposite', thereafter ἀντάω `meets'; about ἄντομαι see Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 722 under.; about ἄντην s. Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 687;

air. étan (*antono-) `forehead'; perhaps here mcymr. enhyt, cymr. ennyd `time, moment' (*antḫiti- to Old Indian ití- `gait, way'), mcymr. anhaw `old' (*ant-au̯o-), nir. éata `old; age' (*ant-odi̯o-ö), compare Loth Rc. 48, 32; 50, 63;

hitt. ḫa-an-za (ḫant-s) `forefront', therefrom ḫa-an-te-iz-zi-iš (ḫantezziš)= *ant-eti̯os;

lyk. χñtawata `leader' (Pedersen Lyk. under Hitt. 17);

toch. A antule `outside, to ... before', antus `also'.

see also under anti̯os.

In addition as pristine cases:

anti'in the face of'> `towards, opposite, against', etc.

Old Indian anti Adv. `opposite itself, before itself, near', from what antiká-ḥ `near', n. `nearness'.

Arm. and `there', ǝnd preposition `for, instead of' m. Gen. and `along, about (in, on) somewhere there' m. Akk. (compare got. and), in meaning'aside' m. Abl. and `with, by' m. Lok. (which has dwindled vowel in the final sound is not determinable; anl. ǝ- from a-), as preverb'on'; in addition andranik `firstborn, the first (earliest)' (Bugge KZ. 32, 2; compare to meaning lat. ante `before, of place or time' and the above mentioned words for'forehead' as a'front'), probably also anc̣anem `to go past' (Pedersen KZ. 39, 425, compare gr. ἄντομαι; from t + the aoristic s, compare the Aor. ē-anc̣).

Maybe alb. andej `there, in the other side, opposite'.

Gr. ἀντί `in view of, towards, opposite, before; for, instead of' m. Gen., also preverb, e.g. ἀνθίστημι; hom. κατ' ἄντηστιν `in the opposite point of view, against' is fine to Bechtel Lexil. 46 from *ἄντι-στι-ς reshuffled after ἄντην ἵστημι; ἀντικρύ, att. ἄντικρυς `almost, against' (ambiguous ending), ἀντιάω, ἀντιάζω `meets'.

Lat. ante (from *anti, compare antistō, as well as antīcus, antiquus) preposition m. Akk. spatially `against, before', timewise `before', also preverb (e.g. antecedō), antid-eā, -hāc `before', antid-īre `'lead the way' (-d after prōd); in addition anterior `earlier', antārium bellum `war before the town', antīcus `the front' (c after posticus `behind'), antīquus `old' (the ending and the contraction in temporal meaning after novus; idg. *anti +*okʷ- `looking'), antēs, -ium `rows or ranks (from soldiers, vines)', originally possibly `fronts' (about antae see, however, under *anǝtā `door post').

Hitt. ḫa-an-ti (ḫanti) `in front, esp., in particular'.

anta `against there' (direction); to -a see Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 622 f.

Got. and preposition m. Akk. `up there, about there, along'. With therefrom more divergently meaning the nominal prefix and verbal prefix germ. anda-, and `against, opposite', also in verbs normally `from - away': got. anda-, and (e.g. andniman `accept', andanēms `agreeable, pleasant', andbindan `unbind, untie, be confined'), anord. as. ags. and, ahd. ant-, int-, mhd. nhd. ant-, (e.g.Antlitz, Antwort, entbinden).

compounds anord. endr, enn `earlier, formerly, again, after' (endr = got. andiz-uh `either'), ags. end `before' (*andis), ahd. enti `earlier, yore' (germ. *andiaz), mhd. ent, end Konj. `previous, before' (e.g. Falk-Torp 192, 1455).

Lit. añt, older anta m. Gen. `after-there, up, on'.

About gr. ἄντα see above.


A weaker ablaut form (*n̥t-) shows got. and m. dat. `ἀντί, for, around', unÞa- (*n̥to-) in unÞa-Þliuhan `escape', ags. ođ- (*unÞ-) in ođgangan `escape', ūđgenge `fleeting' = anord. unningi, undingi (*unÞ-, *andḫgangia-) `escaped slave' (Brugmann Grdr. II2, 803).

Other meaning points got. and m. Akk. `until, to', ahd. unt in unt-az `until, to' and unzi (= untzi) `until, to', as. and `until, to', unti, unt (and + te `to'), unto (and + ), engl. unto `to, until', anord. unz (and es) `until, till that', ags. (with grammatical change) `in addition, besides, until, to', osk. ant m. Akk. `up to'' (likewise from *n̥ti, see Walde Kelten and Italiker 54; because of germ. and not to place exactly attuning meaning = lat. ante `before', e.g. v. Planta II 443), lit. iñt `after' (rather contamination from in and ant).

The fact that these forms show an extension preposition *en, *n̥ `in' (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 629 f., where also about gr. dial. ἔντε), is possible as then lit. iñt with į̃ `after' corresponds in the application. However, could be of this one additional use adjustment as a result of the sound resemblance and idg. *n̥t (-i, -aö) `until, to' belong as `up against there, on the opposite side over' to anti; also the words for the `end' (see below) are originally the purpose waving on the opposite side, and with as. unt is also ant (and + te) preposition m. Akk. `wholly, completely' synonymous what, even if only new intersection are from unt with and-, however, the concept relationship of both explained.

anti̯os `against, recumbent before' (formed from the adverb anti):

*anti̯ó- (germ. *andja-) in got. andeis, anord. endir, as. endi, ags. ende m., ahd.anti, enti m. and n., nhd. Ende; also gr. ἀντίος `against' (in addition ἐναντίον ds., ἐναντίος `situated against; opponent') probably goes back (compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr.I 379) to *ἀντιός.

Against it is from *anto- (see above) derived ánti̯o- in anord. enni n., ahd. andi, endi n. `forehead' = lat. antiae `the hair growing upon the forehead, forelock'.

A quite different word is nhd. and, ahd. unti, anti, enti under likewise, as. endi, ags. engl. and `and', anord. en(n) `and, but', with Old Indian áthā̆ `thereupon, thereon, then, ditto', av. aϑā̆ `also', osk. ant m. Akk. `usque ad', lit. iñt m. Akk. `after' (however, see above), toch. В entwe `also' belongs to *en, n̥ `in'.

Also alb. in (*ende) edhe `and, also', zero grade (*ende) dhe `and, but'.

References: WP. I. 65 ff., WH. I 53 f., Feist 46, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 619, 621, 629 f., 632 f., 722, 726, II (B V 2 b d 3).

Page(s): 48-50

Root / lemma: apelo-

English meaning: strength

German meaning: `Kraft'

Material: Gr. ἀν-απελάσας ἀναρρωσθείς Hes., ion. εὐηπελής `strong', hom. ὀλιγηπελίη `swoon, ion. ἀνηπελίη ἀσθένεια Hes., Elis: MN Tευτί-απλος (after Prellwitz BB. 24, 214 ff., Kretschmer Gl. 18, 205 here ᾽Απέλλων, ᾽Απόλλων, with vocal gradation thess. ῎Απλουν; after Sommer IF. 55, 1762 rather pregreek); ill. MN Mag-aplinus, Aplus, Aplo, Aplis, -inis, FN Aplo, -onis; gall. VN Dī-ablintes `the powerless, the weak' (from *-aplentes); germ. GN Matronis Aflims, Afliabus `effective magic', aisl. afi n., ags. afol, abal n. `strength'.


The Root / lemma: apelo- : `strength' seems related to Root / lemma: abhro- : `strong, mighty' [the shift l > r].

References: WP. I 176, Feist la, Kretschmer Gl. 24, 250.

Page(s): 52

Root / lemma: ap-1 (proper ǝp-) : ēp-

English meaning: to take, grab, reach

German meaning: `fassen, nehmen, erreichen'


From the reduced Root / lemma: ghabh- : `to grab, take', derived Root / lemma: ap-1 (exact ǝp-) : ēp- : `to take, grab, reach, *give' > Root / lemma: ēpi- : `comrade' > Root / lemma: ai-3 : `to give'.

Maybe alb. tosk. (*ḫeḫipḫmi) ep, jap, geg. nep (*na `us' + ep `give') `give us (*take)' : hitt. eḫipḫmi (ē̆pmi) `take', 3. Pl. ap-pa-an-zi (apanzi) : gr. ἅπτω `give a hand.

Material: Old Indian āpnṓti `achieved, attained', more recently āptá-ḥ `clever, suitable, trusted'; av. apayeiti `achieved, reached', 3. Pl. āpǝnte from *āpu̯antai;

arm. unim `own' (*ōpḫn-ö), ǝnd-unim `attain';

gr. ἅπτω `give a hand, attach, pick a quarrel, light, kindle', ἅπτεσθαι `touch', ἁφή `touch, adherence etc. `will be delievered in spite of the spirit here. Kretschmer Gl. 7, 352 assumes influencing by ἕπω an; hom. ἀφάω (ἁφάω) `touch, palpate, feel, finger', ion. ἀφάσσω ds., common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation;

hom. ἀπαφίσκω, ἤπαφον (with öol. o: ἀποφεῖν ἀπατῆσαι Hes.) `cheat, barter, exchange', ἀποφώλιος `phantasmic, delusive, fallacious', κατηφής `low-spirited' (eigentl. `got down').

Pedersen KZ. 39, 428 puts with gr. ἅπτω arm. ap``the hollow hand' (o-stem, however, Lok. yḫap`i as -i-stem, thus probably older neutr. -os-stem) together, which word should correspond to gr. ἅψος `joint, hinge'; because of p`(= idg. ph) nevertheless, uncertain (compare Meillet BSL. 36, 110);

lat. apīscor `touch, reach, attain, come to, come by', adipīscor `to come up to, overtake; hence to obtain. Perf. partic. adeptus, used passively, = obtained', coēpi `has begun, commenced', later coepī.

The connection with lat. *apiō, *apere `to bind together, unite, joint, connect, link, tie round' (imper. ape `hinder, prevent, restrain'), aptus `as partic. fitted, fastened, connected. Transf., depending on; also prepared, fitted out; fitted up with, equipped with, with abl. (2) as adj. suitable, appropriate, fitting. Adv. apte', cōpula (co-apula) `a link, bond, tie, connection; a rope, a leash; plur. grapnels' is probably certain. Maybe is derived from a common primary meaning `touch, summarize'.

Also lat. apud `at, near, by, with, in' will be best of all suit here. The primary meaning would be `in close connection' (compare juxtā). One has derived from the part. Perf. neutr. *apu̯od (from *apu̯ot `having reached'). Additional form apor, apur (mars.-lat. apur finem) points on originally-d;

lat. apex, -icis `cusp', esp. `the top of the conical cap of the Roman'flamines', or the cap itself; hence any crown, tiara, helmet; fig., highest honor, crown; gram., the long mark over a vowel', maybe belongs to *apiō; compare also EM. 60;

toch. A oppöc̨c̨i `clever' (Van Windekens Lexique 82);

hitt. eḫipḫmi (ē̆pmi) `takes', 3. Pl. ap-pa-an-zi (apanzi).


The original root was Root / lemma: ap-1 (exact ǝp-) : ēp- : `to take, grab, reach, *give' > Root / lemma: ēpi- : `comrade' > Root / lemma: ai-3 : `to give'.

Maybe alb. tosk. (*eḫipḫmi) ep, jap, geg. nep (*na ep) `give us (*take)' : hitt. eḫipḫmi (ē̆pmi) `take', 3. Pl. ap-pa-an-zi (apanzi) : gr. ἅπτω `give a hand. [see above]

About Old Indian āpíḫḥ `friend', gr. ἤπιoς `friendly' see below ēpi-.

References: WP. I 45 f., WH. I 57 f., 60, 847, Pedersen Hitt. 128, Couvreur H̯ 93.

Page(s): 50-51

Root / lemma: ap-3, āp-

English meaning: old; damage

German meaning: `gebrechlich; Schaden'

Material: Old Indian apvā́ `illness, failure', av. (from an -es-stem) afša- m. `damage, evil'; lit. opū́s `weak, sore, frail' (Charpentier KZ. 40, 442 f.), presumably gr. ἠπεδανός `frail, weak' (Bezzenberger BB. 1, 164; to the ending see Risch 98; differently Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 530).

References: WP. I 47, Specht Dekl. 345.

Page(s): 52

Root / lemma: apo- (pō̆, ap-u, pu)

English meaning: from, out, of

German meaning: `ab, weg'

Material: Old Indian ápa `off, away, back' as adnominal Рröp. m. Abl. `away from', av. ap. apa `away from'; about privatives *ap- in Iran, and Gr. see Schwyzer ZII. 6, 230 ff.; gr. ἄπο, ἀπό m. Gen. (= *ablative) `away from, ex, from'; maked. ἀπ-, ἀβ-;

alb. prapë `again, back' (*per-apë); lat. ab m. Аbl., `prep. with abl. (1) of motion or measurement in space, from, away from. (2) of time, from, after. (3) of separation, difference, change, from ; so of position or number, counting from ; and of the relation of part to whole, out of, of. (4) of origin and agency; esp. with passive verbs, by, at the hands of, because of. (5) viewed from, on the side of :'a tergo', in the rear; hence in connection with, as regards' (before voiced consonant from ap, still in aperiō from *ap-u̯eri̯ō; perhaps also in aprīcus, s. WH. I 59; about lat. af s. just there 1; abs = gr. ἄψ `back, again'; out of it as- before p-, as-portō; ā before voiced consonants), umbr. ap-ehtre `from without, from the outside; on the outside, outwardly' (about other, unsafe osk.-umbr. Belege s. v. Planta I 209, 426, II 454 f.);

got. af prefix and preposition m. dat. `from, away from, from here', anord. af Adv. and preposition m. dat., ags. æf, of, as. af, ahd. aba, ab- `from, away from', nhd. ab-.

compare also lit. apačià `the lower part' (as `turned away part', *apoti̯ā, to Old Indian ápatya- n. `progeny' and hitt. ap-pé-iz-zi-ia-aš (appezii̯as) `back'.

As kelt. derivatives are taken up from *apo acymr. ncymr. o `ex-, from, of', a.-mcorn., a.-nbret. a ds. However, comes for this poor in sound brit. form rather affiliation to air. ō, ua in consideration (Thurneysen Gr. 524), so that of all Brit. it remains quite unsafe.

In hett. a-ap-pa (apa) `behind, back' (compare gr. ἀπο-δίδωμι `give back, return') have maybe collapsed idg. apo and epi (Pedersen Hitt. 188, Couvreur H̯ 94 f., Lohmann IF. 51, 324 f.).

Derivatives: apо-tero-, ap-ero-, ap-i̯o-, ap-ōko- and above apoti̯ā, apeti̯o-.

Old Indian apataram Adv. `farther away', ap. apataram Adv. `apart, somewhere else', gr. ἀπωτέρω `farther distant' (ἀπωτάτω `very far away'); maybe got. aftarō `from the back, backward', aftuma, aftumists `the last', ags. æftemest ds. and got. aftra `back, again', ahd. as. aftar Adv. `behind, after' and Рröp. m. Dat. `after, behind, according to', ags. æfter ds., anord. eptir Adv. and Рröp. m. Dat. and Akk. `after', aptr Adv. `back, backward'.

For this germ. However, words relationship also stands with gr. ὄπιθεν, idg. *epi, *opi to the consideration (Schulze KZ. 40, 414 Anm. 3), compare still got. afta `behind', ags. æft `behind, later', got. aftana `from the back', anord. aptan, ags. æftan, as. aftan, mhd. aften `afterwards'.

Old Indian ápara- `back, later, following, other', Adv. -ám `after, later', av. ap. apara- `back, later, following', Adv. -ǝm, -am, Sup. Old Indian apamá-, av. apǝma- `the one farthest away, the most distant, the last';

got. afar Adv. and preposition with dat. and Akk. `after, afterward', ahd. avar, abur (latter from *apuḫróḫm, as anord. aur- `bottom, lower, nether, back' in compound, see Falk-Torp, 11 f.) `again, once more, against it' (nhd. aber), anord. afar `esp., very much' (compare to meaning Old Indian ápara- also `outlandish, peculiar, extreme, extraordinary', Lidén Stud. 74 ff.; ags. eafora, as. aƀaro `descendant'). see still *āpero- `shore'.

maybe alb. (*apar) parë `first, top', afër `*away, close', afërm `relative, descendant', (*āper-) prej `from'.

Gr. ἄπιος `remote, far' (probably also anord. efja f. `bay in a river in which the current runs back', ags. ebba m. `low tide', as. ebbia f., mndd. ebbe, where borrows from nhd. Ebbe, as `ebb, the outward movement of the tide; the return of tidewater towards the sea').

Old Indian ápāka- `recumbent apart, distant, coming from the front', arm. haka- as 1. composition part `against', hakem `piegare ad una parte, inclinare', Old Church Slavic opaky `again', Church Slavic opako, opaky, opače `back, inverted', in which, admittedly, forms can be partly also related to *opi, gr. ὄπιθεν (compare lat. opācus `shaded, shady; dark, shadowy, obscure' = `turned away from the sun';

Literary formation by (Brugmann Grdr. II2 1, 482). Besides anord. ǫfugr `after, turned backward', as. aƀuh, avuh, ahd. abuh, abah `turned away, inverted, wicked' (nhd. öbig, öbicht), ags. *afoc in engl. awkward, from *apu-ko-s (or from *opu-ko-s : ὄπιθεν, so that in the ablaut to got. ibuks `being on the decline', ahd. ippihhōn `roll back'ö Johansson PBrB. 15, 230, in the consonant relegating to πυ-γή, see also Falk-Torp under avet).


av. pa-zdayeiti `let to move away, scare off'; lat. po-situs, pōnō `to put down, set down, put, place, set, fix, lay, deposit' from *po-s[i]nō, po-liō, po-lūbrum, pōrcet `to keep off, keep back, to hinder, restrain' from *poḫarcet; alb. pa m. Akk. `without', pa- `un-' (Gl. Meyer Alb. Wb. 317); afries. fån `from, of', as. fana, fan, ahd. fona, fon m. Dat. (= *Abl.) `from, of' (ahd. -o- is after Persson IF. 2, 215 to derive from idg. *pu beside *po).

A similar form pursues Trautmann Old Prussian 389 in Old Prussian pan-s-dau `thereafter'. Is totally unsafe whether arm. oɫork `polished, slippery, smooth' contains according to Lidén Arm. stem 60 ff. o- from *po-.

Maybe suffixed alb. pas `behind, back' pastaj `later, thereafter'.

Against it here in spite of often divergent meaning (Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 808 considers absorption from idg. *upo, and for sl. po in meaning `behind, after' m. Lok. probably properly origin from *pos): Old Church Slavic po `after, in, with, about a little bit there' (lit. with Gen. under dat. `after', with Instr. `under'), as essential only more perfective verbal prefixes lit. pa-, Old Church Slavic po- (as nominal prefix Old Church Slavic pa-, lit. pa and pó-, compare e.g. Old Church Slavic pamьněti `remember', pamętь `memory');

Old Prussian pa- essential in nominal, pō- in verbal compound, compare Trautmann 203, Meillet Slave comm.2 505.

About slav. poḫdъ `below, under' see Brugmann Grdr. II2 2, 733 f. - S. still idg. *po-ti and *po-s.

Maybe alb. (*po-s) poshtë `below, under' from the same root as slav. languages slav. poḫdъ `below, under' from Root / lemma: apo- (pō̆, ap-u, pu): (from, out, of) not from Root / lemma: pē̆d-2, pō̆d- : (foot, *genitalia).

ap-u stands beside *apo (Lit. see below *pu) in ark. kypr. lesb. thess. ἀπύ, in ahd. abo = aba, anord. au-virđi n. `contemptuous person' (Falk-Torp 11 f.), compare also above *apuḫro- beside *apero-, *apuḫko-, and *pu beside *po. That -u maybe enklit. Particle `and, also' (Feist Зa, 508a, WH. I 87). compare also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 182.

pu (see оbove *apu) mostly in meaning (`turned away' =) `behind, back':

ahd. fona (see above), Old Indian punar `again back', gr. πύματος `the last'; quite uncertain lat. puppis `the poop or stern of a vessel; poet. the whole ship'.

maybe alb. pupa `the poop or stern of a vessel' : poln. pupa `bottom'.

References: WP. I 47 ff., WH. I If., 842, Feist За, Trautmann 11.

Page(s): 53-55

Root / lemma: appa

English meaning: father

German meaning: `Vater'; Lallwort

Material: compare gr. ἄππα, ἀπφά, ἄπφα, ἀπφῦς (Theokrit) `dad'; toch. В appakke `father' (this -(a)kke from ammakki `Mutter').

References: WP. I 47.

See also: compare also pap(p)a.

Page(s): 52

Root / lemma: apsā

English meaning: asp

German meaning: `Espe'

Material: Ahd. aspa, nhd. Espe, ags. æspe, anord. ǫsp f. ds., lett. apse (from *apuse), Old Prussian abse ds., nordlit. apušìs f., lit. apušė̃, epušė̃ f. `aspen, trembling poplar' (after Bezzenberger BB. 23, 298 supposedly free diminutive-formation from *apsā), russ. osína (*opsīna) `aspen', poln. osa, osika, osina `aspen'.

The fact that in this aspen name the sound result -ps-, is not the original -sp-, confirm among others törk.-osm. apsak `poplar', tschuw. ėwës `aspen' as a loanword from the proto Armenian to Pedersen KZ. 30, 462. Specht places because of gr. gr. ἀπελλόν αἴγειρος, ὅ ἐστι εἰ̃δος δένδρον Hes. a root noun ap- .

References: WP. I 50, Specht Dekl. 60.

Page(s): 55

Root / lemma: ar 4 (er, orö), r̥

English meaning: now, also, interrogative particle

German meaning: etwa `nun, also', also as Fragepartikel

Material: Gr. ἄρα, ἄρ, ῥα (from ) `now, thus, consequently', kypr. ερ, ἀ̃ρα interrogative particle (*ἦ ἄρα; γάρ, maybe from γ' ἄρ); likewise zero grade lit. ir̃ `and, also', lett. ir `also', Old Prussian ir `and, also' (= gr. ῥα, zero grade lit. ar̃, lett. ar as an introduction of an interrogative sentence, alit. also er with the same balt. vacillate from a- and e- as between lett. ar `with, in' and Old Prussian er `to'; toch. В ra- emphat. particle.

References: WP. I 77, Trautmann 12, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 342, 622.

Page(s): 62

Root / lemma: ardh-

English meaning: pole

German meaning: `Stange'ö

Material: arm. ardn `lance, spear': lit. ar̃das m. `pole scaffold for drying flax', old ardamas `a (light) pole or spar, a sprit, which crosses the sail diagonally (and serves to make it taut)' (see to meaning Bezzenberger GGA. 1885, 920)'ö Petersson KZ. 47, 245 (the lit. words not better according to Leskien Abl. 329 to ardýti `split, distinguish', see under er- `rare, loose, crumbly').

References: WP. I 84.

Page(s): 63

Root / lemma: ardi-, r̥di-

English meaning: point, edge

German meaning: `Spitze, Stachel'

Material: Old Indian ali `bee, scorpion' (from *aḍi, idg. *r̥di) = gr. ἄρδις `head of the arrow, sting'; air. aird (*ardi-) `sharp, peak, point of the compass', anord. erta (*artjan) `stir up, stimulate, tease' (another interpretation from erta under er-, er-d- `set in motion').

References: WP. I 83 f., Löders Schriften 429.

Page(s): 63

Root / lemma: areg-

English meaning: to lock

German meaning: `verschließen'

Material: Old Indian argalaḫḥ, argalā `latch, bolt', maked. ἄργελλα `bathing hut, bath hut', from which borrows alb. ragál f. `cottage, hut'; kimmer. ἄργιλλα (*argḫelḫi̯ā) `subterranean dwelling'; as. racud, ags. reced m. `building, house'.

References: WP. I 81, WH. I 63, Jokl IF. 44, 22.

See also: compare *areq- `schötzen, verschließen'.

Page(s): 64

Root / lemma: ar(e)-ĝ- (arĝ-ö), r̥ĝi- (*her-(e)-ĝ-)

English meaning: glittering, white, fast

German meaning: `glönzend, weißlich'


Old Indian r̥ji-pyá `darting along' epithet of the bird śyená- (`eagle, falcon'), Av. ǝrǝziḫfya- (cf. gr. ἄρξιφος ἀετὸς παρὰ Πέρσαις H., αἰγίποψ), arm. arcui (< *arciḫwi) `eagle' prove that from Root / lemma: er-1, or- : `eagle, *fast' derived extended Root / lemma: ar(e)-ĝ- (arĝ-ö), r̥ĝi- : `glittering, white, fast' and its subsequent zero grade Root / lemma: reĝ-1 : `right, just, to make right; king'.

Material: Old Indian árjuḫnaḫḥ `bright, white'; rajatá- `whitish', rajatám híraṇyam `whitish gold, i.e. silver', rajatám `silver' with flashy, in spite of Osthoff MU. VI 33 not from zero grade (or likewise) deducible vocalism compared with av. ǝrǝzata- n., Old pers. ardata- `silver' (-) : TN illyr. Ardiaei common alb. - illyr. -ĝ- > -d- phonetic mutation.

lat. argentum, osk. aragetud `silver', air. arggat, mir. airget, cymr. arian(t), corn. mbret. argant, nbret. arc'hant `silver', gall. PN Arganto-magus; arcanto-dan .. `coin minter, mint-master, the master or superintendent of a mint',

Maybe alb. (*argento) argjend `silver'.

arm. arcat``silver', toch. A ārkyant N. Pl. f.; with other formation gr. ἄργυρος `silver' (in spite of these equations the knowledge of the silver for the primeval times stands not sure, see about that point and about the borrowing question Schrader RL.II2 394, G. Ipsen IF. 39, 235 f., Festschr. Streitberg 228), messap. argorian (: ἀργύριον) ds., argora-pandes (*arguro-pondi̯os) `quaestor, state treasurer'.

Thrak. ἄργιλος `(*white) mouse', FlN ῎Αρζος (*Argi̯os).

Gr. ἀργός `white, fast', in compounds ἀργι- : ἀργι-κέραυνος `with shining thunderbolt', ἀργι-όδων `with brilliantly white teeth' (thereafter also *ἀργινός for ἀργεννός, further formation to ἀργινόεις, epithet of towns situated on white lime or chalk mountains); ἀργαίνω `is white'.

ἀργός probably after Wackernagel Verm. Beitr. 8 f. from *ἀργρός dissimilated, wherefore i-stem ἀργι- of compounds behaves as av. dǝrǝzi-raϑa- `possessing steady chariot' to dǝrǝzra- `solid'.

With ἀργός phonetically same Old Indian r̥jrá- connotes also `shining', is in this meaning with ἀργός `white' etymological identical (in addition also Old Indian ŕ̥jīti-, r̥jīka- `radiating').

Old Indian r̥jrá- `fast', Ṛji-śvan- `the allied Indras ordering about fast dogs' = gr. ἀργός `fast' (likewise of dogs, also already proto linguistic epithet, see Schulze Kl. Schr. 124), ἀργί-πους `fleet-footed', horses Πόδ-αργος, upholds Persson Beitr. 828 from ἀργός (r̥jrá-) `white' different word (to the root reĝ- `straight, right, directly' in Old Indian r̥jīšá- `rushing straight for', r̥ji-pyá `darting along', etc), against Bechtel Lexil. 57, the concept of the lights allows to have flowed from that of the quick movement (compare `as quick as a flash, at lightning speed') as well as Schulze aaO.

Sides of the same observation considered as to try illuminating power, brightness of the color, and quickness of the movement (compare lat. micāre `move rapidly to and fro, vibrate, flicker; to shine, glitter, sparkle').

ἄργεμον, ἄργεμα n. `the whiteness (in the eye, nail)', ἀργήεις, dor. ἀργᾶς (*ἀργᾱFεντς `shining'; es-stem in ἐναργής `perspicuous, clear', ἀργεσ-τής epithet of νότος, `elucidative, brightening' (see lastly Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 5001), ἀργεννός `white sheen, white luster, white-gleaming' (*ἀργεσ-νός); maybe also in ἀργειφόντης epithet of Hermes (`in slaying brilliance'ö).

On account of es-stem av. аrǝzah- `afternoon and evening' so that belongs together etymologically, at least half the meaning is quite doubtful, see. Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 202, Bechtel aaO.

Maybe alb. (*а rǝz-) errët `dark', err `darken' : av. а rǝzah- `a fternoon and evening'

ἀργής, -ῆτος, -έτι, -έτα `white-gleaming'; ἄργιλλος and ἄργῑλος `white clay' (lat. Lw. argilla, argīla : alb. argjilë `white clay, mud'): ἄργυ-ρος see above, ἄργυ-φος, ἀργύ-φεος `shining white' (in the word ending probably to root bhā- `shine', Prellwitz BB. 22, 90, Bechtel Lexil. 57 f.).

Maybe alb. harc, harca Pl. `rocky landscape'; alb. has preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-.

Lat. argentum see above; arguō `to put in clear light; to declare, prove; to accuse, blame, expose, convict', argūtus `to the eye, expressive, lively; talkative to the ear, piercing, shrill, noisy; of omens, clear, significant; of persons, sagacious, cunning; (since Cicero also:) beaming, shimmering' and `shrewd'.

Toch. A ārki, В ā̆rkwi `white' (*arĝu̯i̯o-), ārcune `epithet of the royal title', A ārki-śoṣi `white world' (compare cymr. elfydd S. 30); hett. ḫar-ki-iš (ḫarkis) `white'.

Maybe alb. (*arg-) jargë `white saliva'


alb. j- stands for the lost old laryngeal ḫ-.

e-vocalism shown by those of Osthoff MU. V, S. V, and MU. VI 33 considered for got. unaírkns `impure, unclean', aírkniÞa `cleanness, genuineness', ahd. erchan `right, just, real, true, genuine', anord. jarknasteinn, ags. eorcnanstān `precious stone, jewel' (in addition also anord. jarteikn n. `emblems' from *jar[kn]-teikn, Lidén by Noreen Aisl. Gr.3 ̨p. 281, 6); compare also Feist 25b.

As securely one cannot consider the affiliation of germ. words, however, was concerning the vocalism intersection from germ. *ark- = idg. *arĝ- with *erk- = Old Indian árcati, idg. *erk- at least conceivable.

About that of Uhlenbeck KZ. 40, 552, 560 considered for lit. áržuolas, ąžuolas, dial. áužuolas, ostlit. dial. úžolas `oak', see rather Bezzenberger KZ. 42, 263, Trautmann Old Prussian 301, whereupon anž- (compare аpr. ansonis) the original form is (different Zupitza KZ. 36, 66, Germ. Gutt. 214).

By Hirts (Abl. 124) basic *ar(e)ĝ- cause germ. words difficulty, however, see above. The basis of a 2th root vowel (areĝ-) is given only by Old Indian rajatám `whitish', thus dubious.

References: WP. I 82 f., II 362 f., WH. I 66, 848, Feist 25, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 260, 447, 481, Frisk Nominalbildg. 4.

Specht (Dekl. 1141) places because of gr. ἄρμη λευκή Hes. a color root in ar-, he equates with al- (see above S. 31).

Page(s): 64-65

Root / lemma: arenko-

English meaning: a kind of cereal, type of grain


Lat. arinca `variety of grain, olyra (which resembles spelt)' (`Galliarum propria' Plin. n. h. 18, 81; foreign, presumably gall. word, despite Niedermann and 30 not genuinely lat.), gr. ἄρακος `leguminous plant growing as a weed among lentil plants', ἄρακοι ὄσπριόν τι. τὸ δε αὐτὸ καὶ λάθυρον Hes.

Because of the meaning difference quite doubtful equation; no objection offers sure enough the not sufficing confirmation from ἄρακος in ὄροβος ἐρέβινθος. Non-related in spite of Fick II4 16, 17 are gr. ἄρτος `bread' (to dark origin, see Boisacq 84), mir. arbar `grain' (see *ar- `to plough, plow'), arān `bread'.

References: WP. I 84, WH. I 67.

Page(s): 66-67

Root / lemma: areq-

English meaning: to guard, lock

German meaning: `schötzen, verschließen'

Material: In detail Osthoff IF. 8, 54 ff. m. Lit.

Arm. argel `hump, block, check, fence, hurdle, barrier, drawback, obstacle, hindrance, balk, impediment', denomin. argelum `resist, hold from, hold back'; maybe with o- gradation orm `wall, mural' (*ork-mo-ö);

gr. ἀρκέω `resist, reproach, protects, helps; express disappointment, be sufficient, be enough' (ἀρκέσω, ἤρκεσα) probably from *ἀρκέι̯ω; ἄρκος n. `protection, cover, shelter' (Alkman); ἄρκιoς `sufficing, enough', αὐτ-άρκης `oneself enough', ποδ-άρκης `with sufficing feet, fast' (see also Bechtel Lexil. 279 f.);

Maybe alb. (*ἄρκος) argësh `crude craft supported by skin bladders, crude bridge of crossbars, harrow', zero grade in alb. (*argo-) rrogë `alpine meadow (to be guarded)'.

lat. arceō, -ēre `to shut in; to keep at a distance, hinder, prevent, keep away', arca `a chest, box; esp. a money-box or coffin; also a cell' (actually `fastener, shutter', compare arcānus `shut, closed; hence silent, secret, confidential'; from Lat. derives got. etc arka `boxes, money boxes, ark';

maybe alb. arkë `box, money boxes, ark'.

ahd. arahha, archa `ark' and from Germ. again Old Church Slavic raka `burial cave', Old Prussian arkan Akk. Sg. `ark'), arx `fortified hill, castle, fort', arcera `canopied chariot' (suffix after cumera, compare WH. I 63) osk. trííbarakavúm `to build, erect, establish; to create, frame' (constitutes beforehand *trēbark- `to enclose a house, to put up a fence around a house');

ahd. rigil, mhd. rigel `latch, bolt', mengl. rail (ags. *reogol), Göntert Kalypso 136;

lit. rãktas `key', rakìnti `to lock, shut';

hett. ḫar(k)- `hold, clamp, to hang (kill s.o. by hanging them)', Götze and Pedersen Muršili 50.


Maybe alb. (*ḫark-) varg `row, chain, ring'; common prothetic alb. v- before bare initial vowels.

Through the meaning little is recommended to citation of cymr. archen `clothes, shoe', bret. arc'henna `wear shoes' (mir. acrann `shoe, clothes' probably reconverted from arc-, Stokes KZ. 41, 381).

About that of W. Foy KZ. 35, 62 as `castle hill' interpreted Old pers. mountain names arkadri- see Justi IA. 17, 106 (supposedly (H)ara-kadriš `mountain ravine, mountain gorge'), but in addition again Bartholomae Z. altiran. Wb. 105 Anm. 1, 116.

Maybe zero grade in alb. kodra, kodrinë (dim.) `hill' from a truncated Old pers. (H)ara-kadriš `mountain ravine'.

Against apposition (Bruckner KZ. 45, 108 Anm.) recommends meaning from slav. račiti `want, grant'.

As form mit o-gradation (or at most with or = ) covers lat. Orcus `Orcus, the infernal regions. Transf. the god of the lower world; death, realm of the dead' (uncertain `lock, seal, shut, trap, close, lock up, shut up, close up'ö).

References: WP. I 80 f., WH. 62 f., 848.

See also: Similarly aleq- `refuse, protect' and areg- (see d.).

Page(s): 65-66

Root / lemma: ar(ǝ)-

English meaning: to plough

German meaning: `pflögen'

Material: Arm. araur `plow' (*arātrom; Höbschmann Arm. stem I 21);

gr. ἀρόω (ἤροσα, ἄροτος) `plough, till', ἀρότης, ἀροτήρ `plowman', ἄροτρον `plow'; with original vocalization of the 2nd syllable herakl. αρά̄ςοντι, gortyn. ἄρατρον. ἀρόω etc placed after Persson Beitr. 669 an idg. *aro- besides *arǝ- ahead (compare toch. āre), or appeared instead of ἀράω at the same time with the reshuffle many denominative causatives in -άω to such in -όω after in addition basic o- formation, under special influence from νεόω `plow up the land anew'.

lat. arō, -āre `to till, plow, farm, cultivate. Transf., to furrow, wrinkle; of ships, to plow the sea' (for the older *arǝ-mi), arātor `ploughman, husbandman', arātrum `plow' (-ā- for *-ă- after arāre);

mir. airim `to plough', cymr. arddu (from *arj-) `to plough', arddwr `plowman', mir. ar n. `arable land', cymr. ar f. ds., mir. arḫán `bread', arathar (*arǝtrom), cymr. aradr, corn. aradar, mbret. arazr, nbret. arar `plow'; mir. airem (*ari̯omō), Gen. aireman `plowman', also PN Airem-ón;

maybe alb. arë `arable land, field'.

got. arjan, anord. erja, ags. as. erian, ahd. erran, mhd. ern `to plough, till', anord. arđr `plow', ahd. art `furrowed land', ags. earđ, ierđ f. `furrowed land, yield' (see also under *ar- `yield, acquiesce' about nhd. Art), mhd. arl, nhd. Arl, Arling `plow' (from loanword from slav. *ordloö genuinely germ. after Meringer IF. 17, 121);

lit. ariù, árti `to plough', árklas (*arǝ-tlom) `plow', arklỹs `horse' (as `a plow animal'); artójas `tiller, plowman' (*arǝḫtāi̯a-), Old Prussian artoys `tiller' (with secondary zero grade lit. orė̃ `ploughing time', compare gr. πολύηρος πολυάρουρος Hes.), lett. ar'u `to plough', ara, āre `arable land'; lit. armenà `superficially furrowed layer of earth';

Old Church Slavic orjǫ, orati `to plough'; ralo (serb. rȁlo, poln. radɫo) `plow' (*ar(ǝ)-dhlom: lit.árklas), ratajь `plowman'; about slav. *ora- s. Trautmannn 13;

toch AB āre `plow'. concerning this pertains:


Arm. haravunk `arable land' (Scheftelowitz BB. 29, 58), lat. arvus, -a, -um `plowed, plowed land', esp. arvum `plowed land, a field; in gen., a region', umbr. arvam-en `in plowed land' (= dem lat. fem. arvas A. Pl.), ar(u)via `crops, field crops';

mir. arbor (*aru̯r̥) `grain', Dat. arbaim, Gen. (already air.) arbe (*aru̯ens), Pl. N. A. arbanna (r/n-stem: Stokes KZ. 37, 254, Pedersen KG. I 63, II 106; therefrom airmnech `the man who owns a lot of grain', Corrnac's Gl., with -mn- = -vn-, Stokes KZ. 38, 458);

gr. ἄρουρα `arable land' (formally not yet clearly; probably after Benveniste Norns 113 from *ἀρο-Fρᾱ, extension of ἀρο-Fαρ from *aroḫu̯r̥, compare mir. arbor. Unglauhhaft Otrębski KZ. 66, 78).

Through its old e- divergence cymr. erw f. `field', Pl. erwi, erḫwydd, corn. erw, ereu ds., abret. mbret. eru, nbret. ero `furrow' belong against it to ahd. ero `earth', gr. ἔρα, arm. erkir `earth' (for the latter supposes Pedersen KZ. 38, 197 likewise *eru̯- as a basis), however, have taken over like the use for farmed field of one *ar(ǝ)u̯o-.

From the lack of Aryan correspondences may not be closed against the acquaintance with the plow in indo Germanic primeval times.

References: WP. I 78 f., WH. I 69, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 362, 683.

After Specht KZ. 68, 422 furthermore to root *erǝ- (er-5) `disjoint, sever' as `tear the ground open'ö

Page(s): 62-63

Root / lemma: ario-ö

English meaning: master, lord

German meaning: `Herr, Gebieter'


Root / lemma: ario-ö : master, lord, derived from Root / lemma: ar-1*, themat. (a)re-, schwere Basis arǝ-, rē- und i-Basis (a)rī̆-, rēi- : to move, pass: gr. ἄριστος `best in birth and rank, noblest'.

Material: Old Indian ar(i)yá- `mister, convivial', ā́r(i)ya- `Aryan', āryaka `venerable man'; av. airyō, Old pers. ariya- `Aryan';

gall. PN. Arioḫmānus (GIL, III 4594); ir. aire (gl. primas) besides airech, where is to be formed *arjo- and *arjako-, which to Old Indian āryaka behaves as gr. μεῖραξ `youth' to Old Indian maryaká- `male' (Pedersen Kelt. Gr. II 100). Against it belongs mir. ruire not here, but from ro + rī `king of kings'.

About Old Indian aryamán n. `hospitality', m. `guest's friend', av. airyaman-, npers. ērmān `guest', see above under al-1.

W. Krause (rune inscriptions 539) should read properly urnord. arjostēR N. Pl. `the most distinguished, the noblest', thus would have to be attached indeed an urnord. *arjaR `posh, lofty, noble, plush, gentle, kingly, polite, courtly, elegant, genteel, stately, highbred, exclusive' and an idg. *ari̯o-, in the Old Indian phonetically with a derivative from arí- `alien, stranger' would have collapsed.

Kelto-germ. PN Arioḫvistus however, proves nothing, because Ario- could stand for *Hario-. Also air. aire, airech `suitor' are ambiguous, see above under al-1.

Maybe Arrianes illyr. TN.

References: WP. I 80.

Page(s): 67

Root / lemma: ar-1*, themat. (a)re-, heavy basis arǝ-, rē- and i-basis (a)rī̆-, rēi-

English meaning: to move, pass

German meaning: `fögen, passen'


Root / lemma: ar-1*, themat. (a)re-, heavy basis arǝ-, rē- and i-Basis (a)rī̆-, rēi- : `to move, pass'

and Root / lemma: er-3 : or- : r- : `to move *stir, animate, fight, struggle, rise; to spring up, be born' derived from the same root Root / lemma: er-1, or- : `eagle'.



*) E.-M. 74 determine because of arm. eri `horse’s hock or point of shoulder, shoulder of animals', y-eriurel `fit; blend in; fit on; suit; adapt; key; tune; adjust; accommodate; readjust; bring into line; mate' posit a basic form *er- . But arm. eri derives after Liden Mél. Pedersen 88 f. back to idg. *rēito-, *rēiti ! compare Trautmann 242.


Av. arānte `they settle, get stuck', Old Indian aráḫḥ `wheel spoke', aram, álam Adv. (áraṃkar-, alaṃkar `prepare; get ready; make up; get up; dress; trim; prink' and `be in service; serve; do one's service; accommodate; be of service; be of help; be of use', for what probably аrа-tí- `servant; manservant; valet; servitor; follower' and rā-tí- `willing; eager; prompt; ungrudging; unhesitating', av. rāiti `compliant, servant') `suitable, enough';

av. arǝm `suitable, accordingly' (arǝ̄m-piϑwā `midday' = `the time suitable for the meal', next to which ra-piϑwā ds. With zero grade ra- besides *ara-, from what arǝm Adv., Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 189, 1509), ratu- m., `judge, arbitrator' and `period (of time)' (common primary meaning possibly `the act of arranging something (neatly)', from which `the act of arranging the law' and `right time'); Old Indian ar-p-áyati `puts, fixed, clamps, cleats, affixes, appends, fastens, fixates, fortifies'; about hett. ḫar-ap- (ḫarp-) `to arrange, situate, put down 'ö compare Couvreur Ḫ 114 f.;

arm. aṙnem `produce; do; make; cook; render; cause; proffer; offer; hold out; volunteer; give; contract; fix; put; matter; get; have; take; win; pull down; put down', yḫar `, I consent, conjoin, continue, press so' (arar `has done, has made' = gr. ἄραρε), whereof yarem `add, subjoin, splice' (Bugge KZ. 32, 21), č̣ar `bad; poor; unsavory; unsavoury; poorly; inferior; unsatisfactory; low; stale; foul; hard; lamentable; decayed; wrong; faulty; amiss; maladjusted; uneasy; evil; unkind; wicked; corrupt; off; unhealthy; chronic; ill; sick' with negative č̣ [= oč̣] `not suitable' (Bugge aaO. 23);

gr. ἀραρίσκω, Perf. ἄρᾱρα `join together', ἄρμενος `annexed, appended, attached, appendaged, suitable', ὄαρ `wife' (probably after Brugmann IF. 28, 293, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 434 here with prefix *o-, barely to root*ser- or root *u̯er-, ἀ-Fείρω); in addition ὀαρίζω `have close relations with';

also `chats confidentially'; χαλκο-άρας `ironclad, armoured', also χερι-άρας τέκτων Pind., ἄρ-θρον `limb, member, joint (wrist, ankle)', ἀρθμός `connection; connexion; contact; touch; liaison; tie; splice; affiliation; junction; conjunction; coupling; communication; link-up; interconnection; link; line; combination; association; incorporation; compound; relation; relationship; marriage; wedding; society; union; juncture, friendship', ἄρθμιος `joins, unites, unifies, combines, conjunct, collective'; with t- suffixes homer. δάμ-αρ-τ- `housewife' (`the woman in charge of the house'), öol. δόμορτις Hes.;

πυλάρτης `Hades as the one who locks the gate(s) to the underworld' (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 451, 5); ἀρε- in ἀρέσκω `even out, ease, reconcile, settle, redress, compensate for, equalize, balance, make up for, make good, give satisfaction', ἀρέσκει μοι `It suits me, I like it', ἀρέσκεσθαι, ἀρέσσασθαι `come to an agreement, come to an agreement with somebody; make oneself inclined, reconcile', common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation;

ἀρετή `ability; competence; efficiency', ἀρείων `better' (in respect probably stands ἀρι- `very much, very' in compounds, wherewith Reuter KZ. 31, 594a 1 also Old Indian ari-gūrtá-, -ṣ̌tutá- as `keenly praised' would like to compare; uncertain because of gr. ἐρι- `very much, very' see Boisacq s. v., above S. 24 Anm.); ἄριστος `better, best', ἀριστερός `left, on the left'.

With lengthening θυμ-ήρης `appealing well, complacent', ὅμηρος `husband; hostage, pledge', ὁμηρέω `to meet'; after Birt Philol. 87, 376 f. was ῎Ομηρος eigentl. `companion, the blind person who goes with his leader'.

From Slav. perhaps poln. ko-jarzyć `attach, connect, combine' (e.g. Miklosich EWb. 100, Berneker 31, 532).

About maybe related gr. ἄρα, lit. ir̃ s. 4. ar `now, thus'.

Toch. A ārwar, В ārwer, ārwar `ready', А аröm, В ere `face' (compare lat. figura `a form, shape, figure'). Van Windekens BSL. 41, 56, Duchesne-Guillemin in the same place 173.

t-formations: r̥t-, art- `joint together'.

Old Indian r̥tá- n. `suitable, right', r̥tám n. `well attached, holy order' (to meaning see Oldenberg GGN. 1915, 167-180; not `sacrifice; victim; oblation; offering'), r̥tēna `rite', av. arǝta-, ǝrǝta- n., Old pers. arta- (in compound) `law, right, holy right';

av. aša- under, `what is sure, true', Old Indian r̥tāvan(t)- `proper, fair', av. ašā̆van/t/-; Old Indian r̥tú- `certain time, order, rule', r̥tíḫḥ f. `kind, way' (to ours root after Kluge PBrB. 9, 193; see also Meringer IF. 17, 125, B. Geiger WZKM. 41, 107), av. aipi-ǝrǝta- `appoints, destines, firmly assigned';

arm. ard, Gen. -u (= gr. ἀρτύς, lat. artus, -ūs, compare also on top Old Indian r̥tú-) `structure, construction, ornament' (Höbschmann Arm. Gr. I 423, Bugge KZ. 32, 3), zḫard `apparatus, ornament'; ard `just now, now, currently' (= gr. ἄρτι) (Bartholomae Stud. II 23, Bugge aaO., Meillet Esquisse 36), ardar `fair, just, right' (Höbschmann Arm. stem I 21, Arm. Gr. I 423;

Persson Beitr. 636 a 2 considers for it also idg. dh; compare av. arǝdra- `faithful, reliably, loyal to belief, pious, godly' and the other undermentioned dh- derivatives), ardiun `struttura (Pedersen KZ. 40, 210);

gr. ἁμαρτή `(at the same time) simultaneous' (Instr. *ἁμ-αρτός `joint together, concurring, coincidental'), ὁμ-αρτέω `connect oneself to somebody, accompany' (due to *ὅμ-αρτος); ti-stem in ἀρτι-Fεπής (`well versed in word structure'), ἀρτί-πο(υ)ς `with healthy feet',

ἀρτί-φρων `able-minded, with sharp mind, with a sturdy mind' (presumably also in ἄρταμος `butcher, slaughterer; murderer', whereof ἀρταμέω `slaughter, cut up, divide', after J. Schmidt Krit. 83 f. from *ἀρτι- or at most *ἀρτοταμος `workmanlike cutting', compare Old Indian r̥ta-nī- `justly leading', r̥ta-yuj `properly harnessed');

Maybe in u- grade alb. urtë `able-minded, with sharp mind, with a sturdy mind'

probably also ἀρτεμής `fresh and healthy', probably dissimilated from *ἀρτι-δεμής to δέμας `with a well-built body'; ἄρτι `just' of the present and the most recent past (compare above arm. ard `just now, now' and ard-a-cin `newborn' as gr. ἀρτι-γενής;

morphologically not yet quite clear, perhaps Locative); ἀπ-αρτί `exact, just', ἄρτιος `adequate, just, complete', ἀρτιάζω `plays rightly or oddly', ἀρτίζω `finishes, prepares', ἄρσιον δίκαιον Hes., ἀνάρσιος `hostile', ἐπαρτής `prepares';

ἀρτύν φιλίαν καὶ σύμβασιν, ἀρτύς σύνταξις (= lat. artus `narrow, tight') Hes., ἀρτύω, ἀρτύνω `joins, prepares', ἀρτύ̄νας, ἄρτῡνος, ἀρτῡτήρ title of a public servant or official of Argos, Epidauros, Thera.

Lat. artus `narrow, tight (in space and time), close;'somnus', fast, sound; of supplies, small, meager; of circumstances, difficult, distressing' (Adv. artē, originally instrumental as ἁμαρτή); ars, -tis `skill, method, technique;'ex arte', according to the rules of art. (2) an occupation, profession. (3) concrete, in plur., works of art. (4) conduct, character, method of acting;'bonae artes', good qualities' (actually `articulation, assemblage, pack a gift properly' = mhd. art), in addition the compounds in-ers `unsophisticated, sluggish, untrained, unskillful; inactive, lazy, idle, calm; cowardly; ineffective, dull, insipid', soll-ers `clever, skilful', allers, alers `taught, learned';

artiō, -ire `insert tightly, wedge, crowd, join fast, press together' (more recently artāre); artus, -ūs `the joints;'dolor artuum', gout; poet., limbs', articulus `in the body, a small joint; in plants, a knob, knot; of time, a moment, crisis; in gen., a part, division, point';

lit. artì `near' (Lok. ti-stem);

mhd. art f. `kind, manner and way', anord. ein-arđr `simple, sincere', einǫrd `reliability; dependability; trustworthiness; sureness; steadiness';

toch. В ar(t)kye `rich, valuabe' (ö).


A. From the light basis ar-.

Arm. y-armar `suitable, adequate' (Bugge KZ. 32, 21);

gr. ἁρμός `seam, assemblage, joint', ἁρμοῖ `just, recently' (ἁρμόζω `connect, join, adapts, orders', ἁρμονία `connection, alliance, regularity, harmony'), ἅρμα `chariot' (about these words see Sommer Gr. Lautst. 133, Meillet BSL. 28, c.-r. 21 f. [*arsmo-ö], Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 306; farther Lit. by Boisacq 79), ἁρμαλιά `assigned food, provisions';

lat. arma, -ōrum `defensive arms, armor, weapons of war; hence war, soldiers, military power; protection, defense;in gen. tools, equipment', armentum `herd of horses or cattle, cattle for plowing'.

Hence sounds in anord. jǫrmuni `bovine animal, horse' and the PN got. *Aírmana-reiks, ags. Eormenrīc, aisl. Jǫrmunrekr, mhd. Ermenrīch; the same first part to the name from a little bit big also e.g. in Ermunduri `great Thuringia', anord. jǫrmungrund `the wide earth' = ags. eormengrund, ahd. irmindeot, as. Irmin-sūl, and in the short form Herminones.

However, Bröckner KZ. 45, 107 rightly challenges, that `cattle, horses' is the original and `large' out of it derived meaning and decides vice versa for `large, serene' a starting point because of slav. raměnъ `immense, strong, violent, sudden' (from here lit. er̃mas `immense, monstrous', lett. ęr̃ms `monkey, clown, strange appearance'ö), as `shot up' to *er-, *or- (orior etc; compare formal ὄρμενος), not as `sturdy, stout, well built, massive' belongs to *ar- `to join, connect'.

Old Church Slavic jarьmъ `yoke' (e.g. Miklosich EWb. 100, Berneker 31), sloven. jérmen `yoke strap, strap'; with zero grade initial sound and themat. vowel: Old Church Slavic remenь, serb. rè́mēn etc `strap'; Specht Dekl. 149 f.

Toch. В yarm, AB yörm `measure'.

В. From the heavy base аrǝ-mo-: r̥̄-mo- `arm'.

Old Indian īrmá-ḥ `arm, shoulder' (originally `shoulder joint', compare ἄρθρον, lat. artus `joints') = av. аrǝmа- `arm', osset. örm `cupped hand', ölm-örịn, örm-örịn `elbow',

lat. armus `shoulder or shoulder-blade; also, of an animal, the side, the uppermost part of the upper arm, scapula' (from *ar/ǝ/mos), gall. aramō `bifurcation, point of separation', (Wartburg I 119, Jud by Howald-Меуеr Röm. Schweiz 374 ff.), Old Prussian irmo f. `arm', lit. ìrmėdė (`gout', i.e.:) `gout in the joints', irm-liga `gout, arthritis' (see Trautmann Old Prussian 347);

zero grade lit. žem. Pl. tant. armaĩ `Vorderarm am Wagen' (ibd.), Old Church Slavic ramo, ramę, serb. rà́me `shoulder', got. arms, ahd. etc arm `arm', аrm. armukn `elbow' (Höbschmann Arm. Stud. I 21).

Root form rē-, rǝ-:

Lat. reor, rērī `to think, suppose, judge' (the most primitive metering and counting is accompanied by the putting on top of each other or layers of the pieces to be counted), participle ratus `in the opinion, sense', but also `determined, settled; calculated, certain, valid, legal', ratiō `a reckoning, account, consideration, calculation; a reason, motive, ground; a plan, scheme, system; reasonableness, method, order; a theory, doctrine, science; the reasoning faculty'; after EM. 793 here (prō)portiō from portiōne =prō ratiōne;

got. *garaÞjan (only participle garaÞana) `to count', an. hundrađ, nhd. Hundert (*rađa n. `number' = lat. rătum `to ratify, confirm, make valid'; s. Fick III4 336); ahd. girad `even (only from numbers)', nhd. gerad (only from numbers divisible by 2; different from gerad = straight ahead), with new ablaut anord. tīḫrø̄đr actually `count after tens' (Fick III4 336); got. raÞjō `number, bill, account', as. rethia `account', ahd. radja, redea `account, speech and answer, story', afries. birethia `accuse', as. rethiōn, ahd. red(i)ōn `talk' (determines the precise correspondence from raÞjō with lat. ratio `a reckoning, numbering, casting up, account, calculation, computation' e.g. Kluge11 s. v. `speech' to the assumption of borrowing germ. words under influence from garaÞian; more properly Falk-Torp 886 raÞjō to determine as primary -i̯ōn-derivative from germ. root *raÞ-[garaÞjan]).

Whether here also anord. rǫđ `row, line, series, chain, range, string, tier, battery, file, turn, run, procession, rank, order, progression, number, set, bank, esp. increment lining along the shore', mnd. rat f. `row, line, series, chain, range, string, tier, battery, file, turn, run, procession, rank, order, progression, number, set, bank'ö (Fick III4 337; `row; line; series; chain; range; string; tier; battery; file; turn; run; procession; rank; order; progression; number; set; bank' as `added on each other, stratified'ö).

Ahd. rāmen `strive for something, strive, aim', as. rōmon `strive', mhd. mnd. rām `aim, purpose, target' our *rē-maybe suit as `to arrange in one's mind, calculate', if, besides, this (the previous newer proves) Subst. rām must have been as formation with formants-mo- starting point.

dh-extension rē-dh-, rōḫdh-, rǝ-dh-:

Old Indian rādhnṓti, rā́dhyati `prepares (suitably), manages; gets, succeeds, with which has luck; contents, wins somebody', rādhayati `manages, gives satisfaction', rādhaḫḥ m., rādhaḥ n. `blessing, success, relief, gift, generosity';

Maybe alb. radha `row', radhit `count'.

av. δaiti `makes ready', δa- m. `social welfare worker', rādah- n. `appropriate for oneself, making oneself available, willingness (in religious regard)', Old pers. rādiy (Lok. Sg.) `weigh' (compare Old Church Slavic radi see under), npers. ārāyad, ārāstan `decorate; adorn; bedeck; trim; attire; array; drape; gild; emblazon; embellish'; air. imm-rādim `considers, thinks over', аcуmr. amraud `suppose, think, mean', ncymr. amrawdd `conversation' with ders. meaning as air. no-rāidiu, no-rādim `says, tells', mcymr. adrawd `tell' and got. rōdjan, anord. rø̄đa `talk' (compare further also placed above nhd. Rede, reden; no-rāidiu and rōdjan, like sl. raditi, kaus.-iter. *rōdhei̯ō); got. garēdan `whereupon be judicious, take precautions', urrēdan `judge, determine' (compare to meaning esp. lat. rērī), undrēdan `procure, grant', ahd. rātan `advise, confer, contemplate, plan, incite, indicate (riddle), request, to look after something, procure, provide, get', as. rādan, anord. rāđa, ags. rǣdan (latter also `read', engl. read), Subst. ahd. rāt m. `available means, council, piece of advice, advisement, decision, intention, precaution, stock, supply', similarly as. rād, anord. rād, ags. rǣd; Old Church Slavic raditi `take care; be accustomed; look after; care for; be in the habit; tend; provide; supply; cater; fend; ensure; insure' (serb. râdîm, ráditi `work, strive', rad `business, work'; see Uhlenbeck KZ. 40, 558 f.), radi `weigh', next to which *rǝdh- in Old Church Slavic nerodъ `neglect (of dutyö)', sloven. rǫ́dim, rǫ́diti `provide, take care'.

Maybe Old Church Slavic radi `weigh' : alb. geg. randë `heavy (*workö), sth that weighs a lot' ra aor. `fall (sth heavy, weighty)' [nasalized form], randonj `weigh', re `care, attention', roje `guard' [common alb. -d- > -j- shift between two vowels], ruanj `to guard'.

Root form (a)rī̆-, rēi- (see Person root extension 102, 162, 232; Beitr. 741):

Gr. ἀραρίσκω (if not neologism, see above S. 56), ἀριθμός `number', νήριτος `countless', arkad. ἐπάριτος `ἐπίλεκτος, select; choice; exquisite', ἀριμάζει ἁρμόζει Hes.;

lat. rītus, -ūs `conventional kind of the religion practise, usage, ceremony, rite, manner', rīte `in due form, after the right religious use, with proper ceremonies, properly, fitly, rightly' (Lok. one beside rīḫtuḫs lying conservative stem *rīḫt-);

air. rīm `number', āram (*ad-ri-mā) ds., do-rīmu `counts', cymr. rhif `number', anord. rīm n. `reckoning, calculation', as. unrīm `immense number'', ags. rīm n. `number', ahd. rīm m. `row, order, number' (the meaning `verse, rhyme' from anord. and mhd. rīm probably after Kluge10 s. v. Reim from frz. rime, which has derived from rythmus).

Maybe also *rēi- `thing' (lat. rēs `a thing, object, matter, affair, circumstance' etc) after Wood ax 226 must be added as root noun meaning `stacked up goods, piled-up possessions'.

Maybe is to be added also *rēi- `thing' (lat. rēs etc.) to Wood ax 226 as a root noun meaning `having stacked up property'.

In addition probably as dh-extension rēi-dh- (compare above rē-dh- besides -):

Got. garaiÞs `arranged, certain', raidjan, garaidjan `prescribe, determine', anord. g-reiđr `ready, easy, clear', greiđa `disentangle, order, arrange, manage, pay, disburse, remit', mhd. reiten `get everything set up, prepare, arrange, count, calculate, pay', reite, gereite, bereite, ahd. bireiti `ready', antreitī `series, ordo', lett. riedu, rizt `order', raids `raring, ready', ridi, ridas `device, clamp'.

Quite doubtfully is not borrowed by Persson aaO. considered affiliation from Old Church Slavic orądije `apparatus, instrumentum' (from ahd. ārunti `message', see Pedersen concentration camp. 38, 310), rędъ `order', lit. rínda `row', lett. riñda `row, number'. On condition of that these continue idg. d, not dh (*re-n-d-), one adds (e.g. Fick I4 527, Pedersen aaO., see also EM. 711) thus the following kin in: ὀρδέω `put on a fabric', ὀρδικόν τὸν χιτωνίσκον. Πάριοι, ὄρδημα ἡ τολύπη τῶν ἐρίων Hes.,

lat. ōrdior, -īrī, ōrsus sum (from weaver's language, Bréal MSL. 5, 440) `to begin a web, lay the warp, begin, commence, make a beginning, set about, undertake', exōrdior `to begin a web, lay the warp, prepare to weave', redōrdior `to take apart, unweave, unravel', ōrdo, -inis `a series, line, row, order' (also umbr. urnasier seems to be = ordinariis `of order, usual, regular, ordinary', Linde Glotta 3, 170 f.; differently Gl. 5, 316), the connection agrees with ar- `put; place; fix; formulate; ordain; decree', which would have been needed then also by the weaving mill, to (Persson root extension 26, Thurneysen Thes. under artus, -ūs), so would be justified vowel from *or-d-ei̯ō as a causative iterative vocalism.

Is even more doubtful, from after Reichelt KZ. 46, 318 as k-extensions of the bases arǝ-, ar- with the same application to the weaving mill are to be added:

Maybe alb. (*arānea) arnoj `to repair, mend, sew, weave', arnë `patch, piece of fabric' from lat. arānea, -eus `spider'ö

Gr. ἀράχνη `spider', lat. arāneus `of a spider; n. as subst. a cobweb', arānea, -eus `spider' (*arǝ-k-snā; the word ending to *snē- `to spin; weave, interweave, produce by spinning' as `a net spinner, a woman, a girl (or a spider) that spins a net'ö); supposedly in addition (Walter KZ. 12, 377, Curtius KZ. 13, 398) gr. ἄρκυς `net', ἀρκάνη τὸ ῥάμμα ᾡ τὸν στήμονα ἐγκαταπλέκουσιναἱ διαζόμεναι Hes. (see also Boisacq 79), wherefore after Bezzenberger BB. 21, 295 lett. er'kuls `spindle; a bunch of oakum, a wad of oakum (for spinning)' (which can stand for *arkuls). Lidén IF. 18, 507 f. puts it better ἄρκυς to slav. *orkyta, serb. ràkita `red pasture' and lett. ẽrcis, gr. ἄρκευθος `juniper' as shrubs with branches usable against lichen.

References: WP. I 69 ff., WH. I 69, 70, Trautmann 13 f.

See also: S. unten arqu- and erk-.

Page(s): 55-61

Root / lemma: ar-2 oder er-

English meaning: to distribute

German meaning: `zuteilen; (med.) an sich bringen'

Grammatical information: with idg. nu-present

Material: Av. ar- (present ǝrǝnav-, ǝrǝnv-, preterit Pass. ǝrǝnāvī) `grant, allow to be given; do guarantee', with us- and frā `(as an allotment) suspend and assign', frǝ̄rǝta- n. `allotment (of sacrifices under likewise), offering' (Bartholomae Altiran. Wb. 184 f.);

arm. aṙnum `I take', Aor. aṙ (Höbschmann Arm. Gr. I 420; meaning from medial `I allot to myself, I assign to myself, I allocate to myself, I appropriate to myself' compare Old Indian dálāmi `give': ā datē `to take something, to accept something'; also in:)

gr. ἄρνυμαι `acquires, tries to reach, conceives, acquire esp. as a price or wage', durative compared with ἀρέσθαι `acquire, win', Aor. ἀρόμηv, ἠρόμην; μισθάρνης, μίσθαρνος `potboiler, day laborer, wageworker', ἄρος n. `usefulness, profit, use' (Aesch.);

hitt. ar-nu-mi `I bring' (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 696) belongs probably rather than a causative to 3. er- `start to move'.

The full grade vocalisms of the root guaranteeing forms are absent.

References: WP. I 76 f.

Page(s): 61

Root / lemma: ar-3

English meaning: nut

German meaning: `Nuß'

Note: (extends by -ēi-, -ōi-, -u-)

Material: G. Meyer Alb. Wb. 17 combines gr. ἄρυα τὰ ΏHρακλεωτικὰ κάρvα Hes., alb. arrë f. `walnut-tree', Old Church Slavic orěchъ `nut'. relation to lit. ríešutas, ruošutỹs `hazelnut', lett. rieksts `nut, hazelnut', Old Prussian buccareisis `'beechnut' (see Trautmann Old Prussian 314) accepts Specht Dekl. 62.

References: WP. I 77.

Page(s): 61

Root / lemma: ar-5

English meaning: to refuse; to lie

German meaning: `verweigern, leugnen'ö

Note: (with n- formant)

Material: Gr. ἀρνέομαι (*ἀρνε-F-ομαι) `refuses', ἄπαρνος, ἔξαρνος `refusing, denying everything', ἀρύει ἀντιλέγει βοᾳ Hes.;

alb. rrêm `false', rrêmë, rrênë `lie', nërrój (from *rrënój) `denies everything' (rr from rn; Pedersen KZ. 33, 542 Anm. 2). Is even more doubtful whether arm. uranam `denies everything, refuses', urast `denial' would be used (with ur- from ōr-).

References: WP. I 78, Meillet BSL. 26, 19, Esquisse 111, 142.

See also: see also ōr-, ǝr- `reden, rufen'.

Page(s): 62

Root / lemma: aro-m (*ĝher-)

English meaning: reed

German meaning: `Schilfrohr'ö

Material: Gr. ἄρον n. `bistort, kind of reed', ἀρί-σαρον `therefrom a small kind';

lat. harundō `a reed; meton., for an object made of reed, a fishing rod; limed twigs for catching birds; a pen; the shaft of an arrow, or the arrow itself; a shepherd's pipe; a flute; a weaver's comb; a plaything for children, a hobby-horse'; to formation compare hirundō `a swallow' and nebrundines : νεφροί `the kidneys'.


Maybe alb. (*harundinis) dalëndyshe `a swallow' : lat. harundo -inis f. `a reed; meton., for an object made of reed, a fishing rod; limed twigs for catching birds' : hirundo -inis, f. `swallow'. Similar phonetic setting alb. dimën `winter' : lat. hiemo -are `to winter, spend the winter' [see Root / lemma: ĝhei-2 : ĝhi- : `winter; snow'

Lat. and alb. prove that the original Root / lemma: aro-m : `reed' was (*ĝher-). Only lat., alb. and gr. have preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-.

There is no doubt that from illyr.-alb.- lat. (*harundinis) dalëndyshe `a swallow' [common alb. ĝh- > d- phonetic mutation] derived gr. χελιδών `swallow', therefore Root / lemma: ghel- : `to call, cry' derived from Root / lemma: aro-m : `reed' (*ĝher-) where r/l allophones.

From Persson De orig. gerundii 59 added lat. arista `the beard of an ear of grain; hence the ear itself; also a harvest', aristis `holcus, a green vegetable' is defeated because of his suggesting to genista f. `the broom-plant' under likewise suffix strongly to the suspicion to be Etruscan (see Herbig IF. 37, 171, 178).

From Mediterranean languageö

References: WP. I 79, WH. I 635 f.

Page(s): 68

Root / lemma: arōd-, arǝd-

English meaning: a kind of waterbird

German meaning: `ein Wasservogel'

Material: Gr. ῥωδιός, ἐρωδιός `heron' (ἐρῳδιός folk etymology in ending after -ίδιος), lat. ardea `a heron' ds. (*arǝd-), anord. arta, aschwed. örta `teal', Demin. anord. ertla, norw. erle `wagtail', serb. róda `stork' (*rǝdā́).

Maybe truncated alb. (*ῥωδιός) rosa, rosë `duck', rika `duckling, duck', rum. (*rada) raţă `duck'.


Alb. and rum. prove that from Root / lemma: anǝt- : (duck) derived Root / lemma: arōd-, arǝd- : (a kind of waterbird) [common rhotacism n > r]

References: WP. I 146 f., WH. I 64.

Page(s): 68

Root / lemma: arqu-

English meaning: smth. bent

German meaning: `Gebogenes'

Material: Lat. arcus, -ūs (stem is in -qu- from, compare alat. Gen. arquī, further argues, arquitenēns) `a bow, arch, arc; esp. the rainbow', arquātus, arcuātus (morbus) `icteric, yellowed as if from jaundice, jaundice, relating to jaundice; m. as subst., a sufferer from jaundice', probably eig. `rainbow-colored, green and yellow looking' (compare Thes.); arcuātus also `arched-shaped, bow-shaped, supported by arches, covered (carriage)';


ital. arcobaleno `rainbow' > rum. curcubeu `rainbow' > alb. ylber `rainbow'

umbr. arc̨lataf `a round cake; `, wherefore v. Planta I 341, Götze IF. 41, 91 (*arkelo- with loss of the labialisation); got. arƕazna f. `dart, arrow' (arƕa-zna, compare hlaiwazna), altn. ǫr (Gen. ǫrvar) f. `dart, arrow', ags. earh f. ds. (engl. arrow), germ. *arhvō.

Maybe alb. hark `bow' [alb. is the only IE tongue that has preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-]

For the basic approach arqu- (and not arqu̯-) would speak russ. rakíta, čech. rokyta, serb. rokita etc `a kind of willow tree', where *arqūta (Miklosich EWb. 226, Torbjörnsson BB. 20, 140) forms the basis, and gr. ἄρκευθος `juniper', which word with with all likelyhood concerning this is to be drawn Lidén IF. 18, 507; in addition ἀρκευθίς `juniper berry'.

Indeed, Lidén takes relationship with gr. ἄρκυς `net' (see Bezzenberger BB. 21, 285) in for what one compares under ar-1, S. 61.

Another connection for gr. ἄρκευθος and russ. rakíta etc seeks Endzelin KZ. 44, 59 ff., which more properly compares lett. ẽrcis, ẽcis (*ẽrcis) `juniper';

further ẽrcêties `torment oneself, grieve, straiten', ẽrceša `a very quarrelsome person'; lett. ẽrkš(k')is `thorn shrub' would be to Endzelin mixture from *erkīs and lit. erškė̃tis `a thorn plant' corresponding as regards the root of the word form; gr. ἀρ- then would have to contain zero grade from *er-. S. under erk-.

References: WP. I 81, WH. I 64, EM. 69.

Page(s): 67-68

Root / lemma: aru̯ā (*heru̯ā)

English meaning: intestines

German meaning: `Darm'ö

Material: Gr. ὀρύᾱ f. `bowel', lat. arvīna f. `grease, fat, lard, bacon', originally `intestinal fat'ö (compare ahd. mitta-garni `recumbent fat in the middle of the bowels'); ἀρβίννη κρέας. Σικελοί Hes. is lat. Lw.


Gr. (*horua) ὀρύα, alb. (*ĝhorna) zorrë `bowel' [common alb. ĝh- > z- phonetic mutation] prove that Root / lemma: aru̯ā (*heru̯ā): `intestines' derived from Root / lemma: ĝher-5, ĝhor-nā : `bowels'. This discovery might shed light on the origin of the old larygeals in PIE.

References: WP. I 182, II 353, WH. I 71.

Page(s): 68

Root / lemma: ast(h)-

English meaning: `bones'

German meaning: `Knochen'

See also: s. ost(h)-.

Page(s): 69

Root / lemma: ati, ato-

Meaning: over, etc.

German meaning: `about etwas hinaus', daher bei einer dem Sprecher zugewendeten Bewegung `(about den Standort of Sprechenden) zuröck', endlich einfach `her' under Verblassen der Vorstellung eines öberrannten Zieles oder Ortes.

Note: compare to the meaning question esp. Brugmann Grdr. II2, 844 f. the colouring of the beginning vowel stands firm through Lat.-Kelt. (Greek) as idg. a-, and it gives no good reason before, balt.-slav., germ. (and ar.) forms can be attributed to idg. *o-, by the book - following rules in a (very) strict way just because it would be a textbook example of ablaut to e- formed from *eti bildete. With eti (see there) at least equality meaning and exchange existed in the use. Is ati reduction grade to etiö

Material: Old Indian áti `about- onto (adnominal m. Akk.), exceedingly, very much' (Adv. and preverb), av. aiti-, Old pers. atiy- ds. Adv. (as 1. compound part and preverb (before i- `go' as `go by, pass by' and bar- `carry, bear' as `bring over again, to carry'); ar. ati can also represent idg. *eti.

Gr. presumably in ἀτ-άρ `however' (compare αὐτάρ from αὖτ ᾽ἄρ; Brugmann-Thumb 623, KVG. 616; by connection with ἄτερ, got. sundrō, the att. it remained kind of unexplained). Lat. at `but, yet, moreover; sometimes introducing an imaginary objection, but, you may say' from increasing - to opposing `beyond it', what latter meaning in atḫavus, at-nepos (not in apprīmē under likewise, see Skutsch AflL. 12, 213).

Gall. ate- (from *ati-) in Ategnātus (= mbret. (h)aznat, nbret. anat `acquainted, known') under likewise, abrit. Ate-cotti `the very old', air. aith-, preceding ad- `against, un-', mcymr. at-, ncymr. ad-, ed- (Belege e.g. by Fick II4 8, Pedersen KG. II 292);

here as *ate-ko-n probably mir. athach n. `a certain time', cymr. adeg m. ds., compare gall. ATENOVX (name of 2th half month), Thurneysen ZcP. 20, 358ö

Got. аÞ-Þan `but, however' (very doubtful is against it derivation from got. as. ak, ags. ac `however', ahd. oh `but, however' from *aÞ- + ke = gr. γε; differently, but barely appropriate Holthausen IF. 17, 458: = gr. ἄγε, lat. age `go! well!').

Lit. at-, ata-, more recently also ati-, in nominal compound atō- `back, off, away, from, up' (see Brugmann Grundr. II2 2, 844 f.), Old Prussian et-, at- (probably only from balt. at-, Trautmann 46);

Old Church Slavic ot-, otъ `away, since, ex, from', adnominal m. d. Gen.-Аbl., introduces Meillet Ét. 155 f. back to gen.-ablative *atos (in front of, before; in return for; because of, from = Old Indian ataḥ `thenceforth'ö rather Pron.-stem *e- with ablat. Adv.-forms -tos); idg. *ati (and *eti) would be in addition Lok.; both remain very unsafe.

The double aspect lit. ata-: atō- reminds in pa-: (see *apo), (see *apo), and it is doubtful about whether one may see in ablative *atōd a kind of o-stem formation. In the Slav. the form on long vowel is formed further in russ. etc. otáva `grommet', as Old Prussian attolis, lit. atólas, lett. atãls, atals `grommet' speaking for idg. older short vocalized form lit. ată- = idg. *ato- (compare to ending *apo, *upo):

air. do-, to- prefix `to' with (idg.ö) zero grade of anl. vowels (Meillet aaO., Stokes BB. 29, 171, Pedersen KG. II 74), probably also illyr. to-, alb. te `to, by' (Skok by Pokorny Urill. 50).

References: WP. I 42 f., WH. I 75, 421 f., 863.

Page(s): 70-71

Root / lemma: at-, *atno-

English meaning: to go; year

German meaning: `gehen, Jahr'


Gr. ἔνος `year' : lat. annus `year' (*atnos) `year' : Old Indian hā́yana- `yearly', hāyaná- m. n. `year' prove that Root / lemma: en-2 : `year' : Root / lemma: at-, *atno- : `to go; year' : Root / lemma: u̯et- : `year' [prothetic u̯- before bare initial vowels] derived from Root / lemma: ĝhei-2, ĝhi-, ĝhei-men-, *ĝheimn- : `winter; snow'.

Material: Old Indian átati `goes, walks, wanders'. Moreover lat. annus `year' from *atnos = got. Dat. Pl. aÞnam `year'. compare Fick I2 338, W. Meyer KZ. 28, 164, Froehde BB. 16, 196 f. (meaning development like with germ. *jēram `year' to i̯ē- `go').

Maybe alb. geg. (*ant) vajt, tosk. vete, vajti aor. `to go', (*iti) viti `go around, year, all year around' [common alb. prothetic v- before initial bare vowels - proof of ancient laryngeal .

Lat. has followed alb. phonetic mutations t > nt > n, clearly lat. annus `year' derived from Old Indian (*antanti) átati]


Etruscan follows alb. phonetic mutations Etruscan Avil : year, Avilxva :yearly // derivated from Avil, by adding a adjectival suffix -xva.

Osk.-umbr. corresponds akno- `year, festival time, sacrificial time' (with -tn- to -kn-, Brugmann IF. 17, 492). Received the word is durable in compounds lat. perennis `the whole year; continuously' [perennis -e `lasting throughout the year; durable, perennial', perennitas -atis f. `duration, perpetuity', perenno -are `to last many years'.], sollennis `festive, annual, customary, returning or celebrated annually, solemn, ceremonial, ritualistic; usual' (additional form sollemnis absolutely analogical results; Thurneysen AflL. 13, 23 ff., after omnisö); umbr. sevḫacni-, per-acni- `sollennis', Subst. `victim, sacrifice, sacrificial offering'.

References: WP. I 42 f., WH. I 51, 847.

Page(s): 69

Root / lemma: augh-, ugh-

English meaning: nape

German meaning: `Genick'

Material: Charpentier KZ. 46, 42 places together Old Indian uṣṇíhā f. `neck' (only Pl.) and gr. αὐχήν `nape, throat, straits'.

In uṣṇíhā before lies diminutive suffix -ihā̆-, gr. -ιχα- . The beginning is *ughḫsḫnḫíghā the first gh is reduced being produced by dissimilation. To *ugh-s-no stands *au̯gh-en- in gr. αὐχήν compared with here arm. awj `throat', awji-k `cervical collar'; öol. ἄμφην `nape, neck', öol. αὔφεν ds. must be separated therefrom, in spite of Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 296; about gr. δάφνη: kypr. δαύχνα `laurel' better WH. I 775 f. (compare above S. 43 and Hoffmann Gr. Dial. II 500, Meister Gr. Dial. I 120).

References: WP. I 25, Adontz Mél. Boisacq 10.

Page(s): 87

Root / lemma: aug-

English meaning: to glance, see, dawn

German meaning: `glönzen; sehen'


Probably Root / lemma: aug- : `to glance, see, dawn' derived from Root / lemma: au̯es- : `to shine; gold, dawn, aurora etc. `.

Material: Gr. αὐγή `shine, ray, daylight; eye', αὐγάζω `shines, illuminates; sees', ἐρι-αυγής `shining very much';

alb. agój `dawns', agume `aurora, morning, dawn' (see Persson Beitr. 369);


Root / lemma: aug- : `to glance, see, dawn' derived from Root / lemma: au̯es- : `to shine; gold, dawn, aurora etc. `

gr. hom. ἠώς *(āusōs), Gen. ἠοῦς (ἠόος), att. (with accent innovation) ἕως, dor. ἀ ̄ ώς, ἀ F ώρ, changing through ablaut öol. αὔως `aurora' (proto gr. αυ [ σ ] ώς), böot. ἄα and Αἰαίη (*ἀαίη);

ἄγχαυρος `near the morning', αὔριον `tomorrow' (*αυσρ -); hom. ἤιε Φοῖβε `radiative morning'; ἠι - κανός `rooster, cock' (*āusi- `singing in the morning early morning');

Maybe gr. ἄγχαυρος `near the morning' : alb. agu `dawn' s/ h allophones : Estonian agu `daybreak, dawn' : Latvian ausma, sājums `dawn'

[conservative definitive forms versus indefinite forms (alb. phonetic trait)]

from also slav. iugъ `south' (Fick KZ. 20, 168), russ. užinъ, užinaö

Probably wrong etymology since slav. iugъ `south' : alb. jug `south' must have derived from lat. iugum -i n. `a yoke' - a constellation in the southern night skies. see Root / lemma: i̯eu-2, i̯eu̯ǝ-, i̯eu̯-g- : to tie together, yoke

References: WP. I 25.

Page(s): 87

Root / lemma: au1

English meaning: interjection of pain

German meaning: Ausruf of Schmerzes, der Verwirrung, Entröstung

Material: Old Indian o, lat. au `Oh!', ags. ēa, mhd. ou(wē), nhd. au, lett. aũ, àu (disyllabic au, avu with displeasure, refusal, astonishment, surprise), poln. au, čech. ounder

References: WH. I 78.

Page(s): 71

Root / lemma: au-2, au̯-es-, au-s-

English meaning: to spend the night, sleep

German meaning: `öbernachten, schlafen'

Material: Arm. aganim `spends the night', vair-ag `living in the country', aut `spend the night, night's rest, station'.

Gr. ἰαύω `sleeps' from redupl. *i-ausō, Aor. ἰ-αῦσαι, next to which unredupl. Aor. ἄεσα, Inf. ἀFέσ(σ)αι; αὖλις, -ιδος `place of residence, camp, stable, night's lodging', αὐλίζομαι `is in the court, spends the night', ἄγραυλος `spending the night outside', αὐλή `court, courtyard, dwelling' (originally probably `the fenced in space around the house in which the cattle is rounded up for the nighttime'); from ἰαύω comes except ἰαυθμός `Night's lodging',

μηλιαυθμός `sheep stable', ἐνιαυθμός `place of residence' (: hom. ἐνιαύειν `have his rest accommodation') also gr. ἐνιαυτός actually `rest, rest station', therefore the solstices as resting places in the course of the sun (solstitium), then `year, solstice, anniversary' (different Specht Idg. Dekl. 15, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I, 4245, s. also en- `year').

A heavy base *au̯ē-, *au̯ō- probably to be added hom. ἀωτεῖς ὕπνον (from Schulze Qunder ep. 72 directly to ἰαύω put under formal comparison from ἐρ(F)ωτάω : εἴρομαι from *ἔρFομαι) and ἄωρος (Sappho), ὦρος (Kallimachos) `ὕπνος' (Benfey Wzl.-Lex. I 298), wherefore ags. wērig, engl. weary, as. wōrag, wōrig `tired, weary', ahd. wuorag `inebriates'; about Old Indian vāyati `gets tired'; see however, root au̯ē- `strive oneself, exert'.

References: WP. I 19 f. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 690.

See also: Über u̯es- `verweilen' see under besonderem Artikel.

Page(s): 72

Root / lemma: au-lo-s (: ēu-l-) [*heu-l-]

English meaning: tube, hole, *street

German meaning: `Röhre, löngliche Höhlung'

Material: Gr. αὐλός m. `pipe flute, long cavity', ἔν-αυλος m. `riverbed', αὐλών m. f. `mountain valley, gulch, ditch, canal, strait';

Old Church Slavic ulьjь, lit. aulỹs and secondarily avilỹs `beehive', originally the cavity in the tree in which the swarm settles;


[probably Old Church Slavic avilỹs `beehive' < vaulỹs; but prothetic v- before bare initial vowels has been attested in illyr., alb. and slav. tongues; maybe through metathesis au > ua alb. tosk (*hau-lo-) huall, geg. huell, hoje Pl. `beehive, cavity' = lat. alvus `beehive, cavity' [common alb. shift l > j], alb. hollë `narrow, thin', alb. is the only language to have preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-. Clearly the lat. cognate derived from illyr. and slav. cognates.

From (*halvus, alhwus) lat. alvus `beehive, cavity' derived rum. albină `bee', Portuguese abelha `bee', Spanish abeja `bee', French abeille `bee' [common Italic and Greek -hw- > -b- phonetic mutation.

Old Church Slavic ulica f. `street, - in a built-up area - hollow, ravine, gorge, narrow pass', lit. aũlas f., Old Prussian aulinis `bootleg', Old Prussian aulis `shinbone'.

Maybe zero grade in alb. tosk. udhë ullë `road, street' [the common alb.-illyr.-lat. -dh- > -ll-, -d- > -l- shift]

Maybe Root / lemma: au-lo-s (: ēu-l-) : `tube, hole, *street' derived from Root / lemma: u̯eĝh- : `to move, carry, drive' [common alb. -ĝh- > -d- phonetic mutation]

Arm. , uɫi `way' and (compare the meaning `belly' from lat. alvus) yɫi `pregnant' (with ablaut ū, Pedersen KZ. 39, 459; derivatives uɫarkem and ylem `send in')*);


*) arm. word with the ablaut grade idg. ū̆. from with the same lett. ula, ulá `wheel hub'ö (would be the `tubularly hole' in which the axis is inserted; Lidén IF. 19, 321).


nnorw. aul, aule and (with idg. ēu- as a high step to au-) jōl `angelica silvestris', anord. (huann-) jōli `the hollow stems of angelica archangelica ', both plants call in Norway also sløke, whose basic meaning likewise `tube, pipe' is (Falk-Torp 474 and 1492 under jol and from Schroeder to germ. ablaut 58 f. likewise boat name jolle `dinghy').

Here with lat. rearrangement of aul- tu alu̯- also alvus m. f. `belly, womb, stomach; hold of a ship, beehive', alveus `a hollow, cavity, trough; hence boat; also the hold of a ship; bathtub; bed of a stream; beehive; gaming-table', although time and limitation of the rearrangement are still totally unclear (see Thurneysen IF. 21, 177, Sommer Hdb.2 78).

References: WP. I 25 f., WH. I 34 f., different Banateanu REtlE 1, 122.

Page(s): 88-89

Root / lemma: au-3 (au̯e); u̯ē̆-

English meaning: from, away, of

German meaning: `herab, weg von -'

Material: Old Indian áva `from, down', mostly prefix from verbs and Subst., rarely preposition m. Abl., av. ap. ava prefix `down' and (while more the purpose than the starting point of the movement came to the consciousness) `whereupon to, to what, near' (e.g. avabar- `to take there, carry away' and `to take there, procure, supply, get'), also preposition m. Akk. `there, there in'; therefrom Old Indian ávara- `inferior' and av. aorā `after, below, down' (after parā extended from avarǝ);

av. avarǝ Adv. `below, down'= Old Indian avár RV. I 133, 7; Old Indian aváḥ (avás) `down', whereof avastād `under'; without auslaut vowel (compare av. ao-rā̆) Old Indian ō- e.g. in ō-gaṇá-ḥ `single, pathetic' (: gaṇáḫḥ `troop, multitude'; Wackernagel Old Indian Gr. I 54);

gr. αὐ- probably in αὐχάττειν ἀναχωρεῖν, ἀναχάζεσθαι Hes. (Schulze Qunder ep. 60);

illyr. au- `(of motion), towards, to (a person or place), at' in proper namesö (Krahe IF. 49, 273);

lat. au- `away, off, gone' in auferō `to take away, bear off, carry off, withdraw, remove' (= av. áva-bharati, av. avaḫbar-), aufugiō `to flee away, run away, escape';

gall. au-tagis `διάταξιςö' (Vendryes BSL. 25, 36);

air. perhaps ō, ūa `from, with, by', as a preposition m. dat., acymr. hou, more recently o `if', o preposition `from';

Old Prussian lit. lett. au- `away, from' (e.g. lett. au-manis `not- sensical, nonsensical'), Old Church Slavic u prefix `away, from', e.g. uḫmyti `to give a wash, wash away' (u-běžati `flee from'), as preposition m. Gen. `from' (with verbs of the desire, receive, take) and, with fading of the concept of the starting point, `by, from';

maybe alb. particle of passive u `by, from' used before verbs in passive voice.

hett. preverb u- (we-, wa-) `here', aḫwaḫan `away' (Sturtevant Lg. 7, 1 ff.).

thereof with t-forms aut(i)o-: gr. αὔτως `unavailingly, in vain', αὔσιος ds. and got. auÞja- (N. Sg. *auÞeis or *auÞs) `desolate, leave' (*`remote'), auÞida `desert', ahd. ōdi, nhd. öde, anord. auđr `desolate'; air. ūathad `item, particular, sort'. - goes to the frightening wilderness, wilderness also mir. ūath `fright, terrible' (are to be kept away cymr. uthr `terrible', corn. uth, euth, bret. euz `fright')ö At least is their connection with lat. pavēre `to quake with fear, panic; transit. to quake at, tremble' everything rather than sure, see pou- `fear'.

Beside aut(i)o- steht perhaps changing through ablaut u-to- in alb. hut `in vain, blank, vainly', u̯e-to- (see unten *u̯ē̆-) in gr. οὑκ ἐτός `not free of charge, not without reason', ἐτώσιος (F by Homer) `in vain, without success, pointless'.

Maybe truncated alb. (*hot) kot `in vain, without success, pointless'; alb. is the only IE language to preserve the old laryngeal ḫ- > k-.

to combine *u̯ē̆̆- with *au̯- probably under *au̯e-:

lat. *vĕ- in vēscor `to eat, feed on; to use, enjoy' originally `whereof to eat up' (: esca), from which back formation vēscus `greedy; fastidiously in food (*merely nibbling off); underfed';

again alb. eshkë `fungus' : lat. esca `food, victuals, esp. as bait'. Prothetic v- added to bare initial vowels is an alb.-illyr. phonetic mutation.

vē- to indication faulty too much or too little, vē-cors `senseless, mad, moves, treacherous', vē-grandis `diminutive, not large, tiny', vēsānus `mad, insane; of things, furious, wild', Vē-jovis, umbr. veḫpurus (Abl. Pl.), wheather `(ἱερὰ) ἄπυρα'.


Also in alb. vē- to indication faulty too much or too little: alb. vështirë `difficult, hard' from (vē- shtirë (participle of alb. shtynj `push with difficulty') see Root / lemma: (s)teu-1 : `to push, hit'.

u̯o-: Gr. Fο- in ark. Fο-φληκόσι, att. ὀ-φλισκάνω, ὀφείλω, lesb. ὀ-είγην `open', att. οἴγω, more recently οἴγνυμι (Prellwitz2 345, Brugmann IF. 29, 241, BSGW. 1913, 159).

u̯es-: With Old Indian avás `down' attached together formant germ. wes- in nhd. West, ahd. westar `westwards', anord. vestr n. `westen', Adv. `in the west, against west' (*u̯es-t(e)ro-, compare anord. norḫđr), ahd. westana `from west' etc (Brugmann IF. 13, 157 ff.; about the explanation of the Wisigothae as `West-Goths, Visigoths' s. Kretschmer Gl. 27, 232).

Here (after Brugmann aaO.) the initial sound of the word for evening, idg. u̯esperos and u̯eqeros, see there.

Relationship from idg. *au̯-, u̯ē̆- with the Pron.-stem au-, u- `yonder, over there' as `on the other side, from there' is conceivable.

References: WP. I 13 f., WH. I 79, 850, Trautmann 16.

Page(s): 72-73

Root / lemma: au-4, u- (: u̯ē̆-, u̯o-)

English meaning: that; other

German meaning: Pronominalstamm `jener', also gegenöberstellend `alter, alius', `andrerseits, hinwiederum', in zwei aufeinanderfolgenden Satzgliedern gesetzt `dér einerseits - dér andrerseits', `einerseits - andrerseits'.

Material: au̯o: Old Indian av. Old pers. ava- `that'; Old Church Slavic aruss. ovъ- - ovъ- `on the one hand - on the other hand which appears - other', ovogda - ovogda `one time - the other time' (from this correlative use only poln. ów corresponds to English deictic "I" and serb. òvaj a deictic word meaning "that", also nbulg. -v [*u̯o-s] developed).

u-: Old Indian amú- (Akk. Sg. amúm etc) `that, yonder', arise from Akk. Sg. m. *am (= idg. *eḫm `eum') + *um (Akk. Sg. of ours stem u); s. Wackernagel-Debrunner III 550 f.

Toch. A ok, В uk `still', A oki `as, and', A okāk `up to', perhaps only *uḫg (zero grade to got. auk); from in addition В om(p)ne, omte `there'ö

Particle Old Indian u `thus, also, on the other hand, there again, against it', emphasizing esp. after verbal forms, Pron. and particles ( `and not, not' = ná́ u, athō = atha u), gr. -υ in πάν-υ `even very much',

got. -u interrogative particle (also the enclitic -uh from -u-qʷe, s. Brugmann IF. 33, 173); this u also in Old Indian a-sāú m. f. `that, yonder', av. hāu m. f., ap. hauv m. `that, yonder', Wackernagel-Debrunner III 529, 541.

Particle Old Indian uḫtā, in both parts `on the one hand - on the other hand, soon - soon, - as', or only in the second part, a little bit opposing `and, thus' (nachved. in ity-uta, kim-uta, praty-uta),

av. uta, ap. utā `and, and also'; gr. ἠύτε `just as' from *ἠF(ε) + υτε (originally `as on the other hand', `as, also'), but hom. εὖτε `ὅτε' from εὖ + τε after Debrunner IF. 45, 185 ff.; δεῦτε is formed in addition to δεῦρο; also οὗτος, αὕτη, τοῦτο most probably from ὁ, ἁ, το + υτε with additional final inflection;

wgerm. -od in as. thar-od, ahd. thar-ot `thither, there', as. her-od, ahd. her-ot `here', whereupon also as. hwarod `whither, where', ahd. warot `whither, where' (from *uteö or from *utā̆ö Also *aute, *auti, see below, would be possible basic form).

Here av. uiti, gthav. ūitī `so', but not lat. ut and utī, alat. utei.

Beside u, utā etc. stands with the ablaut grade idg. au-:

gr. αὖ `on the other hand, again', *αὖτι `again' (extended to ion. αὖτις, gort. αὖτιν, after antique grammarians for `right away, there', where from αὐτίκα `at the moment, straight away', αὖ-θι`on the spot, here, there', αὖτε `again, thus, further'; lat. aut (*auti) `or', autem `however' (to the form see WH. I 87), osk. aut, auti `or' and `but, on the other hand, on the contrary, however' (to meaning see v. Planta II 465);

maybe alb. geg. o `or' from ital. o `or'

umbr. ute, ote `aut'; perhaps got. auk `then, but', anord. auk `also, and', ags. ēac, as. ōk, ahd. ouh `and, thus, but', nhd. also = gr. αὖ-γε `again'.

Pedersen Pron. dém. 315 supposes gr. αὖ suitable form in the initial sound of from alb. a-që `so much'. - Brugmann BSGW. 60, 23 a 2 lines up in gr. αὐ-τός as `(he) himself - (he) of his own, self'; other interpretations see with Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 613 f.

Maybe alb. (*aut-) vetë `self' [common alb. prothetic v- before bare initial vowels].

With r-forms airan. avar `here', lit. aurè `see there!', zero grade umbr. uru `that, that yonder, that one; emphatically, that well-known; in contrast with hic, the former', ura-ku `ad illam', ures `illis' (orer ose rather with = as = lit. au); perhaps δεῦρο `here, well, all right, well then (an obsolete interjection meaning "come now")' (δεύρω after ὀπίσσω under likewise, inschr. δεῦρε after ἄγε) from *δέ-υρο (δε `here' + αὐρο `here'), Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 612, 632.

u̯ḗ-, u̯o-: meaning `or' (= `on the other hand') esp. in Old Indian `or' (also `even, yet; meanwhile; probably, possibly'; also confirming vāi), av. ap. `or' (particle of the emphasis and assurance),

Old Indian av. - `either - or', gr. ἠ-(F)έ, ἤ (with proclitic emphasis, proclitic stress for ἦ-(F)ε, as yet in the second part of the double question),

lat. -vĕ `or' (also in ceu, sīve, seu, nēve, neu), also probably ir. nó, abret. nou `or' (if from *neḫu̯e `or not'' with fading the negative meaning originally in negative sentences, Thurneysen Grammar 551;

not more probably after Pedersen KG. I 441 a grown stiff imperative *neu̯e of the verb ir. at-nói `he entrusts with him', gr. νεύω); toch. В waḫt `where'.

compare also Old Indian i-vá (: va = ἰ-δέ: δέ) `just as, exactly the same way', ē-vá `in such a way, exactly the same way, just, only', ēvám `so, thus' (behaves to be confirmed vāi and - as ēḫna- `this' to - `in different way', originally `thus and thus'; with ē-vá corresponds gr. οἶ(F)ος `only' (`*just only'), av. aēva-, Old pers. aiva- `an, one' (compare with no- demonstrative idg. *oiḫnoḫs `an, one').

References: S. esp. Brugmann Dem. 96 f., Grundr. II2 2, 341-343, 350, 731 f. m. Lit. II2 3, 987,

Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 629, 632, 804, Boisacq s. v. αὖ, etc

WP. I 187 f., WH. I 87, 209, Van Windekens Lexique 78, 80.

Page(s): 73-75

Root / lemma: auqʷ(h)- : uqʷ(h)- and beside it probably as andere lengthened grade u̯eqʷ(h)-

English meaning: cooking pot

German meaning: `Kochtopf, Wörmepfanne'

Material: Lat. aulla, aula, vulg. ōlla `jar, pot' from *auxlā, Demin. auxilla (fal. olna in ending after urna); probably alb. anë f. `vessel' (from *auqʷnāö Jokl. Stud. 3); Old Indian ukhá-ḥ m., ukhā́ `pot, saucepan'; got. aúhns m. (*ukʷnós) `oven, stove', with gramm. variation anorw. ogn, aschwed. oghn ds.

Maybe alb. (*ahna) ena `dish' : Indic AnvA `oven, furnace'.

Besides forms with probably only to single-linguistic labial: gr. gr. ἰπνός, older ἱπνός `stove' (after Fick III4 29 between, Oštir WuS. 5, 217, Göntert Abl. 25 from *u̯eqʷ-nós; not *uqʷnós, s. Boisacq m. Lit.), after E. Fraenkel KZ. 63, 202 from *ὑκFνός through dissimilatorischen sound changeöö (W. Schulze GGA. In 1897, 908);


Common gr. - celt. -kʷ- > -p-, -gʷ- > -b- phonetic mutation.

bret. offen f. `stone trough' in spite of Loth RC. 43, 410 barely from *uppā; ags. ofnet `small vessel', ofen, ahd. ovan, anord. ofn `stove, oven' (likewise leadable back in *ueqʷnos; beginning u̯- caused as in wulfa- `wolf' the development from -lv- to -f-, during got. etc auhns goes back to idg. *uqʷ-nós; then the loss of w- in Ofen then must be explained indeed from influence of this sister's form *uhna-).

From the assimilated form aschwed. omn, mundartl. umn `stove' is probably borrowed Old Prussian wumpnis `oven', umnode `bakehouse, oven, kiln, stove'. S. Meillet MSL. 9, 137, Meringer IF. 21, 292 ff., Senn Germ. Lw. studies, Falk-Тоrp under ovn, weigand herdsman and clever under Ofen.

To the objective see Meringer aaO., Schrader Reallex. 592 f.

References: WP. I 24, WH. I 84, 850, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 258.

See also: (compare S. 84 f. aug-: u̯eg-, oldest au̯eg-)

Page(s): 88

Root / lemma: aus- (*heuks)

English meaning: to draw (water), ladle, *shed blood

German meaning: `schöpfen'

Root / lemma: aus- : `to draw (water), ladle' derived from the stem: au̯/е /-, au̯ent-: of Root / lemma: au̯(e)-9, au̯ed-, au̯er- : `to flow, to wet; water, etc. `.

Material: Gr ἐξαύω `scoops, extracts, takes from' (simple αὔω), ἐξαυστήρ μέτρου ὄνομα, καταῦσαι ἐξαντλήσαι, καταδῦσαι, καθαῦσαι ἀφανίσαι (Spritus asper after the former present tense *αὕω from *αὔσω, Sommer Gr. Lautst. 2 f.)

under likewise with zero grade *us- ἀφ-ύω, ἀφ-ύσσω (latter from Aor. ἀφύσσαι) `scoops', common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation;

ἀφυσμός ἀπάντλησις Suidas and ἀρύω `scoops', originally *Fᾱρ (: Old Indian vār `water')*ὔ[σ]ω `scoops water', ἀρυστήρ `vessel for ladling'.

Anord. ausa `to scoop', austr `scoop, backwash, the shocks, wake', ndd. ūtoesen `to draw (water), ladle, scoop', schwöb. Öse `vessel for ladling'.

Lat hauriō, -īre, hausī, haustum `to draw up, draw out or in; to drink up, absorb, swallow; to shed blood; to drain, empty a receptacle; in gen., to derive, take in; also to exhaust, weaken, waste', then also `slurp, tie, suffers', poet. `wounds', with secondary h as casual in humerus.

References: WP. I 27 f., WH. I 637, 869, W. Schulze Kl. Schr. 190 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 6444.

Page(s): 90

Root / lemma: au̯eg-, u̯ōg-, aug-, ug-

English meaning: to magnify, increase

German meaning: `vermehren, zunehmen'

Note: with s-forms au̯ek-s-, auk-s-, u̯ek-s-, uk-s-

Material: Old Indian ugrá- `immense' (compounds Sup. ṓjīyas-, ṓjiṣ̌ṭha- `the stronger one, strongest') = av. ugra- `strong, hard' (compounds Sup. aojyah-, aojišta-).

lat. augeō, -ēre `to increase, augment, enlarge, spread, extend', auctor (= umbr. uhtur) `a promoter, producer, father, progenitor, author etc', auctiō `an increasing; hence, from the bidding, an auction', augmen(tum) `an increase, growth, a kind of sacrificial cake' (= lit. augmuõ `increase, growth', Old Indian ōjmán- m. `strength'), augur `a seer, soothsayer, diviner, augur' from *augos `aggrandizement' (WH. I 83);

got. aukan (preterit aíauk), auknan `increase', ana-, bi-aukan `to append, subjoin, add on', ahd. ouhhōn, as. ōkian `increase', ags. ēacian `increase', īecan `increase', anord. auka (preterit jōk and aukađa) `increase', st. participle ags. ēacen, as. ōkan `increased, pregnant';

lit. áugu, áugti (lengthened grade) `increase, grow', auginù, -ìnti `allow to grow, educate, bring up', changing through ablaut pa-ūgė́ti `grow up', ũgis `growth, annual growth', lett. aûdzêt, aûdzinât `gather', Old Prussian auginnons particle Perf. Akt. `drawn, pulled',

alett. aukts `high' = lat. auctus `to increase, augment, enlarge, spread, extend', lett. aũgt `grow', as also thrak. Αὐθί-παρος `high ford', Old Prussian Aucti-garbin, aucktai-rikijskan `authority', aucktimmien `chief',

next to which with s of -es-stem (see below) lit. áukštas, lett. aûksts `high' (: lat. augustus `consecrated, holy; majestic, dignified'), Old Prussian auck-timmiskan f. (Akk.) `authority', Old Prussian aūgus `costive, constipated' (as `increasing'), lit. áugumas, lett. aûgums `increase, growth';

es-stem Old Indian ṓjas- n. `vigorousness, strength', av. aojah-, aogah- (also r-stem aogarǝ) `vigorousness, strength', lat. augustus see above (also lit. etc áukštas); in addition with s in the verb:

Old Indian vákṣaṇaḫm `strengthening', vakṣáyati `allows to grow', av. vaxšaiti `allows to grow', next to which with the weakest root grade Old Indian úkṣati `'gains strength' (Perf. vavákṣa), av. uxšyeiti `grows'; common Old Indian ĝh- > kṣ- phonetic mutation

got. wahsjan `grow' (= Old Indian vakṣayati, idg. Iter.-Kaus. *u̯okséi̯ō; with it that combined ō- gradation Perf. wōhs to the paradigm; see Brugmann IF. 32, 180, 189);

gr. ἀ(F)έξω `grow, increase', ἀέξομαι `grows'; αὔξω, αὐξάνω `grow, increase', lat. auxilium `help, aid, assistance, support, succor' (originally Pl. -iа `strengthening, reinforcements', N. Pl. auxilis `auxiliary troops, or in gen., military power');

anord. vaxa, vexa `grow', ahd. wahsan, nhd. wachsen, wuchs, wherefore e.g. got. wahstus `accretion, growth, body size', ahd. wa(h)smo `growth' under likewise;

toch. A oksiš `grows', A okšu, В aukšu `old'; after Van Windekens Lexique 79 also here AB oko `fruit', A okar `plant'; against it Pedersen Tochar. 227.

Here with zero grade u̯ōg-: got. wōkrs m. `interest', ags. wōcor f. `progeny, interest' (compare gr. τόκος in the same meaning), ahd. wuohhar m. `yield of the ground, fetus, progeny, profit, interest, usury' (in addition steir. wiech `extensive, excessive, rich in leaves' as umlautö

A little bit differently Schroeder Abl. 57 f.), there in not with s expanded root form au̯eg- the grade u̯eg- is covered in air. fēr, cymr. gwair `grass, herbage'; probably with the same ablaut Old Indian vā́ja-ḥ `strength, property, wealth, the prize (won in a contest) [The Greeks gave a wreath of laurels to winners in the Pythian games], race', originally `quick, successful, energy', Oldenberg ZdMG. 50, 443 ff.

References: WP. I 22 f., WH. I 82 f., 850, Feist 67, 541, 572, Pedersen Tochar. 227.

Page(s): 84-85

Root / lemma: au̯ei- (ǝu̯ei-ö) (*hekʷei-)

English meaning: bird, *water bird

German meaning: `Vogel'


Both Root / lemma: au̯ei- (ǝu̯ei-ö) (*hekʷei-): bird, *water bird : Root / lemma: akʷā- (*ǝkʷā): ēkʷ- : water, river, derived from zero grade of Root / lemma: ĝhāgʷh- : young of an animal or bird; common gr. gh- > h- phonetic mutation.

Material: Old Indian víḥ, vḗḥ m. `bird' (Gen. vēḥ, Akk. vim), av. vīš ds. (G. Pl. vayąm, also with themat. case from stem vaya-), mpers. vāi, vāyandak `bird', Old Indian vayas- n. `fowl, bird', vāyasa-ḥ `bird, crow'; verbal av. ā-vayeiti `flies up' (from divinities), Old Indian vēvīyatē `flutters'.


Common zero grade in alb. (*avidos) vide, vidhezë `dove' : Old Indian víḥ, vḗḥ m. `bird'.

Gr. αἰετός `eagle', att. ἀ̄ετός, αἰβετός, ἀετός Περγαῖοι Hes. (*αFι̯-ετός);

Maybe nasalized alb. geg. (*hegʷ-os, hab-os) > *gabôjë, gabonjë, shkab(*-on-), shqiponjë `eagle' : gr αἰβετός (*α F ι ̯- ετός) `eagle' : diminutive lat. (*aku̯ei-la) aquila `eagle'.

Root / lemma: ĝhāgʷh- : young of an animal or bird : Root / lemma: au̯ei- (ǝu̯ei-ö) (*hekʷei-): bird, *water bird similar phonetic mutations as hett. ḫu-uḫ-ḫa-aš (ḫuḫḫaš) `grandfather' see Root / lemma: au̯o-s (*gḫue-gḫue-as) (*ghehu̯o-s): grandfather: the original root was a dublicated (*gḫue-gḫue-as) hett. ḫu-uḫ-ḫa-aš (ḫuḫḫaš) `grandfather' that was abbreviated into Root / lemma: au̯o-s: grandfather; Root / lemma: sūs- (*ghus): parent : alb. (*ḫuḫḫaš) gjysh `grandfather'.

alb. vi-do, vito, vidheze `dove';


Common gr. -kʷ- > -p-, -gʷ- > -b- phonetic mutation. Hence Root / lemma: au̯ei- (ǝu̯ei-ö) : `bird, water bird' evolved simultaneously with Root / lemma: akʷā- (*ǝkʷā): ēkʷ- : `water, river'.

lat. avis f. `bird' (therefrom auca `bird, esp. goose';

Back-formation from Demin. aucella from *avicella; false by WH. I 79) = umbr. avif Akk. Pl. `birds' (aviekate D. Sg. `the taken auspices', aviekla `relating to an augur or augury');

cymr. hwyad, acorn. hoet, bret. houad `duck' from *au̯i̯etosö (Pedersen KG. I 55). Arm. hav `bird, cock, hen' can have indeed suggestion -h, but also as *pǝu̯- belong to *pōu̯- `the young, boy' (slav. pъta `bird' etc).

References: WP. I 21, WH. 84, 850.

See also: In connection with it stand most probably the words for `egg', see under ōu-.

Page(s): 86

Root / lemma: au̯(e)-10, au̯ē(o)-, u̯ē-

English meaning: to blow

German meaning: `wehen, blasen, hauchen'

Grammatical information: participle u̯ē-nt-

Note: in slav. languages often from the `throw dice', i.e. to the cleaning of the grain of the chaff by throwing of the grains against the wind.

Material: I. belong to light root form au̯(e)-:

a. Gr. ἄος (if not late neologism), -ᾱής (see under II a).

b. Mcymr. awyđ `violent gust of wind', acorn. awit `air' (*au̯eido-);

c. u̯e-dhro- presumably in anord. veđr n. `wind, air, weather', as. wedar n. `weather, bad weather', ahd. wetar `weather, scent, free air, wind (of animals)' and Old Church Slavic vedro `cheerful weather', vedrъ `jovial, merry (from the weather)';

u̯ĕ-d- perhaps in gr. ἑδανός `fragrant'; in u̯ĕ-dh- correlates Persson Beitr. 664 doubting still ἐθμή ἀτμός, καπνὸς λεπτός, ἀτμή Hes.).

d. r-, l- derivatives: gr. αὔρα `aerial breath, draft' (places light root form au̯ĕ- ahead, as ἄελλα, ἀετμόν, Wetter, see under); but ἀήρ, Gen. ἠέρος `smoke, fog, air' stays away, see under u̯er- `bind, hang up'.

Gr. ἄελλα, öol. αὔελλα `storm' (*ἄFελ-ι̯ᾰ); cymr. awen `inspiration', awel f. `wind, breath', acorn. auhel `aura, heaven, breeze', mcorn. awel `weather', brit. Lw. mir. ahél (h hiatus sign), aial `wind, breath'. According to Thurneysen Grammar 125 air. oal `mouth' from *au̯elā.

e. au̯-et- in gr. ἀετμόν τὸ πνεῦμα Hes., ἄετμα φλόξ Et. M., ἀτμός (contracted from ἀετμός) `vapour, smoke, smoke', with zero grade, but analogical absorption of ἀ-: ἀυτμή `breath, draft of the bellows, the wind, smell, hot aura of the fire', ἀυτμήν ds.

II. belong to heavy root form:

a. uē-, uǝ-: Old Indian vāti, av. vāiti `blows', gr. ἄησι ds., kypr. ζάει (read ζάη with ζ from *dj-) Hes. (that α in ἄησι perhaps prothetic; from light root form come gr. ἄος πνεῦμα Hes.;

maybe alb. (**u̯ē-nts) vesh `strike, blow, hit'.

ἀκρᾱής `sharp blowing', δυσᾱής `adverse blowing', ὑπερᾱής `excessive blowing' with stretch in compound); besides the participle *u̯ē-nt- `blowing' (Old Indian vānt-, gr. Akk. ἄεντα) stand *u̯ē-nto-s `wind' in lat. ventus, got. etc winds, ahd. wint, cymr. gwynt `wind', wherefore lat. ventilāre `(*expose to a draught, brandish, fan), oscillate, vibrate', ventilābrum `throw shovel', got. diswinÞjan `separate the grain (the wheat) from the chaff', winÞiskaúrō `throw shovel' (germ. Þ, next to which with gramm. variation d in:) ahd. wintōn `winnow, fan', winta, wintscūvala `winnowing shovel', ags. windwian `to expose to the hoist, winnow, fan' (engl. winnow); toch. A want, В yente `wind'.

About hett. hu-u-wa-an-te-eš (h(u)u̯anteš) `hoist' (ö) see Forrer by Feist 565, places the word as `(hurrying) clouds' to hu-wa-a-i `runs, flees', which also belongs here; see Couvreur Ḫ 119 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 6804 .

n- present: gr. αἱνω from *ἀFά-ν-ι̯ω (compare to the formation Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 694) and ἁ̄νέω from *ἀFανέω `clean the grains by shaking up of the chaff, sieves', Fᾶναι περιπτίσαι Hes. (delivers γάναι περιπτύσαι; see also Bechtel KZ. 46, 374); is based on such zero grade n- present, but in meaning `blow', thus Old Prussian wins `air', Akk. winnen `weather'ö

i̯o-present (or from root form *u̯ēi- ö): Old Indian vāyati `blows', av. fravāyeiti `goes out'', got. waían waíwō, ags. wāwan, ahd. wājan, wāen `blow', Old Church Slavic vějǫ, vějetъ `blow' and `winnow, fan' (therefrom russ. vě́jalo, sloven. vėvnica, poln. wiejaczka `winnowing shovel, a winnowing-fan'); nominal: lit. vė́jas `blow'; Old Indian vāyú-, av. vāyuš `blow, wind, air'.

For root-like value of -i- leads the sound grade *u̯ī̆- to the following words in which give space, however, partly to other views: Old Church Slavic vijalь, vijalica `storm, weather', russ. vьjálica `snow flurry' (also vějálica!), vьjuga `blizzard, snowstorm', zavьjátь `snow-covered, covered with snow', čech. váti (*vьjati) `blow' (only slav. developments from vortonigem věj-ö);

r.-Church Slavic vichъrъ (*u̯ēisuro-) `whirlwind' (in any case, at first to russ. vichatь `shake, move', vichljatь `toss, fling', s. Brugmann Grundr. II1 1049, Pedersen IF. 5, 70, and probably as `whirl, swing in the circle' to *u̯eis- `turn');

lit. výdra, vidras `gale' (see Leskien Bild. 438; in Lit. very rare forms -dra - compare really lit. vė́tra `storm' - urges to caution);

hom. ἄιον ἦτορ, θυμὸν ἄισθε, αίσθων from breathing out or letting out the vitality (to last meaning Bechtel Lexil 21 f.), gr. root ἀFισ-; mcymr. awyđ s. 82 above.

b. au̯ē-d-: ahd. wāzan, wiaz, mhd. wāzen `blow, exhale, inflate', wāz `gust of wind', lit. vėdìnti `ventilate, cool'; at most gr. ἀάζω `breathes' from *ἀFάδ-ι̯ω (rather, however, gr. neologism of after other verbs in -άζω);

presumably also (from *au̯ǝ-d-ro-) lit. áudra m. `storm', n. `thunderstorm', Old Prussian wydra `blow'. About Old Indian ūdhar n. `chillness, cold', av. аоδarǝ, aota ds. compare Persson Beitr. 11.

c. u̯ē-lo- perhaps in lat. ēvēlātus `scattered, dissipated, fan away, winnow thoroughly', whence vēlābra `something winnowing the grain' (Paul. Fest. 68, 3) and in ahd. wāla m. n. `fans' (if not from *wēḫÞla, see under)ö

d. u̯ē-s-: Old Indian vāsa-ḥ, vāsaka-ḥ `fragrance', vāsayati `fills with fragrance', saṃvāsita-ḥ `makes stinking'; isl. vās `frigid aura', væsa `exhale, blow, breathe', ndl. waas `white frost, ripe, smell, fragrance', lit. vė́stu, vė́sti `cool off, become chill or become aerial', vėsà `chill air, coolness', vė́sus `chilly, aerial'.

e. t- further formations: Old Indian vāta-ḥ, av. vātō `blow', Old Indian vātula-ḥ (see under), gr. ἀήτης `blowing, wind', ἀήσυρος `windy, aerial' = Old Indian vātula `windy' (also `mad; crack-brained; demented; mind-boggling; insane; crazy; unbalanced'; in addition also perhaps gr. ἀήσυλος `sacrilegious, outrageous, wanton, wicked' after Brugmann BSGW. 1901, 94; in spite of αἴσυλος ds. not after Bechtel Lexil. 15 to Old Indian yātu-ḥ `spook, ghost');

lat. vannus `winnowing-fan' (from *u̯at-nó-s, compare the Demin. vatillum originally `a small winnowing shovel'; from lat. comes ahd. wanna, ags. fann `winnowing-fan', also nhd. Wanne);

anord. vēl, vēli `whisk, tail' (about syncopated *veÞla- from *vaÞila-), ahd. wedil ds.; ahd. wadal `tail, fan', Adj. `wandering, fickle, beggar', wadalōn `sweep in a curve, rove' (proto Germanic *waÞla-, idg. *u̯ǝ-tlo-), ags. waÞol `wandering', wǣdla `beggar, poor', wǣdl `poverty', wǣdlian `beg, be poor' (proto Germanic *wēÞla-), next to which ahd. wallōn `wander, gad about, pilgrimages', ags. weallian `wander; roam; travel; journey; drift; float; rove; stray; migrate; hike; walk; ramble; tramp' (from *wāđlṓ-ja-n); ahd. wāla `fans' (from *wē-Þla- or *wē-la-, see above); lit.vė́tra `storm', thunder - storm', Old Church Slavic větrъ `air, blow', Old Prussian wetro `blow'; lit. vė́tyti `winnow, fan'.

Maybe alb. (*vė́tytinj) `strike (lightning)' : lit. vė́tyti `winnow, fan'

About Old Indian úpа-vājayati `make (fire / embers) blaze by blowing air onto (it / them)' (composed from Pāṇini as Kaus. to -) see Wackernagel KZ. 43, 292.

Maybe alb. vatra, vatër `hearth, (place where one blows the fire)'

Maybe here gr. ἄεθλος (see au̯ē-11 `strive oneself') as `gasp, pant, wheeze'ö

References: WP. I 220 f., Feist 565 a, Trautmann 345, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 680.

Page(s): 81-84

Root / lemma: au̯(e)-9, au̯ed-, au̯er- (*aku̯ent- : aḫu̯ent-)

English meaning: to flow, to wet; water, etc.

German meaning: `benetzen, befeuchten, fließen'


From Root / lemma: angʷ(h)i- : `snake, worm' derived Root / lemma: akʷā- (more properly ǝkʷā): ēkʷ-

: `water, river'; Root / lemma: eĝhero- : `lake, inner sea'; Root / lemma: ad(u)-, ad-ro- : `water current': Illyr. pannon. VN ᾽Οσεριᾶτες [common alb.-illyr.-balt. -ĝh- > -d-, -z- phonetic mutation].

From Root / lemma: akʷā- `water, river' nasalized in *aku̯ent- (suffixed in -er, -or) derived Root / lemma: au̯(e)-9, au̯ed-, au̯er- : `to flow, to wet; water, etc. `

Material: a) au̯/е/-, au̯ent-:


The following mutations have taken place: Root: akʷā- > aku̯/е /-, aku̯ent- > au̯/е /-, au̯ent-:

Hisp. FlN Avo[s] > span. Ave, PN A[v]o-briga; gall. FlN Aveda > prov. Avèze (Gard), Avisio portus (Alpes-mar.);

Old Indian avatáḫḥ m. `fountains, wells' (*au̯n̥tos), avaṭá-ḥ `cistern, tank' (with prakrit. from t), ital. FlN Avēns in Sabine land (therefrom Aventīnus m. hill of Romeö), Aventia (Etrurian), gall. Aventia, spring nymph of Aventicum > frz. Avenches (Schweiz), numerous FlN Avantia (*au̯n̥tiā) > frz. Avance, La Vence, abrit. *Avantīsā > cymr. Ewenni; alit. FlN Avantà, lett. avuõts (*au̯ontos) `sources, wellspring, spring'.

b) au̯ed-, aud-, ū̆d-;


The zero grade of Root / lemma: akʷā- `water, river' has been suffixed in nasalized -(n)dor, -(n)tor: *(a)ku̯/е /-, *(a)ku̯entor, *(a)hu̯entor) > (a)u̯ed-, (a)ud-, ū̆d-(*(a)hu̯ed-):

heteroklit. r/n-stem u̯édōr, u̯ódōr (Nom. Sg.), udén(i) (Lok.Sg.), udnés (Gen. Sg.) `water', compare J. Schmidt Pl. 172 ft., Pedersen KZ. 32, 240 ff., Bartholomae PBrB. 41, 273.

Old Indian ōdatī `the soaking, the flowing', ōdman- n. `the waves, floods', ōda-ná-m `mash boiled in milk', av. (*ahuoda) aoδa- m. `wellspring, fount'.

Old Indian unátti (*u-n-ed-ti), 3. Pl. undáti `soaked, moistened'; av. vaiδi- f. `water run, irrigation canal'.

Old Indian udán(i) Lok., udnáḥ Gen., udā́ Nom. Akk. Pl. `water' (Nom. Akk. Sg. udakáḫm); from r-stem derived samudraḫḥ `sea', anudraḫḥ `waterless' (= gr. ἄνυδρος);

udro-s `water animal': Old Indian udráḫḥ `a water animal' = av. udra- m. `otter' (= gr. ὕδρος, ahd. etc ottar, compare also lat. lutra and with ū lit. údra, Old Church Slavic vydra ds.);

also nasalized alb. (*lutra) lundra `otter' a Latin loanword

from -(e)s-stem Old Indian (*hutsa-) utsaḫḥ `spring, well', compare air. (*hudeski̯o-) uisce (*udeski̯o-) `water';


The following phonetic mutations have taken place: zero grade in arm: (a)ku̯ent- > gu̯et, zero grade in slav. (a)hu̯eda- > voda, zero grade in phryg. (a)ku̯edu > βεδυ [common Greek gʷ> b, kʷ> p phonetic mutation]:

arm. (*gwet) get `river' (basic form *u̯edō, Sandhi form to u̯edōr, compare under slav. voda; it corresponds also phryg. βεδυ `water', i.e. *vedū from *u̯edō, Kretschmer Einl. 225).

Maybe alb. (*gu̯et) det `sea' : arm. get `river' common alb. gu̯- > d- phonetic mutation.


Maybe phryg. βεδυ `water' : nasalized illyr. Bindus `water god' [common illyr. gu̯- > b- phonetic mutation].

Maybe alb. geg. bdorë, vdorë, dzborë `snow, snowfall' : gr. ὕδωρ `water' common illyr. gw- > b- phonetic mutation.

Gr. ὕδωρ, ὕδατος (*υδ-n̥-τος) `water' (with metr. elongation ῡδωρ); from r-stem derived ἄνυδρος `waterless', ὕδρος, ὕδρᾱ `water snake', ἐνυδρίς f. `otter', ὑδαρής, ὑδαρός `watery' (ὑδαλέος ds. with suffix exchange; similarly ὕλλος `water snake, ichneumon' : ὕδρος = lak. ἑλλά̄ : ἕδρα), ὕδερος `dropsy', ὑδρία `water bucket' (: lat. uter); from n-stem (compare ὕδνης `watery') derived ΏΑλοσύδνη eig. `sea wave, wave, the billow' (ö),epithet of Amphitrite and Thetis (Johansson Beitr. 117;

from also ὑδνον `truffle' as `juicy'öö), as well as probably Καλ-υδών, -ύδνα (-ύμνᾱ), Καλύδνιοι, -ύμνιοι (see Boisacq 998 a)ö

es-stem τὸ ὕδος `water' is only late poet. Nom. Akk. to Dat. ὕδει.

Maked. PN ῎Εδεσσα from *u̯edesi̯ā, Kretschmer RIEt Balc. 1, 383. common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation.

Alb. ujë `water' (after Pedersen KZ. 34, 286; 36, 339 not from *udḫni̯ā, but from *ud-; or, nevertheless, from *udōö).

The shift -dn- > nj > j of possibly alb. (*udna-h) ujë, ujna Pl. `water' has also been attested in alb. shtynj, shtyj `poke, push' (*studni̯ō); see Root / lemma: (s)teu-1 : `to push, hit'

Maybe alb. ujë neut. Pl. `water' is a truncated derivative of Luwian wida- `watery', hitt. witi `in water'.

Luwian watti `ö'

D-LSg wa-at-ti: KBo XXIX 25 iii 10.

Could be cognate of Hitt. witi 'in water', but unprovable.

Luwian wida- `watery'

D-LPl ú-i-da-an-za: 45 ii 6.

See Watkins, Flex. u. Wortbild. 376. Cf. perh. witam[ ] at KBo

XXIX 37,4. Contra Starke, StBoT 31.567f, witi, ˚witaš and

witaz are Hittite!

Luwian witantalli(ya)- `of the water(s)' (öö)

N-ASgNt ú-i-ta-an-ta-al-li-an: 43 ii 1.

ú-i-ta-an-ta-al-li-ya-an-za: 43 ii 9.

ú-i-ta-an-tal-li-ya-an-za: 19,4*.

AbIn ú-i-ta-an-tal-li-ya-ti: 19,8*.

Mere guess based on shape & context. Far from assured!

Luwian witatt(a)- `ö'

ASg ú-i-ta-at-ta-an: 43 ii 11.

Perhaps again a derivative of `water'. A 2nd pl. imv. of wida(i)-

is highly unlikely in the context.

Luwian NINDA wiyattatar 'ö'

N-ASg NINDA ú-i-ya-at-ta-tar: XVII 24 ii 3.

Lat. (*hunda) unda, f. `water, fluid, esp. a wave; fig. a stream of people' (with n- infix from the present; compare Old Prussian (*gwundan) wundan n., unds m. `water' and Old Indian (*hundati) unátti, undáti as well as lit. vanduõ, -eñs, vándenį, žem. unduo, lett. ûdens m. f. `water', and in addition Schulze EN. 243, Brugmann Grdr. II2 3, 281, 283, Trautmann 337);

(*huter) uter, utris `hose, tube' (*udri-s `*water hose', compare gr. ὑδρία), lutra `otter' (l- after lutum `mud, mire, dirt; clay, puddle').

Umbr. (*hutor) utur n. `water' (= ὕδωρ), Abl. une (*udni).

Air. (*hudesko) u(i)sce `water' (*udeski̯o-), odar `brown' (*udaros), coin fodorne `otters' (`water dogs').

Got. watō (n-stem), Dat. Pl. watnam `water'; aschwed. vætur (æ = idg. rather umlaut from germ. a in the -in- case, see Bartolomae aaO.),

aisl. (*gvatna) vatn n. (takes o-stem, compare got. Dat. Pl. watnam), vatr, nord. sea name Vöttern; ahd. wazzar, as. watar, ags. wæter (*u̯odōr) `water';

aisl. (*huotar) otr, ags. otor, ahd. ottar m. `otter, water snake', in addition FlN Otter, old Uterna; with nasalization within the word (compare above to lat. unda) probably got. wintrus, aisl.vetr, ags. winter, ahd. as. wintar `winter' as `wet season' (Lidén PBrB. 15, 522, Falk-Тоrp under vinter; not better to ir. find `white', see under su̯eid- `shine');

perhaps to Wasser also ahd. ags. (*hwaschan) wascan, aisl. vaska, nhd. waschen, wusch (*wat-sk-); with lengthened grade ē of the root shaped from aisl. vātr, ags. wǣt, engl. wet `wet, soaked'.

In Germ. also with Þ ags. wađum m. `wave', zero grade aisl. unnr, uđr, Pl. unnir `wave', as. ūthia, ūđia, ags. ȳđ, ahd. (*gvundra) undea `wave, billow, flood', like from a root variant *u̯et-, however, it is found nowhere else; Johansson Beitr. 117 f. sees therein the t of the type Old Indian yakr̥-t.

Lit. (*gvounduõ) vanduõ etc (see above); lit. (*hudras) údra, аpr. udro f., ostlit. údras, lett. ûdris m. `otter'; Old Church Slavic (*gvudras) vydra, skr. vīdra (bsl. ūd- : lit. vánd-eni; see finally Trautmann 334 m. Lit.; to ū compare Pedersen Ét. Lit. 54 f.);

Maybe alb. vidra `sea otter' Slavic loanword.

Old Church Slavic (*gvoda) voda `water' (become Fem. because of the ending -a, here for idg. [r]); lengthened grade Old Church Slavic vědro `κάδος, σταμνος' (with ὑδρία attuning well in the meaning, s. Meillet MSL. 14, 342, Trautmann 337);

hett. wa-a-tar (*gwātar, wātar ) `water', Gen. е-te-na-aś (e-grade as phryg. βεδυ, a of Nom. from eö). Nom. Pl. ú-wiḫtaḫar, with unsettled vocalism in spite of Pedersen Hitt. 167.

Maybe the old laryngeal present in hitt. Gen. е -te-na-aś `of water', Nom. Pl. ú-wiḫtaḫar `waters' was transmited to turk. su `water'.

c) au̯er- `water, rain, river' (u̯ēr- : ūr-; to the ablaut Persson Beitr. 604, Anm. 2).

1. u̯ēr-, u̯er-: Old Indian vā́r, vā́ri n. `water', av. vār n. `rain' (with themat. inflection iran. av. vār `to rain', med. `allow to rain, let rain'), Old Indian vārī f. `water', av. vairi- m. `sea';

toch. A wör, В war `water';

arm. gayṙ `marsh, mud' (*u̯eri̯o-);

gr. perhaps in ἀρύω `scoops', if *Fὰρ ὔ[σ]ω (see *aus- `scoop, draw water, ladle');

alb. (after Jokl SBAk. Wien 168 I 30, 89, 97) vrëndë `light rain' (nt- participle); hur-dë `pond, tank, marsh' (*ūr-), shure `urine', shurë (postverbal) f. `urine' (prefix sh from lat. ex or idg. *sm̥ + ūr-në; or + gr. οὐρέωö);


Albanian preserved the old laryngeal ḫ- > s- like satem languages alb. (*sūrīna) shura `urine' : Hittite šehur `urine' : lat. ūrīna `urine'. But in alb. hur-dë `pond, tank, marsh' alb. preserved ḫ- laryngeal like centum languages.

cymr. gwer m. `suet, sebaceous, tallow';

anord. vari m. `liquid, water'.

2. ūr-, au̯er-: Lat. ūrīna `urine' (in which meaning influenced by οὖρονö), ūrīnor, -ārī `to dive', ūrīnātor `a diver';

Maybe alb. urela `water-pit' : Basque ura `water'.

anord. ūr `fine rain', ȳra `to rain subtly', ūrigr `dew-covered', ags. ūrig ds.;

perhaps anord. ūrr, Gen. ūrar (u-stem), ags. ūr, ahd. ūro, ūrohso, lat. Lw. ūrus `a kind of wild ox', schwed. mdartl. ure `randy bull, a bull in heat' (`*one that scatters, drops, one that inseminates' as Old Indian vr̥šan- etc, see under);

root form au̯er- in thrak. FlN Αὔρας, gr. (Persson IF. 35, 199) *αὔρα `water, spring' in ἄναυρος `without water, of brooks' under likewise (about gr. θησαυρός and Κένταυρος compare Schwyzer Gr.Gr. I 267, 444);

in FlN: ital. Met-aurus (Bruttium), Pisaurus (Umbrien), gall. Avara > frz. Avre, Aura > frz. Eure, Aurana > nhd. Ohrn (Wörttemb.), Arḫauris > frz. Hérault, Vi-aurus > frz. Le Viaur; аpr. Aure, lit. Aurḫytė; anord. aurigr `wet', aurr `wet, water', FlN Aura, ags. ēar `sea';

аpr. wurs (*ūras) `pond, pool', iūrin Akk. Sg., iuriay Pl. fem. `sea', alett. jūri- m., lett. jũ'ra, lit. jū́rės, jū́rios Pl. fem. `sea, esp. the Baltic Sea' (see above to lat. ūrīna; j- presumably suggestion after J. Schmidt PL 204);

lit. jaurùs `swampy, marshy', jáura, jáuras `marshy place, marshy ground, swamp bottom' from *eu̯ǝr- (see Berneker IF. 10, 162, Trautmann 335 m. Lit.).

Maybe arm. jur, Gen. jroy `water' [not from (*gʷhðōro-) see Root / lemma: gʷhðer- : `to run, flow'

] : alb. (*jura > uja) ujë, ujëra Pl. `water'.

3. Verbum: Lit. vérdu, vìrti `bubble, surge, cook', versmě `wellspring', vỹrius `whirlpools', atvyrs `counterstream on the shore', lett. ver̂du, vir̂t `soak, bubble, boil, cook', atvars `whirl',

Old Church Slavic vьrjǫ, vьrěti `stream, bubble, surge, boil, cook', virъ `whirlpool', izvorъ `wellspring (bubbling water)', wherefore with from `cook' developed meaning `heat', lett. wersme `glow', Old Church Slavic varъ `heat'.

About possible affiliation of *u̯er/e/nā `alder' see there.

4. extension u̯er-s- `rain, dew': Old Indian varśá- n. `rain, rainy season, year' (varšati `it is raining'), gr. οὖρον `urine'; ἔρση, ἐέρση `dew', ion. att. οὐρέω `urinates' (kausativ *u̯orseiō, F- proved by the augmentation ἐούρησα), οὐρία `a water bird';

mir. frass `rain' is older fross (u̯rosḫtā, in spite of Pedersen KG. I 44); hett. waḫarḫšaḫaš `rain'(ö)seems Old Indian Lw.

Maybe alb. (*varśá-) vesa `dew' : ἐέρση `dew'.

u̯r̥sen- `discharging semen = virile', Old Indian vr̥šán- `virile', m. `manikin, man, stallion'.

thereof derived av. varǝšna- `virile', Old Indian vŕ̥ṣ̣a-, vr̥ṣabhá- `bull', vŕ̥ṣṇi- `virile', m. `Aries, ram' (= av. varǝšni- ds.), vŕ̥šaṇa- m. `testicles';

Specht (Dekl. 156) places here (from germ. *wrai-njan-) without s-extension ahd. reineo `stallion', as. wrênio ds., ags. wrǣne `horny, lustful'; ahd. wrenno `stallion' is back-borrowed from Mlat.

u̯ersē/i-: lat. verrēs, -is `boar', lit. ver̃šis `calf', lett. versis `ox, rother, cattle'.

References: compare in general Persson root extension 47, 85 f., Johansson KZ. 30, 418, IF. 2, 60 ff., Persson Beitr. 604 f., 845 (also against connection of u̯ers- with ers-). About finn. vesi, stem vete `water' s. Mikkola Mél. van Ginneken 137.

WP. I 252 f., 268 f., WH. I 81 f., Pokorny Urillyrier 93, 105, 159, 169, Specht Dekl. 18 f., Trautmann 20, 334, 337, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 519, 548, 838.

Page(s): 78-81

Root / lemma: au̯es-

English meaning: to shine; gold, dawn, aurora etc.

German meaning: `leuchten', especially vom Tagesanbruch

Material: Old Indian uṣā́ḥ f. Akk. uṣā̆́sam, Gen. uṣásaḥ `aurora', av. ušā̊, Akk. ušā̊ŋhǝm, Gen.ušaŋhō ds. (ušas-tara- `eastern'), next to which Old Indian Gen. Sg., Akk. Pl. uṣáḥ, av. Lok. Sg. uši-[δā̊, s. *demā-`to build'] either from a root noun *us-, or as *us-s- to s-stem; Old Indian uccháti = av. usaiti (*us-sk̂éti) `shines in (from the morning)',

Perf. Old Indian uvāsa, Aor. avasran `they shone '; uṣar-, usr `dawn, aurora, early morning, prime of the day, red sky', uṣarḫbúdh- `early awake', usrá- `early morning, reddish', also figurative `cow', m. `bull' (Frisk, nominal formation 3);

u̯es-, u̯ōs- in Old Indian vasarḫhán- `striking in the morning early morning', vāsará- `early morning', m. `day' (compare in addition also the related root under particular catchword r/n-stem *u̯es-r-, u̯es-n- `springtide, spring');

gr. hom. ἠώς *(āusōs), Gen. ἠοῦς (ἠόος), att. (with accent innovation) ἕως, dor. ἀ̄ώς, ἀFώρ, changing through ablaut öol. αὔως `aurora' (proto gr. αυ[σ]ώς), böot. ἄα and Αἰαίη (*ἀαίη);

ἄγχαυρος `near the morning', αὔριον `tomorrow' (*αυσρ-); hom. ἤιε Φοῖβε `radiative morning'; ἠι-κανός `rooster, cock' (*āusi- `singing in the morning early morning');

Maybe gr. ἄγχαυρος `near the morning' : alb. agu `dawn' s/ h allophones : Estonian agu `daybreak, dawn' : Latvian ausma, sājums `dawn'


[conservative definitive forms versus indefinite forms (alb. phonetic trait)]

lat. aurōra f. `aurora, the morning, dawn, daybreak' (for *ā̆usōsā); auster (*aus-t(e)ro- = germ. *austra-) `souther, southerly wind', austrālis `southern';

presumably also aurum, sabin. ausom `gold' as `*reddish'; to lit. áuksas (k - unexplained), alit. ausas, аpr. ausis `gold';

maybe truncated alb. (*aur-) ar `gold'

perhaps toch. A wös `gold', but compare arm. osḫki `gold', finn. vas-ki `copper'; perhaps Vesuvius (differently under eus- `burn');

mir. fāir `sunrise', cymr. gwawr `aurora', bret. gwere laouen `morning star' (*u̯ōsri-, Pedersen KG. I 82);

germ. *austrō in ags. ēastre `spring goddess', ēastron Pl. `Easter' = ahd. ōst(a)ra, ōstarūn; against it with idg. -t(e)ro-, ahd. ōstar `eastern' and Adv. `the after east', nhd.Öster-reich, anord. austr n. `East' and Adv. `eastwards',

ags. compounds ēasterra `more to the east', in addition Ostrogothae, older Austrogoti as `the eastern Goths'; ahd. ōstan `from the east', ags. ēaste f. `East', anord. austan `from the east'; *āusōs in ags. ēarendel `morning star', ahd. MN Orendil;

lit. aušrà f. `aurora', aũšta `day is breaking', lett. àust ds.; lit. auštrìnis (vějas) `north-east wind', lett. àustra f. `daybreak', àustrums m. `East'; in ablaut žem. apýūšriai m. `daybreak';

Old Church Slavic za ustra `τὸ πρωΐ' (about utro, jutro `morning' from *aus(t)ro- compare Trautmann 19, Mikkola Ursl. Gr. 179 and Berneker 462 f. m. Lit., wherefore Bröckner KZ. 46, 212, auspoln. ŭścić `shine' reconstructs sl. *usto `lustre, shine'), ustrъ `relating to summer' (see Pedersen IF. 5, 69).

compare to ablaut J. Schmidt KZ. 25, 23 f., Hirt Abl. 134, 147, Reichelt KZ. 39, 69.

maybe alb. (*në `in' + aušrà), nesrë, nesëret, nesër `tomorrow morning, tomorrow'

References: WP. I 26 f., WH. I 86, 87 f., Trautmann 19, Specht Dekl. 10, Wackernagel-Debrunner Old Indian Gr. Ill 213 and 281 f., Kretschmer Gl. 27, 231; Leumann IF. 58, 121 ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 349, 514, 557.

Page(s): 86-87

Root / lemma: au̯ē-11 (u̯e-d(h)-ö)

English meaning: to try, force

German meaning: `sich möhen, anstrengen'ö

Material: Solmsen Unters. 267 f. connects Old Indian vāyati, -tē `gets tired, is exhausted, tires' with gr. ἄεθλος `drudgery, contest' (*ἄFε-θλος), ἄεθλον, ἀ̃θλον `fight, cut-throat price, battlefield', whereby ἀ- assumes either suggestion vowel is or a more full root form *au̯ē̆- besides *u̯ē-. With it at most compatibly is Zupitzas KZ. 37, 405 comparing the gr. words with mir. feidm `effort',

fedil `persistent, persevering', air. ni fedligedar `(he, she) does not stay' (whereby formal measure relationship would be comparable as *mē- `(apportion by measure), allot, (*cut)' : *med-, *u̯ē- `blow' : anord. veđr, nhd. Wetter), wherefore Pedersen KG. I 110, cymr. gweddil `remnant, leavings' (out of it mir. fuidell) places; here toch. В waimene `difficult, hard'ö

However, the arrangement is quite unsafe in all its parts. For vāyati `exert itself' as basic meaning in would put the question through the meaning `dry up' from vāna `dry', upa-vāyati `be extinguished by drying up, dry up',

upavāta- `become dry'; and in ἄεθλος takes turns most of course - θλο-as suffixal, while the dental ir. words root-like d or dh is, thus at best surely exists distant relationship.

References: WP. I 223, Van Windekens Lexique 149.

Page(s): 84

Root / lemma: au̯iĝ-

English meaning: a kind of grass, oat

German meaning: `Grasart, Hafer'

Material: Lat. avēna `oats or wild oats, made only as a cattle feed; hence oaten pipe, shepherd's pipe; in gen., any stalk, straw' (presumably after arēna, terrēnus to occurred suffix exchange for *avīna from *au̯iĝ-snā);

lit. avižà, lett. (Pl. f.) àuzas, Old Prussian wyse `oat', Old Church Slavic ovьsъ, russ. ovësъ `oat' (s from z probably probably because it occurs at the end of the word in conservative Nom. *ovьz), but αἰγίλωψ `a wild grass kind, straw, stalk or likewise' barely as *αFιγιλωψ here.

After Specht Dekl. 298 would be assumed rather idg. *au̯i- besides *au̯es- (*au̯esnā > avēna).

References: WP. I 24, WH. I 81, Trautmann 21.

Page(s): 88

Root / lemma: au̯-5, au̯ē-

English meaning: to weave

German meaning: `flechten, weben'

Material: Unextended in: Old Indian ṓtum, ṓtavē (from der set-basis vā́tavē) `to weave', Perf. ūvuḥ, participle ūtá-, vý-uta- (also das present váyati `weaves' can be after Wackernagel Old Indian Gr. I 94 an -ei̯o-present v-áyati, so that Fut. vayišyati, vāya- `weaver' only in addition one would be new-created), ṓtu- m. `woof of fabric', vāna- n. `the weaving'.

To the existence of a heavy base is to be stuck against Wackernagel because of vā́tave `weave, twist', vānam (W. must understand ūtá- as neologism to váyate after hūtá- : hváyate).

dh-extension 1. au-dh-, 2. (a)u̯-ē̆dh-, u-dh-:

1. Arm. zḫaud `strap' (zḫaudem `connects, ties together'), yḫaud `strap, limb, joint' (y-audem `join together'), aud `shoe';

lit. áudžiau, áudžiu, áusti `to weave', ataudaĩ Pl. `woof', ũdis `a unique fabric, the weaving', ũdas `eel line' (vowel as with áugu `increase, sprout': ūgỹs `annual growth');

russ. uslo `fabric' (uzda `bridle'ö), see below eu- `pull'. It goes back to the image of the weaving or spining and that of her assigned fate goddess:

audh- `luck, possession, wealth': illyr. PN Audarus, Audata (: germ. Audoḫberht), paion. PN Audōḫleōn (Krahe IF. 58, 132), cymr. udd (*audos) `master, mister' (different Lewis-Pedersen 14),

bret. ozac'h `landlord' (*udakkos), Loth RC. 41, 234; as. ōdan, ags. ēaden, anord. auđinn `granted from the destiny, grants', anord. auđna `destiny, luck', auđr `wealth', ags. ēad `possession, wealth, luck',

as. ōd `possession, prosperity', ahd. alḫōd `full and free possession' (mlat. allodium), mhd. klein-ōt `jewel', got. audahafts `makes happy', audags `blessed, fortunate', ahd. ōtac `happy, rich'.

2. Anord. vāđ f. `fabric, piece, stuff, as comes ready of the loom, drag net', Pl.vāđir `gowns, clothes', ags. wǣd (*wēđi-) f. `clothes, rope', as. wād `clothes', ahd. wāt, Gen.-i `clothes, armament';

anord. vađr m. `rope, string, fishing line', schwed. norw. vad n. `drag net' (anord. vǫzt f. `spot for fishing at sea from *wađa-stō), mhd. wate, wade f. `drag net, trawl net', mhd. spinne-wet `spinning web'.

References: WP. I 16 f., WH. I 88.

See also: Maybe here u̯ebh- `to weave', u̯edh- `bind, connect' (wherefore as nasal form probably u̯endh-),see there; also perhaps u̯ei- `twist, spin', (a)ueg- `to weave etc' (u̯er- ``twist, spin'ö), u̯es- `wrap'.

Page(s): 75-76

Root / lemma: au̯-6, au̯ed-

English meaning: to speak

German meaning: `sprechen'

Material: Gr. hom. αὖε Imperf. `(he, she) called (out), shouted', ἄβα τροχὸς ἤ βοή Hes.

Old Indian vádati `lets the voice resound, talks' (Perf. ūdimá, participle uditá-), vádanam `the sounds, talking, mouth', úditiḫḥ f. `speech', vādayati `allows to sound, plays (a music instrument), allows to speak', vāditram `musical instrument, music', vāda- `sound letting, m. sound, call, sound, statement, battle of words';

in the lengthened grade and the meaning compares itself in next Old Church Slavic vada `calumny', vaditi `accuse';

nasalized Old Indian vandate, -ti `praises, praises, greets with respect', vandanam `praise, price, reverential greeting', vandāru- `appreciative, praising'; see still Uhlenbeck Old Indian Wb. under vallakī `a kind of sounds', vallabha-ḥ `minion, favourite'.

Gr. γοδᾶν [i.e. Fοδᾶν] κλαίειν Hes., ΏΗσί(F)οδος `qui ἵησi Fόδαν, i. e. ἀοιδήν`, γοδόν [i.e. Fοδόν] γόητα Hes.;

zero grade ὑδέω, ὕδω (brought out somewhere from the Alexandrines) `sings, glorifies', ὕδη φήμη, ᾠδη (Theognostos καν. 19, 26) (ὕμνος `ballad, song' rather to the wedding call ὑμήν: other interpretations verz. Walde LEWb.2 under suō, Boisacq s. v., again different Risch 50).

Lit. vadinù, vadìnti `shout, call'.

au̯-ē-d- in ἀ(F)ηδών `nightingale' (ἀβηδόνα ἀηδόνα Hes., öol. ἀήδων and ἀήδω, the zero grade ἀυδ- in αὐδή `sound, voice, language' (öol. αὔδω Sappho), αὐδάω `shouts, speaks', αὐδήεις, dor. αὐδά̄εις `speaking with human voice'.

au̯-ei-d- in ἀ(F)είδω (att. ᾄδω) `sings', ἀ(F)οιδή (att. ᾠδή) `song', ἀοιδός `singer', ἀοίδιμος `singer'. Differently Wackernagel KZ. 29, 151 f.

Toch. В watk-, AB wötk-, В yaitk- `command, order '.

References: WP. I 251 f., Specht KZ. 59, 119 f., Van Windekens Lexique 155.

Page(s): 76-77

Root / lemma: au̯-7, au̯ē-, au̯ēi-

English meaning: to like; to help, *desire

German meaning: `gern haben'; daher einerseits `verlangen', andrerseits `begönstigen, hilfreich sein'

Material: Old Indian ávati `desires, favors above others, promotes, patronizes' = av. avaiti `provides, helps' = air. con-ōi `protects'; messap. αFιναμι `I bid (s.o.) farewellö (to wish s.o. to be strong to be healthy)';

Old Indian ávas- n. `satisfaction, favour, assistance' = av. avah- n. `help' (in addition probably Old Indian avasá- n. `nourishment'), compare gr. ἐν-ηής `favorable' (*εν-ᾱFής); Old Indian ōman- `favorable, helping' = av. aoman- `supporting, helping', Old Indian ōmán- m. `favour, assistance, protection',

ōmaḫḥ `comrade'; Old Indian avitár- m. `patron, sponsor, patronizer' (from which 2-syllable root form as Fut. avišyati, Perf. 2. Sg. āvitha, as well as participle ūtá- and:) ūtíḫḥ `delivery, help';

arm. aviun `violent desire, longing; esp. irrational whim, caprice, or immoderate passion, lust' (Petersson Et. Misz. 8);

gr. -ᾱFονες in 2. part of Greek family names (᾽Ιάονες)ö compare Kretschmer Gl. 18, 232 f., different Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 487, 3; 521; ἀί̄τᾱς (Theokrit) `friend, lover';

lat. aveō, -ēre (basis au̯ē[i]- as in preceding) `be eager, have a wild desire, long for, desire', avidus `desiring, longing for; esp. greedy for money, avaricious' (therefrom audeō, -ēre `to be daring; to dare, venture, bring oneself to'), avārus `covetous, greedy';

air. con ōi `protects', cymr. ewyllys `favor, wish desire', corn. awell `desire', abr. aḫiul `unaided, wantonly, voluntarily', mbret. eoull, youll `favor, wish desire', as a name component in gall. Avi-cantus (=abret. Eucant), acymr. Euilaun under likewise, also in ahd. names as Awileib, Awo; compare got. awiḫliuÞ `χάρις, εὐχαριστία'; mcymr. riḫmḫaw `he grants to me', cymr. ad-aw (with negat. at-) `leave', abret. di-eteguetic `abandoned, forsaken, deserted, destitute' (*di-at-aw-etic).

Falk-Torp 1407 adds also an: ahd. ōdi, as. ōthi, ags. Adj. īeÞe, Adv. ēaÞe `easy, comfortable', ahd. ōdmuoti, as. ōthmōdi `modest', ags. ēaÞmōd `modest', anord. auđmjūkr `to move easily, willing, modest',

auđkendr `to recognize easily'; basic meaning is `willing', from which `to make easy'; formal germ. to-participle-formation to awi- (example germ. auÞia- `deserted; flat; waste; empty; abandoned; blasted; desolate; bleak; grey; gray; barren; stuffy; dull; tedious'ö). Rather uncertainly.

If also altlit. auštis `refresh oneself', ataušimas `refreshment', lett. ataust `recover, refresh', ataũsêt `invigorate, refresh' are used, the zero grade lies to them *aus - of in Old Indian ávas-, gr. ἐν-ηής present as a basis es-stem . Or = lit. áušti `get cold', áušyti `cool'ö

Toch. B au-lāre, A olar `comrade'; as dubious В omaute `longing', w-ör(īn)- `crave, long for', A w-aste `protection' with angebl. zero grade the root rather here wa- `give', A 1.Sg. wsā (Pedersen Tochar. 186).

References: WP. I 19, WH. I 81, 850, Van Windekens Lexique 9, 79, 153, 157.

Page(s): 77-78

Root / lemma: au̯-8, au̯ēi-

English meaning: to perceive, understand

German meaning: `sinnlich wahrnehmen, auffassen'

Material: Old Indian -avati with ud- and pra- `aufmerken, heed', Old Church Slavic umъ `Verstand' (basic form *au-mo-); moreover toch. В om-palokoññe `meditation'ö Different Pedersen, Tochar. 223 Anm.

ā̆u̯is-: lengthened grade Old Indian āvíṣ Adv. `apparent, manifest, obvious, bemerkbar', av. āviš Adv. `apparent, manifest, obvious, vorAugen' (npers. āškār `clear, bright'; Old Indian āviṣṭya-ḥ, av. āvišya- `offenkundig'); Old Church Slavic avě, javě Adv. `kund, apparent, manifest, obvious' (in ending after den Adjektivadverbien auf -ě reshaped from *avь, whereof:) aviti, javiti `offenbaren, kundmachen, show' (lit. óvytis `sich in Traume sehen lassen' Lw. from dem Slav.).

full grade: gr. αἰσθάνομαι, Aor. αἰσθέσθαι `wahrnehmen' (*αFισ-θ-); lat. audiō `hear' from *au̯izḫdhḫiō, compare oboedio from *ób-avizdhiō about *oboīdiō; gr. ἀί̄ω (neologism to Aor.ἐπ-ήισ(σ)α, ἄιον) `vernehme, hear' (*αFισ-), ἐπάιστος `belongs, ruchbar, bekannt'.

Here probably hett. u-uḫ-ḫi `I see, observe', aḫušḫzi `sees', а-ú-ri-iš (from aḫú-waḫriḫiš) `Ausschau, Warte', iterat. ušk- `wiederholt sehen'.

References: WP. I 17, WH. I 80, Trautmann 21, Pedersen Hittitisch 172 f.

Page(s): 78

Root / lemma: au̯o-s (*ḫuḫḫaš)

English meaning: grandfather

German meaning: `Großvater mötterlicherseits'


The original root was hett. ḫu-uḫ-ḫa-aš (ḫuḫḫaš) `grandfather' branched into Root / lemma: au̯o-s: grandfather in centum languages and Root / lemma: sūs- (*ghus): parent : alb. (*ḫuḫḫaš) gjysh `grandfather' in satem languages; old laryngeal centum ḫ- > a-, e- : satem ḫ- > s- ;

Material: Arm. hav, Gen. havu `grandfather', lat. avus `grandfather; poet., in gen., an ancestor'; fem. lat. avia `grandmother' (see finally Leumann-Stolz5 204), dubious gr. αἶα as `primordial mother earth' (compare Brugmann IF. 29, 206 ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 473;

lat. also -hu̯- > -v- phonetic mutation.

different Jacobsohn Phil. 67, 484 f., Kretschmer Glotta 5. 307); avītus `of a grandfather, ancestral' is probably shaped after marītus, older i-stem in lit. avýnas `brother of the mother';

differently Jacobsohn Phil. 67, 484 f., innkeepers Glotta 5. 307); avītus `large-scale fatherly, angestammt' is formed probably after marītus, old i-stem in lit. avýnas `brother of the mother';

i̯o-derivative Old Prussian awis `uncle', Old Church Slavic *ujь ds. (ujka `aunt'), air. (h)áue `a grandson, a nephew', mir. (a), úa ds.; en-stem: got. awō `grandmother', anord. afi `grandfather', āi `great-grandfather', ags. ēam, afries. ēm, ahd. ōheim,

nhd. Oheim, Ohm (after Osthoff PBrB. 13, 447 *awun-haimaz `the one (he) who lived in grandfather's home'), after R. Much Germ. 205 from *auhaim < idg. *au̯os k̂oimos `dear grandfather', compare cymr. tad cu [*tatos koimos] `grandfather'),

lat. avunculus `brother of the mother' (probably caressing diminutive an *avō, -ōnis); cymr. ewythr, acorn. euitor, bret. eontr `uncle' (*au̯en-tro-).

The stem called originally the grandparents on the maternal side, become through the words for `uncle or aunt on the maternal side' probably, s. Hermann GGN. 1918, 214 f.

Da arm. hav could go back also to *pap-, would be au̯os only north - west idg. On account of here hett. ḫu-uḫ-ḫa-aš (ḫuḫḫaš) `grandfather'ö Lyk. *χuga `grandfather on the maternal side' appears to speak rather for Asia Minor origin.

References: WP. I 20 f., WH. 88 f., 851, Pedersen Lyk. under Hitt. 25 f., Risch Mus. Helv. 1, 118 ff.

Page(s): 89

Root / lemma: ā̆bel-, ā̆bōl-, abel-

English meaning: apple

German meaning: `Apfel'


Root / lemma: ā̆bel-, ā̆bōl-, abel- : `apple' derived from Root / lemma: om- (*ḫamel): `raw, bitter, *sweet'.


Maybe Old Indian: abalá- m. `the plant Tapia Crataeva' {`Crataegus roxburghii' (H. Ebel KZ VI, 1957:216)} [It is a proof of the European origin of the cognate].

Lat. Abella (osk. town, city in Campanien) malifera `apple-bearing', after Verg. Aen. 7, 740, might have received her name after of the apple breeding and reject on the basic form *ablonā. The apple is not named possibly only after the town.

In the Kelt. the names are to be distinguished for `apple' (*ablu) and `apple tree' (*abaln-). Gall. avallo `fruit', Aballō (n-stem) PN, frz. Avallon, abrit. PN Aballāva, gallo-rom. *aballinca `Alpine mistletoe' (Wartburg);

Maybe illyr. PN Aulona

air. ubull (*ablu) n. `apple', ncymr. afal, Pl. afalau, corn. bret. aval m. `apple', but mir. aball (*abalnā) f. `apple tree', acymr. aball, mcymr. avall Pl. euyill (analogical) f., acymr. aballen, ncymr. afallen `apple tree' (with singulative ending).

The same ablaut forms in the Germanic:

Krimgot. apel (got. *aplsö), ahd. apful, afful, mhd. apfel, ags. æppel (engl. apple), an. epli n. (apal-grār `apple-gray') `apple'. Germ. probably *ap(a)la-, *aplu-. Further an. apaldr `apple tree', ags. apuldor, æppuldre, ahd. apholtra (compare nhd. Affoltern PN), mhd. apfalter `apple tree' (*apaldra-).

The Baltic shows clear tracks in Idg. completely isolated l- declension *ābōl, G. Sg. *ābeles.

lengthened grade of the suffix appears mostly in the word for `apple': ostlit. obuolỹs, lett. âbuolis (-ii̯o-stem), westlit. óbuolas, lett. âbuols (o-stem) from idg. *ābōl-;

Normal grade mostly in the word for `apple tree'; lit. obelìs (fem. i-stem), lett. âbels (i-stem), âbele (ē-stem) from idg. *ābel-; but Old Prussian woble f. (*ābl-) `apple', wobalne (*ābolu-) f. `apple tree'.

Abg. ablъko, jablъko, poln. jabɫko, slov. jábolko, russ. jábloko `apple' (*ablъko from *āblu-) etc; abg. (j)ablanь, sloven. jáblan, ačech. jablan, jablon, russ. jáblonь `apple tree', from idg.*āboln- (influences the sound form of *ablo `apple').

Although a uniform basic form is not attachable, it becomes both lat. kelt. germ. bsl. forms only around ancient relationship and barely around borrowing act. With respect to lat. abies `fir' etc. very uncertain.


The oldest IE cognate is Luvian: *šamlu(wa)- `apple-(tree)'; Attestations: [HittErgSg] ša-ma-lu-wa-an-za: 145 iii 18. GIŠH̲AŠH̲UR-an-za: XLIV 4+ Vo 26. GIŠH̲AŠH̲UR-lu-wa-an-za: XLIV 4+ Vo 28.

Commentary: Above analysis most likely, but textual tradition is corrupt. Luvian nt. nom.-acc. sg. šamluwan=za also possible. Cf. Starke, KZ 95.153f, and Soysal, Or 58.174ff.

From the common IE shift m > mb > b derived *šamlu(wa)- > Root / lemma: ā̆bel-, ā̆bōl-, abel- : `apple' in Germanic languages while in Romance languages took place the coomon illyr. alb. sa > zero, phonetic mutation Luvian *šamlu(wa)- `apple-(tree)' > lat. malum -i n. `an apple, or other similar fruit'; alb. geg. mollë `apple'.

Also Proto-Slavic form: jemela; jemelo; jemel ъ ; j ь mela; j ь melo {2} [Page in Trubačev: VI 26-27]: Russ. oméla `mistletoe' [f ā], Old Russ. imela `mistletoe' [f ā], Czech omela (dial.) `mistletoe' [f ā]; omelo (dial.) `mistletoe' [n o]; jmelí, melí (dial.) `mistletoe' [f iā], Slovak jemelo (dial.), hemelo (dial.) `mistletoe' [n o]; imelo, jmelo (dial.) `mistletoe' [n o], Poln. jemioɫa, jamioɫa `mistletoe' [f ā]; imioɫa (dial.) `mistletoe' [f ā], Upper Sorbian jemjel `mistletoe' [m o], Lower Sorbian jemjoɫ, hemjoɫ `mistletoe' [m o], Serbo-Croatian òmela (dial.) `mistletoe' [f ā]; ìmela, mèla `mistletoe' [f ā], Slovene jemę́la (dial.), omę́la (dial.) `mistletoe' [f ā]; imę̄la, mę̄la `mistletoe' [f ā], Proto-Balto-Slavic reconstruction: emel-; Lith. ãmalas, ẽmalas `mistletoe' [m o] 3b, Latv. amuols; ęmuols (BW); amuls; āmals; āmuls `mistletoe, clover' [m o] {1}, Old Pruss. emelno (EV) `mistletoe'.

Bibliography: Anikin 1998: 334-336, Andersen 1996: 133-135

Notes: {1} The forms with ā- may show the influence of âbuõls `apple, clover'. {2} This plant name is probably a borrowing from the Illyrian Venetian substratum language. The Slavic forms with *jь m- must be due to popular etymology (the mistletoe's sap is used to produce bird-lime), cf. OCS imati `to take'. An etymological connection with PIE *h1m- `to take' is doubtful, as is the connection with *H3eHm- `raw' .

maybe gr. Compounds: ἁμάμηλίς plant growing in the same time as the apple-tree, `medlar', = ἐπιμηλίς .

Probably Tocharian B: māla*'a kind of intoxicating drink'; Paradigm: [-, -, māla//]

Examples: se ṣa[māne] mot māla trikelyesa śakse yoköṃ pāyti `whatever monk drinks alcohol or intoxicating beverage through befuddlement or brandy, pāyti `[māla = BHS maireya] (H-149.X.3b1/2 [Couvreur, 1954b: 48]), tumeṃ pörwettsai mālasa yokalle `then it [is] to be drunk with an aged drink' (W-33a5).

Derivatives: mālatstse* `drunken': aröñcacu epreta Mārö[nts]= ādañc mālatsai ... ṣpyarkatai-me `O courageous and brave one, thou hast destroyed Māra's drunken bite' (241a2/3).

References: WP. I 50, WH. I 3, E. Fraenkel KZ. 63, 172 ff., Trautmann 2.

Page(s): 1-2

Root / lemma: ā̆ĝher-, ā̆ĝhen-, ā̆ĝhes- (or ōĝher etc) (*dā̆ĝhen)

English meaning: day

German meaning: `Tag'

Grammatical information: Heteroklit. Neutrum.

Material: Old Indian áhar, áhaḥ, Gen. áhnḫas, av. Gen. PI. asnḫąm `day'. In Germ. is found anlaut. d- by influence from proto germ. *đā̆ʒwaz (idg. *dhō̆gʷho-, s. *dhegʷh- `burn') `warm season' (: lit. dãgas `summer heat'): the o-stem got. dags,

aisl. dagr, ahd. tac m. `day' is from neutr. es-stem reshaped (got. PN Δαγίσ-θεος = *DagisḫÞius, ahd. Dagiḫbert etc), also in ablaut, ags. dǽg (*dōʒiz), Pl. dōgor n. `day' (got. fidur-dōgs `fourth day'), aisl. døgr n. `day or night' besides there is n-stem adön. døgn n. `day and night'.

Note: From Root / lemma: dhegʷh-: `to burn, *day' derived Root / lemma: ā̆ĝher-, ā̆ĝhen-, ā̆ĝhes- (or ōĝher etc): `day' the same as Root / lemma: ak̂ru : `tear' derived from Root / lemma: dak̂ru- : `tears'. The phonetic shift da- > a-, zero is a common Baltic phonetic mutation. Compare Root / lemma: del-5 : `long': balt. with unexplained d-loss (see under): lit. ìlgas, f. ilgà, lett. il̃gs, Old Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long' : hitt. Nom. Pl. da-lu-ga-e-eš (dalugaes) `long', da-lu-ga-aš-ti (dalugasti) n. `length'. This is a sound proof of Aryan migration from the Baltic region to North India.

References: WP. I 849 f., WH. I 467, Feist 113 f., Sievers-Brunner 121, 243, Wackernagel-Debrunner III 310 f.

Page(s): 7

Root / lemma: ā̆ĝ-

English meaning: goat

German meaning: `Ziegenbock, Ziege'


Root / lemma: digh- : `goat' derived from a zero grade of Root / lemma: deiĝh- : `to prick; tick'. From the older root Root / lemma: deiĝh- : `to prick; tick' derived Root / lemma: aiĝ- : `goat' and Root / lemma: ā̆ĝ- : `goat' [common balt. - illyr. - alb. de-, da- > zero phonetic mutation]. Hence the gr. cognate derived from proto illyr.

Material: Old Indian ajá-ḥ `he-goat', ajā́ `she-goat', mpers. azak `goat', npers. azg ds.;

alb. dhī́ `goat' (G. Meyer BB. 8, 186, Pedersen KZ. 36, 320, 335; probably from *adhi, as sii `eye' from asii);


Maybe a zero grade in alb. (*ā̆ĝhi) dhī́ `goat' [the common alb. shift -ĝh- > -d-], older alb. geg. (*ā̆ĝhi) edha `goats, sheep'.

lit. ožỹs (*āĝi̯os) `he-goat', ožkà `goat', Old Prussian wosee `goat', wosux `he-goat';

Old Indian ajínaḫm `fur, fleece';

lit. ožìnis `belonging to he-goat', ožíena `billy goat's meat';

Church Slavic (j)azno (*azьno) `skin, leather'.

References: WP. I 38, Trautmann 22. compare also aiĝ-.

Page(s): 6-7

Root / lemma: ā̆ier-, ā̆ien-

English meaning: day, morning

German meaning: `Tag, Morgen'

Grammatical information: n.


Root / lemma: ā̆ier-, ā̆ien- : `day, morning' derived from a reduced Root / lemma: ā̆ĝher-, ā̆ĝhen-, ā̆ĝhes- (oder ōĝher etc.): `day'.

Material: Av. ayarǝ, Gen. ayąn n. `day'.

Gr. Lok. *ἀ(ι̯)ερι- in ἄριστον (from *ai̯eri-d-tom, to ed- `eat') `breakfast' (uncontracted ἀέριστον still produceable Hom. Ω 124, π 2); lengthened grades *ἀ̄(ι̯)ερι in the derivative ἠέριος `early morning', contracts in ἦρι `in the morning'. Different Risch 105.

Got. air, aisl. ār, Adv. `early' (likewise Lok. *ai̯eri), in addition Kompar. got. airiza `earlier', Adv. airis = ags. ǣr, ahd. ēr, nhd. eher, ehe; Superl. ags. ǣrest, ahd. ērist, nhd. erst.

Maybe alb. (*ēherst) herët `early'; it seems that alb. has preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-.

References: WP. I 3, Feist 24b.

Maybe to ā̆i-4.

Page(s): 12

Root / lemma: ā(i)ĝh- : īĝh-

English meaning: to need

German meaning: `bedörfen, begehren'

Material: Av. āzi-š m. `desire', np. az ds., av. āzaḫš m. `striving, eagerness, zeal'; changing through ablaut av. izyati `strives, striving for' and ī̆žā `striving, zeal, success, prosperousness' Old Indian īhā `desire', īhatē `strives whereupon';

gr. ἀ̄χήν `poor' = ἠχῆνες κενοί, πτωχοί Hes. (by support of words, with ἀ- privative out of it ἀεχῆνες πένητες Hes., and ἀχενία `lack, poverty'), κτεανηχής πένης Hes., changing through ablaut ἰχανάω `longs for', ἶχαρ `desire';

toch. A ākāl, В akālk `wish, longing'. Different Pedersen Toch. 42.

References: WP. I 40, Van Windekens BSL. 41, 55; unwahrscheinlich Bartholomae IF. 5, 215.

Page(s): 14-15

Root / lemma: ā̆ik̂- : ī̆k̂-

English meaning: spear, pike

German meaning: `Spieß; with einer spitzen Waffe treffen'


Both Root / lemma: ak̂-, ok̂- : `sharp; stone' and Root / lemma: ā̆ik̂- : ī̆k̂- : `spear, pike' are reduced roots of an older root *heĝʷ-el created through metathesis from Root/ lemmna **helĝʷa. This older root was solidified by Church Slavic: (*heĝʷ-el) igla `needle' [f ā]

Slavic languages inherited the common da- > zero phonetic mutation from the older Baltic-Germanic languages. The phonetic shift da- > zero is a common Baltic phonetic mutation. Compare Root / lemma: del-5 : `long': balt. with unexplained d-loss (see under): lit. ìlgas, f. ilgà, lett. il̃gs, Old Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long' : hitt. Nom. Pl. da-lu-ga-e-eš (dalugaes) `long', da-lu-ga-aš-ti (dalugasti) n. `length'.

Hence from Root / lemma: dhelg- : `to stick; needle' derived the alledged Baltic Root/ lemmna **helĝʷa from which Church Slavic: (*heĝʷ-el) igla `needle' [f ā], then Both Root / lemma: ak̂-, ok̂- : `sharp; stone' and Root / lemma: ā̆ik̂- : ī̆k̂- : `spear, pike'.

Finally alb. geg. gjilpanë n. f. `needle' is a compound of *gjil- `needle' + peni `thread'; alb. common zero grade *ilga > *gil- `needle' phonetic mutation corresponds to zero grade in Lower Sorbian: gɫa `needle' [f ā].

Material: Gr. αἶκλοι αἱ γωνίαι τοῦ βέλους Hes., gr. ἰκτέα ἀκόντιον Hes., kypr. ἰκμαμένος or ἰχμαμένος (in the latter pitfall from *ἰκσμαμένος) `wounds', gr.αἰχμή `spear, spit' (*aik-smā), Old Prussian aysmis `spit, broach', lit. iẽšmas, jiẽšmas `spit, broach', (basic form *aik̂mos or Gr. exact congruent *aik̂-smos); from moreover Old Prussian ayculo, Church Slavic igla etc `needle', with g instead of ž (compare S.181)ö lat. īcō (analogical īciō), -ĕre `hit, wound, strike, smite; esp., to strike a bargain', ictus `slash, blow, stroke; in music, beat', probably also av. išarǝ `instant, (very short space of time)' = gr. ἴκταρ `near' (as `adjoining, adjacent') and ἴγδη, ἴγδις `mortar' (also ἴξ, ἴκες `worms damaging the vine', from which ἶπες ds. could be reshuffled after the related to meaning κνῖπες, σκνῖπες, θρῖπες; different Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 299.

Here possibly anord. eigin n. `a sprout that has just emerged from a seed' (`point, cusp'), schwed. mdartl. öjel m.ds. (Fick4 III 2) and nd. īne `awn, ear of corn' (Bezzenberger Federal Railway. 27, 166).

Maybe zero grade in alb. (*ahel) halë `needle, fishbone, awn, ear of corn' [common alb. -k- > -h- phonetic mutation].

References: WP. I 7, WH. I 670, Trautmann 3, 4.

Page(s): 15

Root / lemma: ā̆i-4

English meaning: to burn

German meaning: `brennen, leuchten'

Material: from ags. āfor `sharp, violent', ahd. eibar, eivar `harsh, bitter, pungent, rough, shaggy, bristly; shivering with cold. Transf., wild, savage; unpolished, uncouth; frightful, horrible' derived from *aibhro- not is to be connected certainly.

Maybe but here gr. ἰαίνω `warms up' from *i()-ani̯ō; see under eis-1 `move, shake violently'.

See also: S. under ai-dh-, ā̆i̯er-, ai̯os-, aisk-, ai-tro-.

Page(s): 11

Root / lemma: ā̆l-3

English meaning: to wander, roam

German meaning: `planlos umherschweifen, irren; also geistig irre sein'

Material: Gr. ἄλη `the vagrancy, the wandering about', ἀλάομαι (horn. Pf. ἀλάλημαι), ἀλαίνω `wanders about '*, ἀλήτης `beggar',

ἀλητεύω `wander, begging around', ἅλιος `in vain' (Spiritus asper admittedly, still unexplained, s. Boisacq 44, also against the assumption of anl. F-);

from a basis alu-, aleu- gr. ἀλύω `I'm beside myself'**, ἀλύσσω ds. (Hom.; Fut. ἀλύξει Hippokr.), ἀλύκη `restiveness, worry, concern, fear, alarm', ἄλυσις (from ἀλύω) `angst', ἄλυς, -υος (Plut.) ``idle hanging around, boredom'; common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation;

with the concept `wander around, around a dangerous place or thing not to come near to', also ἀλεύομαι, ἀλέομαι `avoids', ἀλύσκω (*αλυκ-σκω, compare Aor. ἤλυξα) `escapes', ἀλυσκάζω `avoid, flee', ἀλεείνω ds., ἀλεωλή `defense' (*ἀλεFωλή formation as φειδωλή).


*) ἀλαζών `fibber, boaster, bragger' (actually dragging around juggler, mountebank), derives after Bonfante (BSL. 37, 77) from thrak. VN ᾽Αλαζόνες.

**) ἀλύ̄ω, ἀλυίω from *ἀλυʒι̯ω vergleichen Schulze Qunder ep. 310 f., Lagercrantz Z. gr. Lautg. 89 with Old Indian roṣati, ruṣyati `be cross with, be angry', but from Uhlenbeck Old Indian Wb. 256 is placed more right to lit. rústas `unfriendly, unkind'.


Mit ā-: ἠλάσκω `wanders around', ἠλαίνω `be demented', Med. `wander around', ἠλέματος (dor. ἀ̄λέματος Theokr.) `foolish, futile, vain', ἠλίθιος `trifling, in vain, brainless', ἠλεός `confuses, beguiles; bewildering', (besides öol. equivalent ἆλλος an *ά̄λιος in:) hom. ἆλλα φρονέων `φρένας ἠλεός' `dazed, unconscious' (from dor. *ᾱλεός derives lat. ālea `a game of dice, game of hazard; hence chance, risk, uncertainty, blind luck').

Lat. ambulō `to walk, go for a walk, travel, march' (umbr. amboltu `a walk, a stroll'); (lat. alūcinor `to wander in mind, dream, talk idly' is probably borrowed from ἀλύω under formal support in vāticinor).

In addition lett. aluôt, aluôtiês `wander around, get lost', with ā lett. āla `half-mad person', āl'uôtiês `behave foolish, gestures clownish'.

Toch. AB āl- `distinguish, remove'.

References: WP. I 87 f., WH. I 33, 38, EM. 43 (places ambulō to gr. ἐλαύνω, stem el-).

Page(s): 27-28

Root / lemma: ālu-, ālo-

English meaning: a bitter plant

German meaning: `bittere Pflanzeö'

Material: Old Indian ālú-ḥ, ālukám- `bulb, onion, round esculent radix'; lat. ālum, ālium `garlic', osk. *allō from *ali̯ā probably as foundation of gr. ἀλλᾶς `sausage (*stuffed tubular casing)'; lat. ālum or ālus `Symphytum officinale L., comfrey, blackwort' a plant appreciated for its roots (perhaps gall. wordö s. Thesaurus).

Maybe alb. helm `bitter; poison'

Note: alb. is the only IE lang. that preserved the old laryngeal ḫ-.

References: WP. I 90 f., WH. I 30, 33.

See also: Probably to alu-.

Page(s): 33

Root / lemma: āmer- (āmōr, āmr̥)

English meaning: day

German meaning: `Tag'

Material: Gr. horn. ἦμαρ, -ατος, att. ἡμέρᾱ (Asper probably after ἑσπέρα, Sommer Gr. Ltst. 123), otherwise ἀ̄μέρα `day' (with Lenis, hence not to idg. *sem- `summer';

Lit. bei Boisacq s. v., wherefore Fick KZ. 43, 147); arm. aur `day' (from *āmōr about *amur, *aumr; Meillet Esquisse 55). To the stem formation s. still J. Schmidt Pl. 195 f., to ion. μεσᾰμβρίη `midday' Boisacq under μεσημβρίᾱ. Van Windekens (Lexique 80) places here toch. A omöl, В emalle `hot', from idg. *āmel-.

References: WP. I 53, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 305, 481, 518.

Page(s): 35

Root / lemma: āno-

English meaning: ring

German meaning: `Ring'

Material: Arm. anur `neckband, ring', lat. ānus `circle, ring', air. āinne (*ānīni̯o-) m. `ring, anus'.

Maybe through metathesis alb. (*ānus) unazë `ring'.

References: WP. I 61, WH. I 55, Pedersen Litt. 2, 80.

Page(s): 47

Root / lemma: āpero-

English meaning: shore

German meaning: `Ufer'

Material: Gr. ἤπειρος, dor. ἄπειρος f. `shore; mainland'; ags. ōfer, mnd. ōver, mhd. (md.) uover, nhd. Ufer; but arm. ap`n `shore' requires idg. ph and hence, stays away.

Maybe alb. (*ἄπειρος) afër `near, close, related, neighboring, in the area of' : Old Indian ápara- `back, later'.

relationship to *apo `since, from, ex', Old Indian ápara- `back, later' as lengthened grade formation becomes adopted by Specht Dekl. 23.

References: WP. I 48.

Page(s): 53

Root / lemma: ā̆p-2

English meaning: water, river

German meaning: `Wasser, Fluß'


It seems that from Root / lemma: akʷā- (more properly ǝkʷā): ēkʷ- : `water, river' [through the shift gʷ > b, kʷ > p attested in Greek, Illyrian and Celtic languages] derived Root / lemma: ab- : (water, river) and Root / lemma: ā̆p-2 : `water, river'.

Material: Old Indian ā̆p- f. `water', e.g. Pl. Norn. ā́paḥ, Akk. apáḥ, Gen. apā́m, av. Nom. Sg. āfš, Akk. Sg. āpǝm, Instr. Sg. apā(-ca), Old Indian ā́pavant- `watery', in older contraction with reduplication-stem in -i, -u auslaut prefixes (Kretschmer KZ. 31, 385, Johansson IF. 4, 137 f.) pratīpá- `directed against the stream', nīpá- `low lying, deep-recumbent', anūpá- `situated, lying in water',

dvīpá- `island, sand bank in the river', antarīpa- `island'; the same contraction with in -o ending 1. part in gr. river names ᾽᾽῝᾽Iνωπός, ᾽Ασωπός (: ἰνόω, ἄσις; Fick BB. 22, 61, 62); gr. `Ᾱπία `Peloponnes', Μεσσ-απία ds., lokr. Μεσσ-άπιοι, ill. Μεσσά̄πιοι (different Krahe ZONF. 13, 20 f.) common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation and Āpuli of Lower Italy, river names ᾽Απιδών (Arcadia), ᾽Απιδανός (Thessaly), thrak. ῎Απος (Dacia),

ill. ῎Αψος, Apsus, apul. PN Sal-apia (`saltwater'); here as vestiges ven.-ill. immigration part of the West German apa- names, as Erft (*Arnapia), and all FlN with -up-, as nhd. Uppia-Bach (Tirol), frz. Sinope (Manche), brit. harbour Rutupiae, sizil. Κακύπαρις (compare lit. Kakupis), compare the thrak. FlN ῝Υπιος, Υπανις;

Old Prussian ape `river', apus `spring, fountain, stream, brook', lit. ùpė, lett. upe `water' (u is perhaps reduplication-stem from idg. o, a, Trautmann Bsl. Wb. 11; or belongs up- rather to Old Church Slavic vapa `sea'ö). Here Ach- (*aps-) in cymr. FlN, gall. Axonaö

Besides kelt.-lat. ab-, see below ab-.

Johansson IF. 4. 137 f. goes to explanation the b-form from through ᾽Απιδών, ᾽Απιδανός as well as by Old Indian ábda-ḥ m. `cloud' and with āpaḥ paradigmatic welded together Instr. Dat. Pl. Old Indian adbhiḥ, adbhyaḥ, presumed stem *ap(ǝ)d- (perhaps `giving water', with dō- `give' belonging to the 2nd part) from: *abdō(n), Gen. *abdnés, from which *abnés; from obl. case arose from lat. amnis, was compensated during in Celtic *abdō(n) : *abnés to *abā (mir. ab), *abonā (hence mir. abann).

References: WP. I 46 f., WH. I 40, 846, Krahe Gl. 20, 188 ff., Pokorny Urillyrier 110 ff., 130 f., Krahe Wörzburg. Jahrb. 1, 86 ff.

Page(s): 51-52

Root / lemma: ā̆s-, therefrom azd-, azg(h)-

English meaning: to burn

German meaning: `brennen, glöhen'

Material: Old Indian ā́sa-ḥ `cinder, dust' (about ásita-ḥ `black' s. *n̥si- `dirt-color, dark color'); lat. āra `altar; hence refuge, protection;'arae', plur., name of certain rocks at sea' (= osk. aasaí `in the altar', umbr. are `altars' etc), āreō, -ēre `to be dry', āridus `dry, arid, dry, parched, thirsty' (therefrom ardeō `to burn, glow, be on fire; of bright objects, to gleam; of feeling (esp. of love), to burn, smart; of political disorder, to be ablaze', participle Pass. assus `dried, roasted; n. pl. as subst. a sweating bath'), ārea `a level or open space, site, courtyard, threshing floor; esp. a playground; hence, in gen., play' (eigentl. `burnt-out, dry place'); ahd. essa f., nhd. Esse (*asi̯ōn), urnord. aRina, aisl. arinn `exaltation, elevation, hearth, fireplace', ahd. erin `floorboard, ground, bottom' (*azena); toch. AB as- present, ās- Perf. and causative `dry up', A āsar `to dry'; hett. ḫa-aš-ši-i (ḫaši) Lok. `on the hearth' (ḫašaš).

Perhaps here mir. ān `igneous, radiant, noble' (*āsḫno-). About gr. διψά̄ω, πεινά̄ω s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 724.

Because r in hett. aḫaḫri (āri) `becomes hot' does not belong to the stem, it must be distinguished lat. āreō `to be dry, be parched' not from āra `a structure for sacrifice, altar'.

Formant extensions:

azd- in gr. ἄζω (*azḫdḫi̯ō) `parch, dry', ἄζα f. `dehumidifier, dirt', ἀζαλέος `dry, inflaming', ἄδδαυον ξηρόν. Λάκωνες Hes. (-δδ from -zd-); čech. apoln. ozd `a device for drying malt or a room for drying malt', čech. slov. ozditi `to dry malt'.

azg- arm. ačiun `ash' (Meillet Esquisse 29), gr. ἄσβολος (*ἄσγ-βολος) `soot' (`ash - throw'), germ. *askōn in aisl. aska, ags. asce, æsce, ahd. asca, nhd. Asche.

Maybe zero grade lat. cinis -eris m. f. `ashes' < arm. ačiun `ash'; alb. (*aski) hi `ash' [common alb. ski- > hi- phonetic mutation].


Root / lemma: ken-2, kenǝ-, keni-, kenu- : `to rub, scrape off; ashes' must have come from zero grade of an extended Root / lemma: ā̆s-, therefrom azd-, azg(h)- : `to burn' into ā̆sk-en with the suffix -en. This assumption is proved by alb. geg. (*askini) hini `ash' [common alb. ski- > hi- phonetic mutation].

azgh-ö in arm. azazim `dries' (Meillet Esquisse 33, EM. 70), got. azgo `ash' (*azgōn). About the difficult relation from germ. *askōn : *az-gōn s. Feist 72b; again different Specht Dekl. 201, 219. Also the conclusiveness arm. examples are not quite flawless.

References: WH. I 61, 65, 848, Feist 72, Trautmann 22, Pedersen Hittitisch 27, 164.

Page(s): 68-69

Root / lemma: āt(e)r-

English meaning: fire, *blow the fire

German meaning: `Feuer'


Root / lemma: āt(e)r- : `fire, *blow the fire' derived from a suffixed Root / lemma: au̯(e)-10, au̯ē(o)-, u̯ē- : `to blow' with common IE formant -ter.

Material: Av. ātarš (Gen. āϑrō) m. `fire', wherefore Old Indian átharvan- `fire priest', Lw. from av. aϑaurvan-, aϑaurun (das ϑ from āϑrō) ds.;

arm. airem `burns, lights' (due to from *air from *ātēr); serb. vȁtra `fire', klr. vátra `fire, stove', poln. vatra `straw cinder' are borrowed after Jokl WZKM. 34, 37 ff. from rum. vatră `stove', these again from Alb. (geg. votrë, votër with v-suggestion before alb. ot- from *āt-, viell. iran. Lw.).


Alb. tosk. vatra, geg. votër `hearth' proves that Slavs borrowed prothetic v- before bare initial vowels from illyr. This phonetic mutation in alb. took place before the invasion of Slavs into the Balkans because alb. and rum. share the same cognate.

Perhaps as `burnt' also lat. āter `dead black, dark; poet. clothed in black. Transf., dark, gloomy, sad; malicious, poisonous' = umbr. atru, adro `black, coal-black, gloomy, dark'; but lat. Ātella = osk. Aderl[ā] (*Ātrolā, e.g. v. Planta I 551), lat. Ātrius = osk. Aadíriis (v. Planta II 768, Thurneysen 1А. 4, 38, Schulze Lat. Eig. 269, 578) are suspectly Etruscan origin.

Maybe illyr. Adria `deep, dark water, sea', zero grade in alb. (*āter) terr `dead black, dark'.

Possibly affiliation from ir. áith (Gen. átho) f., cymr. odyn f. `oven, stove', s. Fick II4 9.

References: WP. I 42, WH. I 75 f., 849 f.

Page(s): 69

Root / lemma: ā̆tos, atta (ḫatta)

English meaning: father, mother

German meaning: Lallwort `Vater, Mutter'

Material: Old Indian attā `mother, older sister', attiḫḥ `older sister', osset. öda, gr. ἄττα `old man, old fellow, father', dial. Akk. ἄτειν, ἄττειν `grandfather', lat. atta m. `father; term of endearment of the children towards the father', got. atta `father' (Demin. Attila, ahd. Ezzilo), afries. aththa ds., ahd. atto `father, forefather, ancestor' (tt by running always besides unpostponed neologism), Old Church Slavic оtьcъ (*attikós) `father'; alb. at `father', joshë `(on the maternal side) grandmother' (*ātḫsi̯āö), hett. at-ta-aš (attaš) `father'.


Alb. and Slav use prothetic j- for lost old laryngeal ḫ-.

A similar *ā̆to-s in germ. *aÞala, *ōÞela appears the basis from ahd. adal `sex, gender', nhd. Adel, as. athali, ags. æđelu N. PL `noble parentage', aisl. ađal `(the rudimentary basis of an organ or other part, esp. in an embryo) anlage, sex', Adj. ahd. edili, as. ethili, ags. aeđele `noble, aristocratic', lengthened grade ahd. uodal, as. ōthil, ags. ēđel, anord. ōđal `(fatherly) genotype' (compare also ahd. fater-uodal, as. fader-ōđil `property inherited from a father, patrimony');

here got. haimōÞli n. `genotype', compare with the same vocal lengahd. Uota (actually `great-grandmother'), afries. ēdila `great-grandfather'; toch. A ātöl `man'; here also av. āϑwya- `name of the fathers Θraētaona `s `as `from noble parentage'ö

The affiliation from gr. ἀταλός `in a juvenile manner, childish', ἀτάλλω `gathers, waits and is in habit' and `jumps cheerfully like a child', red. ἀτιτάλλω `draws up (Redupl. under influence from τιθήνη `nurse'ö), is denied by Leumann Gl. 15, 154.

One on the most different linguistic areas to itself always newly pedagogic babble-word (e.g. elam. atta, magy. atya `father', törk. ata, bask. aita ds.). Similarly tata.

References: WP. I 44, WH. I 77, 850, Feist 62, 233, Trautmann 16.

Page(s): 71

Root / lemma: ā

English meaning: interjection

German meaning: Ausruf der Empfindung

Note: often new-created

Material: Old Indian ā exclamation of the meditation;

gr. ἆ exclamation of the displeasure, pain, astonishment; ἆ, ἀά exclamation of the surprise and complaint; in addition ἄζειν `groan';

lat. ā, āh exclamation of pain, the displeasure;

lit. à, aà exclamation of the surprise, the reprimand or mockery, ā exclamation of the astonished question (of loud new creations);

got. ō exclamation of the displeasure, the admiration; ahd. ō exclamation of pain; mhd. ō exclamation of pain, the admiration, suspended thus to the vocative.

References: WP. I 1, WH. I 1, Loewe KZ. 54, 143.

Page(s): 1

Root / lemma: baba-, (*bal-bal-)

English meaning: barbaric speech

German meaning: Schallwort, Lallwort for unartikuliertes undeutliches Reden

Note: also bal-bal-, bar-bar- with multiple dissimilations, onomatopoeic words

Material: Old Indian bababā-karōti from the crackle of the fire; gr. βαβαῖ, παπαῖ `upon my soul, damn it all!' (out of it lat. bаbае, pаpае ds., as babaecalus perhaps `fop, dandy' from *βαβαίκαλος), βαβάζω `chats, talks indistinctly' (different is the sound conceivability from βαβράζω `chirps');

lat. babit (gloss.) `he/ she shall make happy, gladden, bless', babiger (gloss.) `stupid'; ital. babbo `father' (cymr. baban `kid, child' is engl. Lw.);

Maybe alb. baba `father' : bebe `child'

alb. bebë `the newborn kid, child'; engl. baby `kid, child', schwed. mdartl. babbe `kid, child, small boy' (see also unter xmb- `swell'), mhd. bābe, bōbe `missis; old woman, mother' (about buobe `boy' see under bhrātēr `brother'); lit. bóba, Old Church Slavic baba `old woman'; serb.-Church Slavic bъbl'u, bъbati `stammer', serb. bòboćem, bobòtati `clatter with the teeth' etc; lett. bibināt `babble, murmur', Old Prussian bebbint `mock'.

balbal- (babal-, bambal-, from which bamḫb-, balḫb- under likewise):

Old Indian balbalāḫkarōti `stammers'; bulg. blаbо́l `ъ, bъlból `ъ `chats', lit. balbãsyti `babble', serbokr. blàbositi `stammer', russ. bolobólitъ `chat, drivel', čech. beblati `stammer'; lat. babulus `chatterbox, a babbler, fool'; nhd. babbeln, pappeln, engl. babble, norw. bable, schwed. babbla, aisl. babba `chat';

lat. balbus `stammering, babbling', balbūtiō `to stammer, stutter; hence in speak obscurely', Old Indian balbūtháḫḥ name (actually `stammerer');

Mayne alb. (*balbus) belbëzoj `babble'

čech. blb `gannet, gawk', blblati, bleptati `stammer, stutter'; serb. blebètati, lit. blebénti `babble'; gr. βαμβαλύζω (out of it lat. bambalō), βαμβακύζω `my teeth are chattering', βαμβαίνω `stammers'.

Mit -r-: Old Indian barbaraḫḥ `stammering', Pl. name of non-Aryan people (provided that here r on idg. r and Old Indian l in balbalā goes back to idg. l), gr. βάρβαρος `not Greek, speaking an unintelligible / incomprehensible language' (from which lat. barbarus) `βαρβαρόφωνος `from incomprehensible language' (barely after Weidner Gl. 4, 303 f. from babylon. barbaru `stranger, foreign, alien'), serb. brboljiti, brbljati `babble' (see also under bher- `to drone, buzz, hum'), lat. baburrus `foolish, silly', gr. βαβύρτας ὁ παράμωρος Hes. (about lat. burrae `trifles, nonsense' s. WH. I 124).

Here perhaps also Old Indian bālaḫḥ `young, childish, simple', possibly also slav. relationship from russ. balákatь `twaddle', balamútь `babbler, stunner, head turner'. -Unredupl. presumably also gr. βάζω `talks, patters', βάξις `speech', βάσκειν λέγειν, κακολογεῖν Hes.;

but gr. βάσκανος `invoking, imploring, exorcising; bewitching, casting a spell; spreading malicious gossip, speaking badly of; slanderous; envious, jealous', βασκαίνω `bewitches, envies' has derived as magic word through borrowing from nördl. language, perhaps Thrak. or Illyrian, from to bhā- `speak' belonging to present *bha-skō `speaks, discusses' (φάσκω; this also in Hesychs βάσκωö) (Kretschmer Einl. 248 f.);

lat. fascinum `giving it the evil eye, spell casting, invocation (exorcism (ö)); the male member; initially (at first) as a preventative against being bewitched', fascināre `enchant, bewitch, envy' are borrowed from gr. and are adapted only in f- folk etymology in fārī etc.

After Specht Dekl. 133 here lat. osk. bl-ae-sus `lisping, babbling'; different WH. I 107 f.

Maybe alb. (*phlas) flas `speak' not from lat. fābula `a narration, narrative'.

References: WP. II 105 f., WH. I 90, 94, Trautmann 24 f.

Page(s): 91-92

Root / lemma: badi̯os

English meaning: gold, brown

German meaning:'gelb, braun'

Note: (only lat. and ir.; maybe from one, at most not idg., language of ancient Europeö).

Material: Lat. badius `brown, chestnutcolored, bay'; air. buide `gold, yellow' (compare to Lautl. air. mag `field', Gen. muige; gall. Bodiocasses because of о rather for boduo-, about which under *bhaut- `hit'). Gr. βάδιος, βάδεος derives from lat.

References: WP. II 105, WH. I 92.

Page(s): 92

Root / lemma: baitā or paitāö

English meaning: goatskin

German meaning: `Ziegenfell, out of it gefertigter Rock'

Material: the relation from gr. βαίτη `tent or skirt from (nanny goats) fur' to got. paida f. `body skirt, petticoat', as. pēda `skirt', ags. pād `mantle', ahd. pfeit `shirt, shirtlike vestment, shirtlike piece of apparel' is decided there, that germ. word is borrowed from gr. words;

from dem Germ. again finn. paita and perhaps alb. petkë, petëk `clothes'; gr. βαίτη is probably thrak. Lw. or goes back to alb. forms in illyr. *paitā ö

References: WP. II 104, Feist 381 f., Bonfante BSL. 36, 141 f.

Page(s): 92-93

Root / lemma: bak-

English meaning: stick, to hit

German meaning: `Stab as Stutze', also `stechen, stoßen, schlagen'ö

Material: Lat. baculum `a staff, walking stick' from *bac-(c)lom, older *bakḫtlom; vestiges of -cc- in Demin. bacillum, for which repeatedly delivers baccillum, compare also imbēcillus `(without support) weak, frail' from -baccillos. Pisani (REtIE. 3, 53) places baculum as *bat-lo-m to battuō, that he considers as osk.-urnbr. Lw. (from *bakt-).

Maybe lat. baca (bacca) -ae f. `a berry, fruit; a pearl', bacalis, bacale `berry-bearing (designation of the female laurel), MFr. (*bacale) Bacoule, n.f. Belette `weasel' : alb. buklë `weasel', bukur, bukurosh `good, pleasing, beautiful, slender (like a weasel)' : rum. bucuros `glad'.

Note: In many lang. the name of weasel and good come from the same root.

Gr. βάκτρον, βακτηρία, βακτήριον `a staff, walking stick', βάκται ἰσχυροί Hes. (Contrast from imbēcillus), probably also βακόν πεσόν Hes.

Gr. βάκλα τύμπανα (i.e. `club') Hes., otherwise `club, shillelagh, stick', is probably borrowed from Lat.

Mengl. pegge, engl. peg `pin, peg', nhd. pegel `pole'; but mnd. pegel `mark in a vessel for liquids (from a ring or small existing plugs)', ags. pægel m. `wine pot', engl. pail `bucket' from mlat. pagella `col, column, yardstick'.

Lit. bàkstelėti `bump, puff', lett. bakstît `poke' (or to onomatopoeic word lit.bàkstö).

Against it air. bacc (nir. bac) `stick, a crook', cymr. bach `corner, hook', bret. bac'h `heel, stick' (from `clutch, crutch of the stick'), are in the Island-Celtic or already in the occurred through Latin back-formations from baculum.

References: WP. II 104 f., WH. I 92.

Page(s): 93

Root / lemma: bal-bal-

See also: see under baba-

Page(s): 93

Root / lemma: bal-, balbal-

English meaning: to shake, dance

German meaning: `wirbeln, sich drehen'


It seems Root / lemma: bal-, balbal- : `to shake, dance' derived from Root / lemma: baba-, (*bal-bal-): `barbaric speech' through an Old Indic intermediary (see above).

Material: Old Indian balbalīti `whirls', balvá- `crooked'; gr. (in Sicily) βαλλίζω `dances', out of it borrows lat. ballāre `dance'.

Maybe alb. (*bal-) valle `dance' [common alb. b > v shift]

References: WP. II 109, WH. 1, 95, Wackernagel Old Indian-Gr. I 181.

Page(s): 93

Root / lemma: baxmb-, bhaxmbh-, paxmp-, phaxmph-

English meaning: to swell

German meaning: `schwellen'

Note: Lautnachahmung, from den aufgeblasenen Backen genommen, psychologisch from хmb-, bhaxmbh- as unmittelbarer imitation eines gehörten dumpfen onomatopoeic words Schalles different.

Material: Old Indian bimbaḫḥ-m `Scheibe, ball, Halbkugel', bimbī f. `momordica monadelpha' (eine Cucurbitacee; bimbaḫm `deren rote fruit'); gr. βέμβιξ `Kreisel, Wasserstrudel; bumblebee', wherefore due to eines schwundstufigen βάβαξ `babbler': βαβάκτης `ὀρχηστής'; with bh (or ph): gr. πέμφιξ, -ῖγος `breath, breeze, storm, drip, blister', πομφός `blister, shield boss';

lit. bámba `navel', bam̃balas `Dickbauch', bum̃bulas `knot am stick, in Garn', bum̃bulas, bur̃bulas `vesicle, blister', bum̃bulỹs `Steckröbe', bũmburas, pum̃puras `bud'; lett. bãmba, bum̃ba `ball, sphere', bemberis `Tannenzapfen'; bimbul'i `Kartoffeln', bumbulis, bur̂bulis `knot, knag', bum̃burs `sphere, ball, Kartoffel';

russ.-alt. bubulja `Regentropfen', nowadays búblikъ (*bąbъl-ikъ) `pretzel, Kringel', klr. búben `small Junge, toddler', skr. bùban `kind of bean', bȕbla `clump', čech. boubel, bublina `vesicle, blister', poln. bąbel `vesicle, blister'.

Unverschobenes *baxmb- or verschobenes bhaxmbh- in schwed. mdartl. bamb `paunch', norw. mdartl. bamsa `greedy devour, pampfen', dön. (jöt.) bams `thick person', nhd. Bams `thick porridge, mash', mhd. bemstīn `die einen dicken Bauch hat'.

Verschobenes baxmb- or unverschobenes paxmp- in schwed. mdartl. pampen `aufgedunsen', dön. mdartl. pampe `sich brösten, brag, boast', norw. mdartl. pempa seg (*pampjan) `sich with Trank föllen', mnd. pampen `sich stuff' (nhd. pampfen), nhd. pampe `thick porridge, mash'.

With Tenuis: lat. pampinus `(*bud, *eye) fresh Trieb of Weinstockes, vine-layer'; lit. pampstù, pampaũ, pam̃pti `swell up', pamplỹs `Dickbauch', pùmpa `knob, handle, button, pommel, Teichrose', pim̃pilas m. `penis', lett. pàmpt, pempt, pumpt `to swell', pampali `Kartoffeln', pimpala `das mönnliche limb, member', pumpe `hump, hunchback, swelling, blister' (die u-forms are as contamination with *pup-aufzufassen);

abg. pupъ `navel', russ. pup `navel', púpyš `bud, bulge', poln. pęp `spigot';

aisl. fīfl `giant; rogue, Einfaltspinsel', fimbul- verstörkendes prefix, ags. fīfel `Seeungetöm, giant' (*pempelo-), aisl. fimbul-, fambi `Erztropf'.

Besides with auslaut germ. Tenuis dön. fomp, norw. mdartl. fump, famp `thick fool'.

With Tenuis asp. arm. p`amp`ušt `bladder'.

References: WP. II 108 f., WH. I 122, Niedermann WuS. 8, 87 f., Trautmann 26, 205.

See also: see also *baxb- ds.

Page(s): 94-95

Root / lemma: band- (*gʷheid-)

English meaning: drop

Note: Considering phryg. βεδυ `water' : nasalized illyr. Bindus `water god', Root / lemma: band- (*gʷheid-): `drop' : Root / lemma: oid- (*gʷheid-): `to swell; strong, *fast, swelling, lump, water' derived from a zero grade of Root / lemma: au̯(e)-9, au̯ed-, au̯er- (*aku̯ent-): `to flow, to wet; water, etc. `

German meaning: `Tropfen'ö

Material: Old Indian bindú- `drop' (probably for *bandú- under influence of índuḫḥ `drop'), related to corn. banne, banna, bret. banne `drop' (from which is borrowed mir. banna, bainne `drop, milk'), really Irish buinne `to gush forth, spring up, flood'; illyr. FIG Bindus (*Bendus), apul. fons Bandusiaeö


Old Indian bindú- `drop' : illyr. FIG Bindus prove that illyr.- phryg. were the intermediaries of satem and centum languages.

References: WP. II 110, Petersson Heterokl. 204 f., А. Мауеr Gl. 29, 69 ff.

Page(s): 95

Root / lemma: bar-bar-

See also: see under ba-ba-

Page(s): 95

Root / lemma: bata-

English meaning: murmur, babble

German meaning: onomatopoetisch for löppisches Lallen or Erstaunen

Material: Old Indian bata interjection of the astonishment `oh, blow', batá-ḥ `weaklingö'; abret. bat, nbret. bad `numbing, dizziness', bada, badaoui `talk thoughtlessly', bader, badaouer `mouth monkey', acorn. badus `moonstruck', gr. βατταρίζω `stammers', βαττολογέω `chats pointless stuff' (compare Blaß-Debrunner7 p. 40 appendices).

References: WP. II 105.

Page(s): 95

Root / lemma: bau

English meaning: sound of barking

German meaning: Nachahmung of Hundegebells, Schreckwort

Material: Gr. βαὺ βαὺ `dog barking', βαΰζω `barks, blasphemes', Βαυβώ `bugbear, Hecate', lat. baubor, -ārī `to bark gently or moderately'; a little bit differently uses lit. baũbti `bawl, bellow' from ox, baũbis cattle God as `bawler', serb. bau bau `fright word', baùkati `get a fright' etc

Maybe alb. (*baubi) bubi `dog'.

Gr. βαυβάω `sleep' is, like βαυβών `penis', folklike code word.

References: WP. II 104, WH. I 99, W. Oehl IF. 56, 119.

Page(s): 95

Root / lemma: baxb-, bhaxbh-, paxp-

English meaning: to swell

German meaning: `schwellen'

Note: (as baxmb-, s.d.)

Material: Old Indian pippala-ḥ `berry, paradise fig tree', pippalaka-ḥ `breast nipple'. pipluḫḥ `pimple, mole, mark on the body ("witch's tits" - any kind of mark on the body that a witch could use to suckle a demon)' (probably eig. `blister, vesicle'); lat. papula `a pimple, vesicle', papilla ds. `nipple, teat, breast'; lit. pãpas `nipple, teat, breast, tit', popà `ulcer', pupuolo `thick bud' (u can be Redukt.-stem to a, or assimilated in following uo, but also the root derived form pup-).

Unchanged or neologism schwed.-norw. mdartl. pappe `women's breast', mengl. pappe, engl. pap `nipple, teat, breast'; besides u- forms see under p(h)ū̆- `inflate, swell'.

Also besides under baba- combined babble and child words, like engl. baby, stand mhd. buoben Pl. `feminine breasts', westflöm. babbe `growth, swelling, lump' (idg. bh or in the onomatopoeic word unpostponed b) which will belong from the image of the inflated cheeks in our circle.

References: WP. II 107.

Page(s): 91

Root / lemma: baxmb-

English meaning: a kind of noise

German meaning: Nachahmung for dumpfe, dröhnende Schalleindröcke

Material: Gr βόμβος m. (out of it lat. bombus) `a boom, deep hollow noise', βόμβῡξ, -ῡκος `fleas', βομβύκια `humming insects', βομβύλη `narrow-necked vessel' (as `gurgling'), βομβυλιός or -ύλιος `bumblebee' (and `narrow necked vessel'); about βαμβαίνω `clatters with the teeth; stammer, lisp' see under baba-;

alb. bumbulit `it thunders';

maybe alb. bumballë `Blatta orientalis', also dial. `bumblebee' : lit. bim̃balas, bim̃bilas `gadfly, horsefly'.

germ. with by neologism prevented sound movement aisl. bumba `drum', dön. old bomme, bambe `drum', holl. bommen `to drone' (compareauch nhd. bum bum; a little bit similarly nhd. bammeln, bimmeln `ring, sound');

lit. bambė́ti `hum', in ablaut bim̃pti ds., bim̃balas, bim̃bilas `gadfly, horsefly'; russ.-Church Slavic búbenъ, bubonъ `drum', russ. bubnítь `chat, babble', poln. bęben `drum'.

References: WP. II 107, Trautmann 26, WH. I 111.

Page(s): 93-94

Root / lemma: bdel-

English meaning: to suck

German meaning: `saugen, zullen'ö

Material: Gr. βδάλλω `sucks', βδέλλα `leech'; nhd. zullen `suck in a sucking sac', zulp `piece of cloth used for soaking up liquid', ndl. tullen `drink, booze, sup', nhd. tulken `suck, drink with large gulps, quaff'ö Kretschmer KZ. 31, 423;

very uncertain because of more similar germ. words like norw. tūna `drink a lot' under likewise (see Falk-Torp under tylde). If the connection applies, was idg. initial sound bd-, or it is gr. β - perhaps in child languageö - from πι-= ἐπὶ shortened prefix (be- `suck'ö).

References: WP. II 119.

Page(s): 95

Root / lemma: bed-

English meaning: to swellö

German meaning: `schwellen'ö

Material: Old Indian badvaḫm `troop, heap; a certain high number'; Old Church Slavic (etc) bedro `thigh'; arm. port (*bodro-) `navel, belly, center'.

Maybe here schwed. mdartl. patte `woman's breast, nipple', isl. patti `small child', engl. pat `small lump (from butter)'; the forms standing besides with germ. b-, ölterdön. arsbatte `buttock',

schwed. mdartl. batt `of small heaps' then showed the same auslaut fluctuation as b(h)eu-, b(h)ū̆- `inflate, swell', wherewith root b(h)ed- (:b(h)u-d-, -t-) had the origin from the image of the inflated cheeks together.

Lat. bassus `stout, fertile, fat', roman `low, menial', stays away.

References: WP. II 109, WH. I 98, 477, 851, Kretschmer Gl. 22, 258 f.

Page(s): 96

Root / lemma: bel-1

English meaning: to cut off

German meaning: `ausschneiden, graben, höhlen'öö

Material: Perhaps arm. pelem `excavates, digs', at most also mir. belach `cleft, gap, pass, way' and kelt. *bolko-, -ā in cymr. bwlch m. `fissure', bret. boulc'h ds., mir. bolg f. (das g after tolg ds.)ö

References: WP. II 110; about not existierendes Old Indian bāra `Öffnung' s. Wackernagel under Debrunner KZ. 67, 171 f.

Page(s): 96

Root / lemma: bel-2

English meaning: strong

German meaning: `stark'

Material: Old Indian bálaḫm n. `force, strength, power', bálīyān `stronger', báliṣṭhaḫḥ `the strongest'; gr. βελτίων, βέλτερος `better', βέλτιστος, βέλτατος `best' (this -τ- by reorganization from *βελί̄ων, *βέλιστος after φέρτερος etc);

lat. dēbilis `feeble, weak'; Old Church Slavic boljьjь `greater', bolje Adv. `more, rather, to a greater extent, plus' and `very, more'. Uncertain ndl.-ndd.-fries. pal `motionless, steadfast'.

With lengthened grade Old Indian bālá-ḥ `young, childish', m. `boy, kid, child', f. `girl'.

Maybe in i- grade alb. (*bālá) bila `girl', bir `son, boy' : Old Indian bālá-ḥ, where l/ r are allophones.

References: WP. II 110 f., WH. I 326 f.

Page(s): 96

Root / lemma: bend-, bn̥d-no-

Meaning: spike, needle, etc.

German meaning: `vorspringende Spitze'

Note: perhaps in following kelt. and germ. words:

Material: Mir. benn `horn, summit' (*bn̥d-no- or *bend-no-ö), bennach `pointed', cymr. bann m. `hill, summit, horn (*bn̥d-no-)', mbret. ban `eminence, overhang, haughtiness, pride', gall.*ande-banno- > frz. auvent `(*protection roof) canopy, shield, shelter' (eig. `big horn'), Jud Rom. 49, 389 f., gall. dial. lacus Bēnācus, if for Bennācus, `the horned' (Sirmione), from *benno- (idg. *bend-no- or*bn̥d-no-);

west-flöm. pint `cusp, point', mnd. pint `penis', mhd. (mnd.) pinz `awl', ags. pintel `penis' (engl. pintle also still `peg'), norw. pintol `penis', wherefore probably with ablaut nhd.-bair. pfouzer, pfunzer `sharpened cudgel, club';

with kelt. forms to suitable n-suffix (*penn- from *bend-n-) and. pin `wooden pin, peg, small stake', mnd. pin, pinne `pin, point, nail, peg', mhd. pfinne f. `nail', ags. pinn `peg, staff, stick', spötaisl. pinni m. ds., ablaut. *pann- in ostfries. penne = pinne, ndd. pennen `latch a door (with a bolt)', ags. on-pennian `open (*the pen)', engl. pen `enclose so as to prevent from escaping; shut in, confine (shut in a pen)', ags. penn m. `pen, fold'.

Maybe alb. pendë `pair of oxen tied together' [common alb. n > nd shift] homonym to alb. pendë `feather' : lat. penna `feather'.

References: Johansson KZ. 36, 347 f. (also against borrowing of Pinne from lat. pinna, in which Kluge11 sticks).

WP. II 109 f.

Page(s): 96-97

Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, bh(e)u-

English meaning: expr. sound of hitting

German meaning: schallnachahmend for dumpfe Schalleindröcke, e.g. Uhuruf, dumpfer Schlag among others

Material: Npers. būm `owl'; arm. bu, buēč `owl' (without consonant shift in onomatopoeic word), gr. βύᾱς m., βῦζα f. `eagle owl', βύζειν `cry like an'eagle owl', lat. būbō `eagle owl', bulg. buh `eagle owl', russ. búchatь `shout vaguely and persistently long';

Maybe alb. (*buph) buf `owl' : rum. bufniţă; buhă `owl'

lit. baublỹs `great bittern', baũbti `roar, bellow', bubenù `drones vaguely'; lat. būtio `great bittern', būteo `a falcon's kind'; gr. βοή `call, cry, shout', βοάω `shouts, cries' (out of it lat. boāre `shout, cry'), βωστρέω `call, cry for help' (*βοFαστρέω), seem to be shaped from such bū̆- as rhyme words to γοή, γοάω (see root gō̆u-).

With ending in a guttural sound: Old Indian búk-kāra-ḥ `roar of the lion', bukkati `barks' (av. bučahin- `he who is prone to howling and snarling / hissing', buxti- `howl, hissing'ö), gr. βύκτης `howling'.

Maybe hung. bagoly `owl (*horned birdö)'

Perhaps mir. bōchna `sea' (`*roaring breaker'; basic form *boukaniā); lit. bùkčius `stammerers', lett. bũkšk̨êt `resound vaguely'; slav. buk- (from zero grade of *bouk-) in russ.-Church Slavic bučati `drone, roar', serb. bûčēm, búkati `roar', búčīm, búčati `roar (from the sea)';

Maybe alb. (*bučati) buças `roar (from the sea)'

*būk- in russ. etc byk `bull (*roar of the bull)'; about angebl. *bŭk- in Old Church Slavic bъčela, bьčela `bee' (compare russ. byčátь `hum, from bees') see under bhei- and WH. I 555; nasalized poln. bąkać `talk in a low voice, murmur', bąk `great bittern', old `cry like a great bittern (bird that booms/ roars like an ox during mating'; in the application to vague blow push russ. búkatь, búchatь (*bouk-s-) `bump, hit that resounds', buch `fall!', serb. búhnuti `break out', bušiti `hit, throw, fall, fall with noise', lit. bukùoti, lett. baũkš `description of sound produced by a strong blow', presumably also buka `punch' (also lit. bukùs `dull' here as `become dull through hitting'ö); mhd. buc `blow, push' (without sound movement by continual running beside neologism), puchen, buchen, nhd. pochen, ndl. beuken `hit, bump', schwed. boka, bauka, buka ds. (however, also `dig, spade, thrash about', as aisl. bauka; this versch. wordö see also WH. I under faux), engl. to poke `bump, sting', norw. pok, pauk `crude cudgel, club', perhaps mir. būalaim `hit' (*bougl ..., or to bhāu-d- `hit').

Maybe from the extended Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, bh(e)u- : `expr. sound of hitting' derived Root / lemma: bheg-, bheng- : `to break' in: alb. (*beuka) buka `bread' : phryg. βεκός `bread', actually `crumb'.

References: WP. II 112 f., WH. I 111, 119, 124, 470.

Page(s): 97-98

Root / lemma: b(e)u-2, bh(e)ū̆-

English meaning: to swell, puff

German meaning: `aufblasen, schwellen'

Note: Explosive sound of the inflated cheek, like pu-, phu see d .; running beside primeval creation crosses the sound-lawful development, so that e.g. germ. forms with pu- from idg. bu-, but from unpostponed idg. or new pu- are explainable. From the concept of the inflated cheek the meaning `swell, plump bloated (then convex) of the most different kind', also `make bulge, stuff, darn' and `blow, cough under likewise'. Originally differently the onomatopoetic words b(e)u-1 for vague onomatopoetic sounds and bu- `lip, kiss'.

Material: Gr. βῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ μεγάλου ἐλέγετο καὶ Σώφρων βύβα, ἀντὶ τοῦ μεστὰ καὶ πλήρη καὶ μεγάλα ΕΜ; presumably here also βουνός `hill' (dialect), βουνιάς `a turnip kind', βουvίζω `piles up', βούνιον `any plant of the Umbelliferae family'; redupl. βουβών `the groin, glands near the genitals, part. in morbidly swollen state'; nisl. pūa `blow, breathe'.

Reduplicates as βύβα, βουβών also lit. bubsù, bubsė́ti `throw up bubbles' (from water or fermenting dough), mnd. bubbeln `throw up bubbles, surge', schwed. bobba `bombast, grandiloquence, fin, insect', bubba `louse' and `Trollius europaeus' under likewise (with idg. bh or with consonant shift prevented by new creation of b), anord. bȳfa (*bhūbhiōn-) `big, lumpy foot', norw.dial. būve, būva `thicker, uncouth, clumsy person, scarecrow, also a word for male member'.

With certain bh-: Old Indian bhū́-ri-ḥ `rich, a lot, immense', compounds bhū́yas-, bhávīyas-, Superl. bhū́yišṭha-ḥ, av. būiri- `plentiful, full, complete', compounds-Adv. baiyō `(more, timewise =) longer, on longer than', Superl. bōištǝm `most, greatest number of things, very much, most possible'; arm. bavel, bovel `suffice'; lit. būrỹs `heap (houses), amount (sheep, birds, also rain)', lett. bũra `heap (people)';

without r-suffix: Old Church Slavic bujь (*bhou̯i̯o-) `wild, cruel, brainless', russ. bújnyj `growing vehemently, wildly, excessively'; from here ndd. , böje, ndl. bui `gust, gust of wind, shower'ö;

maybe alb. bujë `fuss'

gr. φόα ἐξανθήματα ἐν τῷ σώματι Hes.; with lengthened grade *bhōu- gr.-ion. φωΐδες, att. φῷδες `blisters'; gr. φαῖσιγξ, φαῦστιγξ `blister, bubble' (with Abl. ǝu besides ōu).

Also the root bheu- `become, originate' is probably developed from `swell', compare the meaning of Old Indian prábhūta-ḥ `rich, numerous' (: bhávati) with that of bhū́ri-ḥ.

extensions with l are perhaps: Old Indian buri-ḥ, buli-ḥ (unbel.) `buttock, vulva' = lit. bulìs (also bùlė, bulė̃) `buttocks', gr. βυλλά βεβυσμένα Hes., mnd. poll `head, point, treetop' (*bulno-), mnd. pull, poll `(bloated) shell, pod', engl. pulse `legume'; changing through ablaut mnd. puyl `bag', puyla `swelling, lump, growth'; with bh-: got. ufbauljan, only in participle ufbaulidai `(*inflated), conceited, haughty', ahd. paula f. `a pimple, bubble', ags. bȳle, ahd. pūlla, mhd. biule `swelling, blister', anord. beyla `hump, outgrowth', aschwed. bolin, bulin `swollen'; air. bolach `swelling, blister' (*bhulāk-, at most bhol- to bhel- `to swell'); arm. boil, Gen. Pl. bulic̣ `crowd, amount, herd', serb. búljiti `open the eyes wide in a stare, to goggle'.

Dental extensions: gr. βύτανα κόνδυλοι, ὁι δε βρύτανα Hes. (but βυτίνη λάγυνος ἤ ἀμίς. Tαραντινοῖ Hes., origin germ.-rom. kinship of nhd. Bötte, lat. buttis `barrel, cask, keg, cask', corresponds gr. πῡτίνη `demijohn, wickerbottle, carboy', see pū̆- `inflate, bloat'); here probably poln. buta `pride', bucić się `brag, boast'.

Old Indian budbuda-ḥ `blister, bubble', gr. βυζόν πυκνόν, συνετόν, γαῦρον δε καὶ μέγα Hes. (*budi̯o-, perhaps `distended, bloats'ö Yet see under βύζην S. 101); norw. pūte `pillow, cushion', pūta `bulky woman', schwed. puta `be inflated', puta `pillow, cushion' (dial. `female pudenda'; with the same application perhaps gr. βύττος γυναικὸς αἰδοῖον Hes.), engl. to pout `push the lips forward, usu. as an expression of displeasure, sullenness, or flirtatiousness; show displeasure, sulk' (`*to swell'), pout `a young domestic fowl, a chicken, a young turkey, pheasant, pigeon, guinea-fowl', ags. æle-pūte ds. (capitō, actually `big-head'), ndl. puit `frog';

with germ. -d- (-): ndd. puddig `swollen', ags. puduc `swelling, lump, growth, wart', mengl. ndd. podde `toad' with not yet cleared meaning development ags. pudd `water ditch', mengl. podel,engl. puddle, nhd. mdartl. Pfudel `a small pool of muddy water, esp. one formed on a road or path after rain', as also (with germ. t) norw. mdartl. pøyta, westf. pōt (*pauta) `slop, puddle, pool'; as a convex curvature in addition perhaps ags.pott, afries. mnd. pot `pot, pan' (different Kluge11 under Pott);

compare arm. poytn, Gen. putan `pot, soup pot, jug' from *beud-n- or *boud-n-.

With germ. b-: ahd. būtil, mhd. biutel `sac, bag, pocket'; isl. budda `sac, bag, purse', ags. budda `dung beetle', mengl. budde `bud' and `beetle, chafer', budden `redound' (`*to swell'), engl. bud `bud', to bud `redound', mnd. buddich `thickly inflated', nndd. budde `louse, cock chafer grub; fright picture'; mnd. buddelen, bod(d)elen `throw bubbles, foam', norw. mdartl. boda `roar, bubble, from the water'; anord. bođi `breaker, surge, breakers, surf'; mhd. butte, nhd. Hagebutte;

besides with germ. -tt-: mnd. botte, ndl. bot `bud', mhd. butze `lump, mucus; goblin, fright figure', nhd. Butze(n), Butz `fright figure; lumps, mucus, crowd; cores', etc, ndd. butt `clumsy, dull, coarse', mhd. butzen `to swell';

besides with -t- after long vowel or diphthong mhd. buzen `swell, jut out, bulge (from the belly, the eyes)', ahd. bōzo `a bundle of flax', mhd. bōze `ds.; ridiculous person, knave, boy';

perhaps lit. budėlė̃ `a kind of mushroom', slav. *bъdъla in čech. bedla `a saprophytic fungus of the order Agaricales having an umbrella-like cap with gills on the underside', bedly Pl. `oral fungi, funguettes in oral or nasal cavity'; from Arm. here besides poytn (see above) also ptuɫ, Gen. ptɫoy `fruit' and ptuk, Gen. ptkan `green branch, young shoot' and `breast, nipple, teat'.

Air. buiden `troop, multitude, crowd', cymr. byddin, abret. bodin ds. has root-like u and belongs likewise here.

Labial extension: ags. pyffan `blow out, puff out', engl. puff `puff, blow, be inflated', norw. puffa, ndd. puffen.

guttural extensions:

Lat. bucca `the cheek, esp. when puffed out. Transf., a declaimer, bawler; a parasite; a mouthful'; mhd. pfūchen, nhd. (p)fauchen (can contain unpostponed idg. p, compare lit. pũkšti `pant, gasp, wheeze'); schwed. puk `swelling, lump, growth, tubers', anord. poki m. `sac, bag, sack, bag', engl. poke ds., nhd. dial. Pfoch `sac, bag', ags. pohha, pocca `sack, bag, sac, bag', engl. pocket `pocket', mndd. nndd. pogge, pugge `frog, toad; swelling, lump, growth in the abdomen with cows and mares', ags. pocc `blister', nhd. (actually ndd.) Pocke, dial. Pfoche `blister'; anord. pūki m. `devil', ags. pūca, pūcel, engl. puck `fairy demon, ghost' (from Germ. derived ir. pūca `ghost', perhaps also lett. pūk'is `dragon'); zero grade ndd. pōk `subnormal person in growth', norw. mdartl. pauk `small, weak person, knave, boy' (about got. puggs `sac, bag, purse', anord. pungr, ags. pung ds. and scaz-(p)fung `purse' s. though Feist 385).

With germ. b: mengl. nengl. big (*bugja-) `thick, big, large, conceited'; norw. mdartl. bugge `mighty man', mengl. bugge (engl. bug) `a lump of (semi-)dried nasal mucus, booger; chafer, bedbug; bugbear, spectre, bogeyman', nhd. mdartl. bogg(e) `booger, the core in fruit or the carpels of an apple or a pear, bugbear, spectre, bogeyman'.

Here presumably germ. *buh- (idg. *bhuk-) in ahd. buhil `foreland, hill', aisl. bōla f. `swelling, blister, shield boss' (*buhlōn-) and *bū̆k- (idg. *bhū̆g-) in schweiz. Böcki `keg', engl. buck `bucket, pale' and aisl. būkr `belly, body'; ags. būc `belly, crock, pitcher', ahd. būh, nhd. Bauch, in addition lett. bugarains `tubercular', buga `hornless cow', budzis `swelling, blister, unripe Fruit'; but lit. baũžas `hornless', bužỹš `scarecrow, bogie, spectre', būžỹs `bedbug, louse', búože `club, mace, joint, pinhead' (úo probably from ōu, compare above S. 99 φωΐδες) can contain balt. ž as single-linguistic forms and are based on the unextended root.


Gr. βῡνέω > (*βῡνέσω, to υ: s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 692), βύω (*βυσω), βεβυσμένος, βυστός `to cram, fill, chock, stuff, ram up', βύστρα, βύσμα `bung, clot, thrombus', βύζην (βυσ-δην) `crushed, thrusted, thronged, full'; alb. mbush `fill'; mir. būas `sac, bag, pocket, belly' (*bhousto-, compare aisl. beysti `ham'),


alb. mbush `fill' [common alb. shift b > mb]

anord. pūss `pocket, sac, bag', isl. pose, ags. pusa, posa, ahd. pfoso `sac, bag'; with the more originary meaning `blow, inflate, bloat, to swell', aschwed. pȳsa `pant, sniff, snort', mhd. pfūsen `pant, sniff, snort, sneeze', sich pfūsen `self inflating, inflated', nhd. mdartl. pfausen, ags. pos `catarrh, waterfall', engl. pose `a cold in the head, catarrh', mndd. pūsten `pant, sniff, snort', pūster `bellows', nhd. pusten (actually ndd.) mdartl. pfausten, anord. pūstr `slap in the face, box on the ear' (as frz. soufflet to souffler); norw. pūs `swelling, lump, growth', peysa, pūsna `to bloat, bulge, swell', schweiz. pfūsig `swollen', nhd. Pfausback, with ndd. anlaut Pausback (besides Bausback with germ. b-, see under); norw. mdartl. pusling `toddler, fairy demon, ghost, goblin', schweiz. Pfosi `toddler, clumsy, stupid person' (`short and thick'); norw. pūs, pøysa `mud puddle', anord. pyss ds. (in place names).

Mit germ. b (= idg. bh, partly perhaps unpostponed or the new b): ags. bōsom (germ.*būs-mo(n)-), ahd. buosam, mhd. buosem, buosen, nhd. Busen, mhd. būs `vanity, arrogance, pomposity, flatulence, bloatedness, inflatedness, bumptiousness, conceitedness, vaingloriousness, swelling fullness', būsen `indulge oneself', nhd. bausen `to booze, bouse, quaff, tipple, carouse, swell', Baus `abundance, tumor, inflation', Bausback, Bausch `swelling, turgescent, bulgy cushion, stuffed breast', mhd. būsch `bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb, wad, plumper', anord. busilkinna `woman (with chubby cheeks), a chubby-cheeked woman', norw. baus `proud, rollicking, wanton, violent, quick-tempered', ahd. bōsi `stonyhearted, bad', nhd. böse, mengl. bōsten, nengl. to boast `brag, boast' (`*blow up'), nhd. beysinn `thick, wide and large (from clothes)', būstinn ds., aisl. beysti `ham', nhd. mdartl. Baust `bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb', bauste(r)n `to swell', ahd. biost, nhd. Biest-milch (actually `fat milk'), ags. bēost, bȳsting, engl. beastngs, biestings ds., norw. mdartl. budda (*buzdōn-) ds. (insecure is, whether schwed. mdartl. buska `fresh, fermenting beer' and associated with it as *beuza- is to be added ahd. bior, ags. bēor `beer' as `frothing at the mouth, foaming, bubble-throwing, blistering'; about other interpretations of beer see Kluge11 and Weigand-Hirt).

Russ. búchnutь `to bloat, bulge, swell, gush, well up', sloven, bûhnem, búhniti `to bloat, bulge, swell, sich inflate, bloat', búhor `vesicle, blister', kasch. bucha `pride, hauteur' (*bauṣā).

There is used probably the following group which meaning `blasting forth, sallying forth' from `swell' can be developed: aisl. bysia `stream out with big power'; norw. mdartl. bøysa `storm forth'; schwed. busa `dismay, hurtle out'; ostfries. būsen `be violent, roar, make a noise, attack' (and `live the high life, high on the hog / or high off the hog, have a luxurious lifestyle', compare above mhd. būsen `indulge oneself'), būsterig `stormy', Old Church Slavic bystrъ `board up; strand; take away; bring; mishit; wallop; thrash', russ. býstryj `fast, sharp sighted, rapid from the current' (*bhūs-ro-).

References: WP. II 114 f., Trautmann 28, 39.

Page(s): 98-102

Root / lemma: bē, bā

English meaning: sheep's bleating

German meaning: Nachahmung of Schaflautes

Material: Gr. βῆ, lat. bēbō, -āre `bleat, shout, from a young deer', bālāre and vlat. bēlāre `bleat', nhd. böh, slav. (e.g. klr.) békati `bleat', lett. bę̃, bęku, biku Interj. `bleating, grousing, blatant', aisl. bekri `Aries, ram', schweiz. böckeln `(*from the alpine chamois)'; similarly air. béiccithir `bellow, roar', cymr. beichio `bellow', perhaps also Old Indian bēkurā `voice, sound, tone', all single-linguistic neologisms. Similarly air. béiccithir `roars', cymr. beichio `mugire', perhaps Old Indian bēkurā `voice, tone', all single-linguistic new formations.

References: WP. II 121, WH. I 95, 99.

Page(s): 96

Root / lemma: bhabhā

English meaning: bean

German meaning: and anklingende words for `Bohne', under zw. `broad bean'

Note: compare to Sachlichen Hoops Waldb. 350, 400 f., 464 f., Hehn Kltpfl.8 221, 570, Schrader RL.2 159 f.

Material: Lat. faba (fal. haba) `the broad bean' (in addition the PN Fabius, Fabidius etc and the island Fabāria),

Note: common lat. ph- > f- shift

russ. etc bobъ, Old Prussian babo ds. Probably reduplicated babble-word and as `inflated, bulged pod, tumescence' related to gr. φακός m. `lentil': alb. bathë f. `broad bean' (*bhak̂ā).

Note: common alb. shift -kh > -th also -gh > -dh

Also aisl. baun, ags. bēan, ahd. bōna `bean' (Baunonia Frisian island by Plinius) have originated probably through dissimilation from *baÞnā to *ƀaunā.

Note: The assumption of a duplicated Root / lemma: bhabhā (bha-bhā) seems to be wrong. Common lat. kʷ > p phonetic mutation corresponds to common gr. gʷ > b phonetic mutation : gr. φοῖβος `clean, gleaming', φοιβάω, φοιβάζω `clean', ἀφοίβαντος `smudges' (*bhoigʷ-o-), ἀφικτός, ἀφικτρός (*bhigʷ-) `impure, unclean'. That means gr. φακός m. `lentil' and alb. bathë f. `broad bean' derived from an intermediary root (*bhak̂ʷā) and that one from Root / lemma: bheigʷ- : `to shine'.

Obviously Germanic forms *baÞnā derived from illyr. *bathna (alb. bathë f. `broad bean'); common alb. nasalization t > nt > n.

References: WP. II 131, WH. I 436.

Page(s): 106

Root / lemma: bhag-1

English meaning: to divide

German meaning: `zuteilen; as Anteil bestimmen or (originally medialö) as Anteil, as Portion erhalten'

Material: Old Indian bhajati `allocates, apportions, divides' = av. bag- (bažat̃) `be determined as an interest', Old Indian bhagaḫḥ `property, luck', av. baga-, baγa- n. `favorable interest, attractive lot'; Old Indian bhaga-ḥ `allocator, master, mister, epithet of Savitar and another Āditya' = av. baγa- `master, mister, god', npers. baɣ `god' : Old Church Slavic bogъ `god' (formal also =gr. -φάγος);.

Maybe suffixed alb. (*baɣ-) bagëti `sheep (animal god)'

ur-ind. (Mitanni) PN Bagarriti (= *bhaga-rīti- `blessing stream'), GN Bagbartu (= *bhaga-bhr̥t- `blessing donator'), kleinas. VN Βαγαδά(F)ονες (= *bhaga-dā-u̯on- `making a donation'), Kretschmer KZ. 55, 95, Gl. 18, 232;

Old Indian bhaktá-m `repast, meal' = av. baxta- participle `as alloted lot'. n. `assigned lot, fate determination, esp. bad luck'; Old Indian bhakšati `enjoys, consumes' = av. baxšaiti `has or gives lot', Desid. Old Indian bhikšate `requests';

phryg. Βαγαῖος Ζεὺς Φρύγιος Hes. (perhaps of Iranian origin); or from to gr. φηγός `oak'ö S. under bhāgó-s;

gr. φαγεῖν `eat', στο-φάγος `eating grain', etc; because of gr. φαγόνες σιαγόνες, γνάθοι Hes. perhaps here (Much Zfdt Wtf. 2, 283) as. (kinni-) bako, nhd. Backe;

slav. *bogъ `lot' in Old Church Slavic ubоgъ, nеbоgъ `poor', bogatъ `rich', Old Church Slavic bogъ `god' (proto extension or iran. Lw.); GN Daždi-bоgъ `bestowing wealth';

toch. A pāk, В pāke `deal, portion', A pāc̨iṃ `treasure, tribute'.

References: WP. II 127 f., W. Schulze KZ. 60, 138 = Kl. Schr. 469.

Page(s): 107

Root / lemma: bhag-2

English meaning: sharp

German meaning: `scharf, also vom Geschmack'öö

Material: Kret. φάγρος `whetstone', ἀκόνη, φοξός `pointy heads, pointedheads, pointheads' (from *φαξός after λοξός `crooked *(with a pointed angle'ö) would compare from Lidén Arm.-stem 57 ff. with arm. bark (could be = φάγρος) `bitter, sharp from taste; violent, angry' compared, yet bark could belong also to idg. *bhorgʷo-s .

References: WP. II 128.

Page(s): 107

Root / lemma: bhardhā

English meaning: beard

German meaning: `Bart'


Root / lemma: bhardhā : `beard' derived from the fussion of suffixed Root / lemma: gʷer-1, gʷerǝ- : `to devour; throat' + zero grade gʷ(h)i- `snake, worm, fish' Root / lemma: angʷ(h)i- : snake, worm, *fish'.


Maybe alb. geg. (*gʷer- gʷha) verza `(*throat), gill of fish' Latvian bārda `gill of fish' : Latvian: bā̀rda `beard' [f ā]; bārzda (dial.) `beard' [f ā] : Greek βράγχια, βαράγχια `gill of fish' = Root / lemma: gʷer-1, gʷerǝ- : `to devour; throat' + zero grade of Root / lemma: angʷ(h)i- (*egʷhi-, ogʷhi- and eĝhi-): `snake, worm, *fish (*hedgehog = snake eater)'

Lat. barba `beard' (assimil. from *far-ba);

ahd. bart, ags. beard `beard' m., therefrom ahd. barta, as. barda, aisl. barđa `hatchet, beards', because the iron stands like a beard in the handle; from the Germ. Old Church Slavic brady `axe, hatchet';

Old Church Slavic brada `beard', russ. borodá ds., also `chin', skr. bráda, Akk. brâdu `beard' etc;

Old Prussian bordus `beard' (unclear after Trautmann 27);

lett. bā̀rda and (see to zd under) bārzda, lit. barzdà, Akk. bar̃zdą `beard';

lat. barbātus, Old Church Slavic bradatъ, lit. barzdótas `having a beard, bearded'.

Maybe rum. bărbat `man, jack, male, husband, spouse (bearded manö)' : alb. burrë `man, jack, male, husband, spouse (bearded manö)'

lit. and partly lett. -zd- is probably through the analogy the balt. correlation (*barzdā) caused from Old Church Slavic brazda, russ. borozdá `furrow'.

maybe alb. brazda `furrow'

just as slav. *bъrъ `millet, sorghum' (see under bhar- `bristle ear') will be based also idg. *bharḫdhā `beard' on *bhar- `bristle, stand up', next to which extension *bhares- ds.

References: WP. II 135, WH. I 96, Specht Dekl. 87.

Page(s): 110

Root / lemma: bharekʷ- or bherekʷ-

English meaning: to stuff

German meaning: `vollstopfen, zusammendröngen'

Material: Gr. φράσσω, φράττω (*φρακι̯ω from *bhr̥kʷ-) `encloses, crams into, crowds together', common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation;

φρακτός `locked in', with secondary γ: Aor. ἐφράγην (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 760), φραγμός etc, epid. φάρχμα from *φάρκσμα, δρύ-φ[ρ]ακτος `wooden shack, shed', in addition φύρκος τεῖχος Hes.;

lat. farciō, -īrе `to fill full, stuff full, cram', fartus `stuff, fill up, gorge oneself, cram into', perhaps frequ-ēns, -tis `crowded, numerous, full; of places, full, frequented, populous; of time, repeated, frequent, constant; of persons, often doing a thing; of things, often done or used';

Note: common lat. ph > f shift

mir. barc f. `onrush (esp. the waves, billows)'; whereas derives mir. barc f. `fortress' probably from gallo-rom. *bar(i)ca `framehouse, a wooden house' (compare Bollelli L'It. dial. 17, 147 f.);

toch. A prākör, В prākre `firmly fixed in place; not easily moved; physically stable' (Van Windekens Lexique 100).

References: WP. II 134 f., WH. I 456 f., Loth RC. 38, 303 f. Zweifel by EM 332.

Page(s): 110-111

Root / lemma: bhares- : bhores-

English meaning: point, stubble (with formants)

German meaning: `Emporstehendes, Spitze, Borste'

Note: Mit s-extension

Material: bhars-

Lat. fastigium (*bharsti-) `the gable end, pediment of a roof; hence a slope, either up or down; of measurements looking up, height; looking down, depth; abstract, high rank, dignity; principal point in a subject', here perhaps fastus, -ūs m. `pride, haughtiness, arrogance' (tu-stem), in addition fastīdium `loathing, squeamishness, disgust, dislike; hence scorn, haughtiness, disdain' (from *fasti-tīdium, to taedium); s. also Pisani Rc. R. Ist. Lomb. 76, 2, 17 f.;

air. barr `top, point, summit, foliage', cymr. corn. bar, bret. barr ds., abrit. PN Cuno-barros `fierce, furious like a battle dog', gall. *barros `bush, treetop' (M.-L. 964).


Mir. borr `stout, proud, swollen', mcymr. bwrr ds., corn. bor `fat';

ahd. parrēn `stand up stiffly', parrunga `pride', aisl. barr- `needle, conifer', ags. bærs, bears, mhd. bars, nhd. Barsch, ahd. bersich `barse, perch'; ablaut. schwed. agh-borre (*borzan, idg. *bhr̥s-) ds.;

ndd. (out of it nhd.) barsch (*bhors-ko-) `coarse, stern, rough'; mengl. burre, borre `burdock, roughness in the throat', engl. bur(r) ds., dön.-schwed. borre `burdock', schwed. sjö-borre `hedgehog', norw. dial. borren, byrren `stout, proud'.

Maybe alb. geg. burrë `man, valiant man, proud man', burrni `pride, bravery' mburr `be proud, boast' [common alb. b > mb phonetic mutation].


Maybe alb. geg. burrë `man, valiant man, proud man', burrni `pride, bravery' mburr `be proud, boast' [common alb. b > mb phonetic mutation] proves that Root / lemma: bhares- : bhores- : `point, stubble' derived from an extended Root / lemma: bher-1 : `to bear, carry' (see below).

bhr̥sti-, bhorsti-

Old Indian bhr̥ṣṭíḫḥ f. `prong, spike, cusp, peak, edge, point' = germ. *bursti- in aisl. burst f. `bristle, ridge of the roof', ags. byrst f. `bristle', ahd. burst, borst m. n., bursta f. `bristle', mhd. burste `bristle brush' (from dem Pl. from burst `bristle mass'); slav. *bъrsti̯o- in russ. borščь `acanthus', boršč `red turnip soup', etc

With formants -dho-, -dhā-:


Ags. breord, breard m. `edge, bank, border, shore, surface, plain, area' (*brerdaz), besides briord (*brerdia), aschwed. brædder ds., nschwed. brödd, etc

Maybe alb. (*bhrez) brez `hillside, (*border) strap, belt' the same in rum. ööö similar to russ. brozdé `bridle, rein'.


Alb. breth, bredhi `fir'; air. brot `sting, prick', acorn. bros, bret. broud ds., compare mir. brostaim `spur on, drive on, goad, incite, arouse' from *bhrosḫt- (Loth RC. 42, 70), mistakenly O'Rahilly Ériu 13, 169 f.; ahd. brart `edge, border, stem, stem bar, stem post', schwed. dial. bradd.

bhrezdh-, bhrozdh-

Mir. brataim `loots, robs' (in addition bratán `salmon') = cymr. brathu `sting, bite, drill through'; *bhrozdh- or *bhr̥zdh- to germ. *bruzd- in ahd. brort `edge, border', ags. brord m. `cusp, peak, germ, sprout, leaf', wsöchs. brerd (*brozdi-),

ags. bryrdan `sting, goad, stir, tease, irritate', aisl. broddr `cusp, peak, grain germ, cutting edge', ahd. gibrortōn `to hem, gird, border'; = baltoslav. *bruzdā- in Old Church Slavic brъzda, russ. brozdé `bridle, rein',

lit. bruzdùklis, old `bridle, rein', currently`peg, plug, toggle'. Whereas is lit. brìzgilas, Old Prussian bisgelan `bridle, rein' probably borrows from proto germ. ƀriʒđila- (ags. brigdels `bridle, rein', bregdan `flax, wattle, braid'). Different Specht Dekl. 142.

References: WP. II 131 ff., WH. I 461 f., 546.

Page(s): 109-110

Root / lemma: bhares-

English meaning: barley

German meaning: `Gerste'

Material: Lat. far (eig. farr), farris n. `spelt, grain, meal' from *far(o)s, *far(e)zes (respectively *fars, *farsḫes) = osk. far, umbr. far; lat. farīna `meal, flour' (from *farrīna), farreus = umbr. farsio, fasiu `made of spelt or wheat, meal';

Note: common alb. ph- > f- shift

maybe alb. farë `seed, barley seed'

got. bariz-eins (= lat. farīna) `from barley', aisl. barr m. `corn, grain, barley', ags. bere `barley' (*bar(a)z-, respectively *bar(i)z-); but slav. *barsina- in Old Church Slavic brašьno `nourishment, food', skr. brȁšno `meal, flour', russ. bórošno `rye flour', after Jokl Miletič-Festschr. (1933) 119 ff. rather to bher-1 `bear, carry'.

Maybe alb. bar `grass, pasture, fodder' : aisl. barr m. `corn, grain, barley'.

References: WP. I 134, WH. I 455 f., 864.

See also: compare also bhares- S. 109.

Page(s): 111

Root / lemma: bharu-, -u̯o-

English meaning: fir-tree, tree, forest

German meaning: `Nadelbaum, Baum, Wald'

Material: Aisl. bǫrr m. `tree', ags. bearu, Gen. bearwes m. `wood, forest, shrubbery, bush', ahd. bara-wāri `forest ranger...a keeper of a park, forest, or area of countryside, priest'; slav. *borъ in russ.-Church Slavic borъ, Pl. borove `fir, spruce, spruce forest', skr. bȍr, Gen. bȍra `pine tree', čech. bor m. `pinewood'.

References: WP. II 164, Trautmann 26 f., Hoops Waldböume 362.

Page(s): 109

Root / lemma: bhar- : bhor- : bhr̥-

English meaning: bristle, stubble, sharp point

German meaning: `Hervorstehendes, Borste, Spitze, Borstenöhre, Grannenkorn'

Material: Mit vokal. formant:

got. baíra-bagms `mulberry tree', engl. black bear-berry `uva ursi', norw. bjørneber `rubus caesius' are reinterpreted after the bear's name *bara- `shrub, bush' = `briar';

from proto slav.. *bъrъ (*bhor-) derive russ. dial. borъ, kir. bor, Gen. bru `kind of millet, sorghum', skr. bȁr ds.

Other formations with g are:

air. bairgen f. `bread' (*barigenā or *barigonā), cymr. etc bara m. ds. (*barag-, compare lat. farrāgō `mixed fodder for cattle, mash; a medley, mixture').

With formants -ko-:

mir. barc `spear shaft', cymr. barch f. `spear, javelin', slav. bьrkъ in skr. brk `cusp, peak, germ, sprout, whisker, moustache', čech. brk `keel, pinion of birds, primary feather, quill-feather', also probably russ. bérce, bérco `shinbone', dial. `pole' (Berneker 119).

Perhaps here (with consonant increase) *brokko- `badger', mir. brocc, cymr. mbr. broch ds., whether originally `pointy or sharp snouted, rat faced, incisive looking, spiky' to lat. (kelt.) broccus `to with protruding teeth', gall. *broccos `cusp, peak, spiky', frz. broche `spear' etc Unclear is, to what extent mir. brocc `smut', göl. brocach `mottled, speckled, *tabby', cymr. broch `rage, fury, din, fuss, noise, scum, froth, foam', nbr. broc'hed `mad, wicked, evil (= stung, bitten)' are to be owed to secondary semantic change or belong to different stems.

It is striking poln. (ven.-ill). FlN Brok, perhaps signifies `river badger'.

References: WP. II 134, 163, 164, WH. I 455 f.

Page(s): 108-109

Root / lemma: bhasko- (*bhedh-sko)

English meaning: bundle, heap

German meaning: etwa `Bund, Böndel'


Root / lemma: bhasko- : `bundle, heap' is a truncated formation of an older root *bhedh-sko from which derived both Root / lemma: bhedh-2 : `to bow, bend' and Root / lemma: bhasko- : `bundle, heap' (see below). The alledged root *bhedh-sko derived from bhegh- [common illyr. -gh- > -dh- phonetic mutation].

Material: Maked. βάσκιοι δεσμοὶ φρυγάνων and βασκευταί φασκίδες (these genuine gr. vowel form), ἀγκάλαι Hes.; perhaps here gr. φάσκωλος `leather sack';

lat. fascia `bandage, band, girdle, girth, strap, land stripe', fascis `alliance, bundle, parcel; the fasces with excellent hatchet as a token of the imperious power';

Note: common lat. ph- > f- shift

Maybe alb. bashkë `together, bound', bashkonj `put together, unite', bashkë `fleece (a bundle of wool)'.


Alb. proves that from an early root *bhegh- [common illyr. -gh- > -dh- phonetic mutation] derived Root / lemma: bhedh-2 : `to bow, bend' and Root / lemma: bhadh-sko- : `bundle, heap' (see below).

mir. basc `collar, neckband', abrit. bascauda `brazen rinsing boiler' (perhaps originally an earthen and burnt vessel formed about a twisted skeleton good as basket), cymr. baich `burden, load', mbret. bech, nbret. beac'h ds.; gallo-rom. *ambi-bascia `load', alyonn. ambaissi `kneader for the sheaves' (Jud Rom. 47, 481 ff.).

References: WP. II 135 f., WH. I 97, 459 f.

Page(s): 111

Root / lemma: bhā̆d-

English meaning: good

German meaning: `gut'

Material: Old Indian bhadrá-ḥ `joyful, gratifying, lucky, good', n. `luck, salvation', sú-bhadra-ḥ `lovely, superb, pretty, splendid' = av. hu-baδra- `lucky';

got. batiza `better', batista `best', aisl. betre, betstr, ags. bet(e)ra, betst, ahd. bezzir(o), bezzist, nhd. besser, best; in addition das Adv. of Kompar. aisl. betr, ags. bet (*batiz), ahd. baz (*bataz, congealed Neutr. `benefit');

aisl. bati m. `improvement, salvation', afries. bata m. `benefit, advantage', mhd. bazze ds.; got. gabatnan `acquire benefit', aisl. batna `become better', ags. batian, ahd. bazzen ds.;

with ablaut got. bōta f. `benefit', aisl. ags. bōt `improvement, replacement', ahd. buoz(a) f. `improvement, penance, atonement'.

References: WP. II 151 f., Feist 83, 103, 174, J. Weisweiler Buße (1930).

Page(s): 106

Root / lemma: bhāghú-s

English meaning: elbow, arm

German meaning: `Ellbogen and Unterarm'

Material: Old Indian bāhú- m. `arm, esp. forearm; with animals forefoot', av. bāzāu-š `arm', Gen. bāzvō (arm. bazuk from dem Iran.);

gr. πῆχυς, öol.-dor. πᾶχυς `elbow, forearm', aisl. bōgr, Akk. PL bōgu `arm, shoulder', ags. bōg `shoulder, arm; twig, branch', ahd. buog (nhd. Bug) `shoulder, hip, haunch, point of shoulder of animals';

toch. А В poke, В pauke `arm'.

References: WP. II 130.

Page(s): 108

Root / lemma: bhā̆gh-

German meaning: `Mud, marsh'

See also: s. bhō̆gh-.

Page(s): 108

Root / lemma: bhāgó-s

English meaning: beech

German meaning: `Buche'

Grammatical information: f.

Material: Gr. φηγός, dor. φᾱγός f. `oak' (compare Specht KZ. 66, 59); lat. fāgus f. `beech'; gall. bāgos in PN Bāgācon, Bāgono-; ahd. buohha `beech' (bōkōn-, compare silva Bācenis `resin' by Caesar and mlat. Bōcōnia `Rhön -an area in Germany'),

aisl. bōk f., ags. bōc, bēce (bōkjōn-), in addition got. bōka f. `alphabetic letter', aisl. bōk, ags. bōc, ahd. buoh f. n. `book (as the wood of rune-tablets)', ahd. buohstap `alphabetic letter', actually `beech stick for scratching'.

Nisl. beyki n. `beech forest' is (because of bæki ds.) writing variant from *bӧ̥̄ki, a late collective to bōk; also is to define perhaps nisl. beykir `cooper'. Unclear is mir aisl. buđkr, bauđkr `first aid kit, medicine box', after Cleasby-Vigfusson 85b a Lw. from mlat. apotheka `bin, box, case, crib, tank, bucket' is soilö

Slav. *buza- : *bъzъ- `elder' in russ. buz m. : slov. bɛz, russ. dial. boz stay away probably; also kurd. būz `a kind of elm', goes back to older vūz (from idg. *u̯igós).

Mhd. būche, biuche `lye', biuchen, būchen `boil or wash in lye' belongs rather to root bheug(h)- `clean, sweep'.

idg. side by side from bhāug- (: bhǝug-: bhū̆g-) and bhāg- is extremely unlikely; compare W. Schulze KZ. 27, 428 = Kl. Schr. 55.

Perhaps after E. Leumann (KZ. 57, 190) to av. baga- `interest, portion, lot, fate', also `fortune cookie tree', because marks were scratched into it by pilgrims.

References: WP. II 128 f., WH. I 445 f., 863 f., E. Passler in `Fröhgesch. under Sprachw. `(Wien 1948).

Page(s): 107-108

Root / lemma: bhā-1, bhō-, bhǝ-

English meaning: to shine

German meaning: `glönzen, leuchten, scheinen'

Material: Old Indian bhā (in compound) `shine, light, lustre', bhā́ti `shines, (he) appears', bhā́ti-ḥ `light', bhā́na-m n. `the shiners, apparition' (compare air. bān `white', ags. bōnian `polish'), bhānú- `light, ray, sun' (: as. banuḫt), bhā́ma-ḥ `light, shine';

av. bā- `shine, appear, seem' only with ā- (avā̊ntǝm `the resembling, the similar'), frā (fraḫvāiti `shines out') and vi- (viḫbā- `gleam, shine', Benveniste BSL. 32, 86 f.), vīspō-bām(y)a- `all gleaming', bāmya- `light, gleaming', bānu- m. `light, ray';

arm. banam (*bhāḫn-) `open, reveal, divulge, uncover, expose' (if actually `point, allow to become visible'), Aor. baḫt`si, compare gr. φαίνω and alb. bâj;

gr. πεφήσεται `will appear', *bhǝ-n- in present φαίνω (*φανι̯ω instead of *φά-νω Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 694) `makes visible, points', φαίνομαι `appear, seem, shine, gleam' (ἐφάνην, Aor. ἔφηνα);

φᾰνερός `obvious, apparent, clear', φανή `torch'; φάσις `rising of a star' (see also under bhā-2), φάσμα, -ατος `apparition, face, omen, sign' (compare πεφασμένος);

ἀμφαδόν, ἀμφάδιος `apparent, manifest, obvious' (ἀνα-φ-); φάντα λάμποντα Hes. (to *φᾱμι = Old Indian bhā́ti); compare ἀργύ-φεος, ἄργυφος `glossy white';

alb. geg. bâj, tosk. bënj (= φαίνω) `make, seem' (originally probably `bring to an apparition');


Alb. uses a taboo explanation which reflects the religious aspect of the cognate.

air. bān `white', oíb f. (*opi-bhā) `apparition, beauty';

as. banut `touchwood, tinder'; ags. bōnian `polish' (i.e. `make gleaming'), ndd. (and out of it nhd.) bōnen `scour, rub, clean, beans', mhd. böenen `beans (*white)' (from got. bandwa, -wō `mark, token, sign', bandwjan, aisl. benda `give a mark, token, sign' here belong - perhaps as -derivative of participle bhā-nt- `shining, seeming' -, is doubtful. Lit. by Feist 79 f.);

osorb. baju, bać so `burn indiscernibly, gleam', nsorb. bajom, bajaś se `gleam, flicker';

toch. A paṃ `clear, bright' (*bhǝno-), pañi `beauty', В peñijo ds. (Duchesne-Guillemin BSL. 41, 164); A pākör, В pākri, a-pākörtse `open, distinct'; A pā-tsönk, В pa-tsöṅk `window' (-tsönk etc `gleam, shine'), Van Windekens Lexique 78 f.; В pate, A pāt (in compound) `apparition' (*bhāḫti-), Pisani Re. R. 1st. Lornb. 78, 2, 28.

s-extension bhō-s-: Old Indian bhā́s- n. (ved. also disyllabic), Instr. bhāsā́ `light, shine, glory, magnificence, power', subhā́s- `having beautiful shininess', bhā́-sati `glares, gleams', bhā́sant- `gleaming', bhā́saḥ n. `light';

gr. φώσκει διαφάνει Hes., διαφώσκω `begins to shine' are perhaps (from πι-φαύσκω) reshaped after φῶς, also φωστήρ `lustre, shine, shiner'

Doubtful is, whether mir. basc `red', ags. basu, baso `purple' (*bhǝs-ko-, -u̯o-) are to be connected, to got. weina-basi `grape', ahd. beri `berry', actually `red berry'ö In addition the full grades MN ahd. Buoso, aisl. Bōsi etcö

-extension bhā-u-: Old Indian vi-bhā́va-ḥ, vi-bhā́van- `radiating, shining, seeming';

gr. hom. φάε (*φαFε) `gleamed, appeared', φαέθων, -οντος `gleaming', φαεσί-μβροτος, Pind. φαυσί-μβροτος `for the bright people shining',

φάος (öol. φάυος, pamph. φάβος) att. kontr. φῶς, Gen. φωτός, φάους, `light, salvation', whereof *φαFεσ-νός in lesb. φάεννος, ion. φαεινός, att. φᾱνός `gleaming',

hom. φαείνω `gleams'; πιφαύσκω `allows to shine; points, shows, evinces; make known'. Different Specht KZ. 59, 58 f.

Is germ. *baukna-, in afries. bāken `emblem, landmark, mark, fire signal', as. bōkan `mark, token, sign, emblem, landmark', ags. bēacen `mark, token, sign, banner, ensign, flag', ahd. bouhhan `mark, token, sign' from such germ. *bau- shaped after *taikna- `mark, token, sign'ö

References: WP. II 122 f., WH. I 454 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 694, 709.

Page(s): 104-105

Root / lemma: bhā-2

English meaning: to speak

German meaning: `sprechen'

Material: Old Indian probably in sabhā `congregation, meeting' (`*conversation, discussion'; bhā- in Old Indian indeed otherwise - up to bhánati, see under - only in the meaning `shine, appear, seem, shine');

arm. ban (*bhāḫnis), Gen. -i `word, speech, reason, judgement, thing', bay, Gen. bayi `word, verbalism' (*bhǝ-ti-s = gr. φάτις); bay particle `(he, she) says' (= φησί, also bam = φημί, bas = lesb. φαι from *bhāsi);

gr. φημί, dor. φᾱμί `say', φήμη, dor. φάμᾱ `knowledge, shout, call, revelation' (= lat. fāma `a report, rumor, saying, talk, tradition'; ἀφήμονες ἄρρητοι, οὐκ ὀνομαζόμενοι Hes. and only with Apuleius meeting affāmen `harangue, speech' needs to be no old equation);

φάσκω `say, believe' (also βάσκανος, lat. fascinum, see under *baba onomatopoeic word), φάτις f. `rumor', φάσις `language, speech, assertion, announcement'; with ablaut φωνή `voice';

lat. for, fārī (from *fāḫi̯ō(r) = Church Slavic baju, ags. bōian) `speak';

Note: common lat. ph- > f- shift.

Maybe alb. geg. me folë `to speak', fjalë `word', tosk. flas `I speak' : lat. for `speak' [r/ l allophones].

lat. fācundus `eloquent, fluent, ready of speech', fātum `an utterance, esp. a divine utterance; hence destiny, fate, the will of a god', fāma `a report, rumor, saying, talk, tradition' (Denom. osk. faamat perhaps `calls'), fābula `talk, conversation; a tale, story, fable, drama, myth' (*bhāḫdhlā), fās actually `divine command or law; sometimes fate, destiny; in gen. right, that which is allowed, lawful', probably from (ne)fās is with infinitive fās (s-stem) `it is (not) to be pronounced' (different EM 333);

in addition diēs fāstus `day on which the praetor could administer justice, court-days. Transf. a list of these days, with festivals, etc., the Roman calendar; a register, record; a list of magistrates', fāsti `the list of these days, calendars'; as derivative of a participle *bhǝ-tó-s, lat. fateor, -ērī, fassus `to confess, admit, allow; to reveal, make known' = osk. fatíum `speak', lat. Fātuus `speaking by inspiration', epithet of `foretelling Faunus';

Maybe alb. (*fateor) fajtor `guilty (*confess, admit guilt)', then truncated alb. faj `guilt'.

aisl. bōn, bøn `request, prayer', ags. böen `request, soccage' (*bhā-ni-s; or with ō-gradation as gr. φωνήö); ags. bōian `brag, boast' (as lat. fōr from *fāi̯ōr, slav. bajǫ);

russ.-serb.-Church Slavic baju, bajati `tell, discuss, heal, cure', Church Slavic basnь `fable, spell, charm', Old Church Slavic balьji, Gen. -ьję `physician, medicine man, magician'.

At a present *bhḫen- based on Old Indian bhánati `speaks'; auf *bhǝn-u̯- (or auf germ. reshuffling after spannan) ahd. bannan redupl. verb. `summon by proclamation (esp. to arms); curse or damn; pronounce an ecclesiastical curse upon', ags. bannan redupl. verb `summon, order',

aisl. banna schw. Verb. `forbid', whereof ahd. ban, PL banna `order under penal threat' (nhd. Bann, Bannwald), ags. gebann, aisl. bann n. `forbid, ban'.

Toch. A -, pā-c̨- `beg' (Van Windekens Lexique 87 f.).

After Kuiper (АО. XII 262) here (*bhǝ-s-) Old Indian bhiṣ̌ákti `heals', bhiṣ̌áj- `physician, medicine man, magician', jav. -biś- `healing'; about av. bišazjāt̃ compare Kuiper Nasalpras. 44 f.

References: WP. II 123 f., WH. I 437 f., 450, 458 f., 525 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 674 f.

Page(s): 105-106

Root / lemma: bhāso- or bhēso-

English meaning: a kind of a large bird of prey

German meaning: `größere Raubvogelart'

Material: Old Indian bhāsa-ḥ `a certain bird of prey'; gr. hom. att. φήνη `an eagle kind, probably Vultur monachus', was possible from *bhās-nā or *bhēs-nā; also *bhānā (to bhā-1).

References: WP. II 135.

Page(s): 111

Root / lemma: bhāt- : bhǝt-

English meaning: to hit

German meaning: `schlagen, stoßen'

Material: Lat. fatuus `foolish, idiotic, silly, awful, tasteless from taste' (*from beaten the head, dull); gall. Lw. lat. battuō, -ere, more recently battō `to beat, knock', out of it back-borrowed cymr. bathu `strike coins, mint',

Illyr. Batto `appellation for rebellion leaders', alb. batoj `rock the boat'

compare also gall. anda-bata `blind combatant, gladiator fights with a helmet without openings' with ā: russ. batъ `oaken stick, cudgel, club', skr. bátati `hit, knock', perhaps also (with ) russ. bótatь `trample, swing' etc;

perhaps older dön. bad `fight, struggle, damage, pity', mnd. bat `damage, pity, misfortune', nhd. Blutbad.

Unclear is the relationship to *bhāu-t- (see under); it must be assumed instead of *bhāt- is perhaps *bhu̯āt-, or lies a root *bhā- with variant formant the basic, which is perhaps present in lat. fāmex, -icis `a bruise, contusion, bloodshot' (*haematoma, effusion of blood resulted from blow)ö

Note: common lat. ph- > f- shift

References: WP. II 126 f., WH. I 46, 99, 452, 464.

Page(s): 111-112

Root / lemma: bhā̆u-1 : bhū̆-

English meaning: to hit

German meaning: `schlagen, stoßen'

Material: a) With present formation -d-:

Lat. fūstis (*bhūdḫstiḫs) `a knobbed stick, cudgel, staff, club' (= gall. būstis in aprov. bust `tree stump' etc), fūsterna `knot, burl, burr, stump, snag';

Note: common lat. ph- > f- shift, maybe alb. fut, fus `hit, insert, copulate'

air. bibdu `culpable, fiend' (*bhe-bhud-u̯ōts), mir. búalaim `hit' from *bhāudḫl- ... (or *boug-l- ... to nhd. pochen above S. 98); probably also air. bodar `deaf, stuns, dazes, deafens, baffles', cymr. byddar `deaf' (*budaro-);

aisl. bauta (-ađa) `hit, bump, poke', ags. bēatan (bēot), ahd. boz(z)an (biez or schw. Verb) ds., mhd. boz, bōz, būz m. `blow, knock', nhd. Amboß, ags. býtel `hammer',

mnd. botel ds., mhd. bæzel `beetle, hammer', aisl. bøytill `penis of horses'; aisl. butr `short piece of a tree trunk'; with expressivem tt: ndd. butt `dull, clumsy' (in addition the fish name Butte),

mhd. butze `truncated piece, clump', ags. buttuc `bottom, piece land', norw. dial. butt `stump, clot, chunk' (also wood skid). But ags. bytt `flask, a large cask or barrel, used esp. for wine, ale, or beer' derives from lat. buttis `barrel, vat, cask', also cymr. both `flask';

aisl. beysta `knock, hit' (*bhaudḫsti-, compare lat. fūstis); with -sk-suffix perhaps mhd. būsch `cudgel, club, blow, knock' (*bhūd-sko-), perhaps different from būsch `wad, bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb', see above S. 101.

b) with t-formants:

Alb. mböt, mbös `suffocate, drown', skut. mös `slay, kill', compare përmismë `downfallen';


Common alb. b > mb phonetic mutation

lat. confūtō, -āre `to check, repress; by speech, to put down, silence', refūtō, -āre `to drive back, check, repress; to refute, disprove' (mit ū from previously au), probably also fūtuō, -ere `have sexual relationshs with (a woman), to sleep with';

maybe alb. (*fūtuō) fut `have sexual relations with (a woman), penetrate, insert, cheat'

air. fo-botha (*butāt) `threatens', Verbaln. fubthad; got. bauÞs `deaf, dumb, mute'.

References: WP. II 125 ff., WH. 1 259 f., 573 f.

Page(s): 112

Root / lemma: bhāu-2

See also: s. bhā-1

Page(s): 112

Root / lemma: bhebhru-, bhebhro-

See also: s. bhē̆r- `braun'

Page(s): 113

Root / lemma: bhedh-1

English meaning: to pierce, dig

German meaning: `stechen, especially in die Erde stechen, graben'

Material: Lat. fodiō, -ere, fōdī `to dig; also to dig out; to excavate. Transf. to prick, prod, jog', fossa `ditch, trench, channel', fodicāre `sting repeatedly, dig, jog';

gall. bedo- `canal, ditch, trench, channel' (Wartburg I 313), cymr. bedd, corn. bedh, bret. béz `grave'; gall. *bodīca `fallow field' (M.-L. 1184);

got. badi n. `bed', ags. bedd ds., ahd. etc betti `bed, a garden-plot (to be) filled with plants; a place where osiers, willows, etc., are grown', an. beđr m. `bedspread, eiderdown' (idg. *bhodhi̯o-), originally `a bed burrowed in the ground', compare nhd. Flußbett, Beet, engl. bed also `garden bed, garden plot';

lit. bedù, bedžiaũ, bèsti `prick, bore, dig', badaũ, badýti `prick, bump, poke', bãdas `hunger', bẽdrė f. `pit, pothole', Old Prussian boadis `prick, sting', em-badusisi `he/she sticks';

Old Church Slavic bodǫ, bosti (s-Аor. basъ) `prick', bodl' m. `thorn, backbone' (*bodḫlь);

toch. A pat-, pāt- `to plough';

perhaps also hitt. píd-da-i (can also be read pádd-da-i) `makes a hole into the earth', compare Pedersen Hitt. 77.

Perhaps here gr. βόθρος, βόθῡνος m. `pit, pothole', Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 262, Zus. 2. Different Petersson Heterokl. 128 ff.

Probably in addition kelto-germ. bodu̯o-, `fight, struggle' in gall. PN Ate-boduus, -uā, Boduo-gnātus, air. bodb f. `crow, battle goddess in the form of a crow';

aisl. bođ f. (*badwō), Gen. bǫđvar, ags. beadu f., as. Badu-, ahd. Batu- (in PN) `fight, struggle'.

References: WP. I 126 ff., 188, WP. I 99, 521 f., 866, Trautmann 29.

Page(s): 113-114

Root / lemma: bhedh-2

English meaning: to bow, bend

German meaning: `krömmen, beugen, dröcken, plagen'

Material: Old Indian bā́dhatē `throngs, presses, plagues', Desid. bī́bhatsatē `is shy of something, feels disgust', jñu-bā́dh- `bending knee';

alb. bint, med. bindem `be bent (*be convinced, pressured)', bashkr `together', bashkonj `unite, assemble';


Alb. proves that from an early root *bhegh- [common illyr. -gh- > -dh- phonetic mutation] derived Root / lemma: bhedh-2 : `to bow, bend' and Root / lemma: bhadh-sko- : `bundle, heap' (see above).

got. bida `prayer', ahd. beta f. `request', got. bidjan (sek. -bidan) `bid, beg, ask, pray', aisl. biđja, ags. biddan, ahd. bitten, aisl. knē-beðr m. `knee pad', ags. cnēow-gebed n. `prayer' (compare Old Indian jñu-bādh-);

Maybe alb. geg. me u betu `to vow', tosk. betohem `I vow, swear'

lit. bodùs `unsavory, distasteful', bodė́tis `nauseate before';

toch. В peti, A poto `worship, veneration'.

References: WP. II 130 f., 140, 185, WH. I 461, 495, Feist 89 b; different Kluge12 60.

Page(s): 114

Root / lemma: bheg-, bheng-

English meaning: to break

German meaning: `zerschlagen, zerbrechen'

Material: Old Indian bhanákti, Perf. babháñja `break, rupture' (only afterwards after reshuffled the 7th class), bhaŋga-ḥ `break; billow' (compare lit. bangà `billow'), bhañji-ḥ `diffraction, declension, crooked way, sale, step, wave';

arm. bekanem `break', bek `broke';

but phryg. βεκός `bread', actually `crumb' (ö)has unexplained k;

With -u- grade: also alb. (*beuka) buka `bread' : phryg. βεκός `bread', actually `crumb'


From an extended Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, bh(e)u- : `expr. sound of hitting' derived Root / lemma: bheg-, bheng- : `to break', Root / lemma: bhenĝh-, bhn̥ĝh- (Adj. bhn̥ĝhú-s) : `thick, fat', Root / lemma: bheug-1 : `to flee, *be frightened', Root / lemma: bheug-2, bheugh- : `to clear away, free', Root / lemma: bheug-3, bheugh- : `to bow', Root / lemma: bheug-4 : `to enjoy, *consume, bite' as taboo words.

air. bongid, -boing `breaks, reaps, harvests, wins (*gains)' verbal noun búain (*bhog-ni-), enclitic -bach, -bech (*bhogo-m), Thurneysen Grammar 447, 461; Pass. preterit -bocht, perhaps = bocht `poor';

dropping the nasal the preterit buich has probably secondary u (compare air. mag `field', Dat. muig < *mages), so that it is not necessary, to go back in *bheug(h)- `bend';

mcymr. di-vwng `inflexible'; to meaning `defeat, conquer' compare air. maidid `break out' = `defeat'. Toо grade point at also mir. boimm `morsel, bite, mouthful' from *bhog-smn̥;

lit. bangà `billow, heap, lashings, pelting rains', prabangà `excess', lett. buogs `a dense crowd', in addition lit. bangùs `rash, hasty, violent' (from brooks and downpours), bingùs `gamy' (of horses), bengiù, bengiaũ, beñgti `finish', pabangà f. `termination';

pr. pobanginnons `moves, weighs'; in the meaning `finish, end' come into being through ablaut derailment forms with ei, ai (compare Endzelin Lett. Gr. 60) in lett. beĩgas Pl. `end, inclination, slope', lit. pabaigà ds., beigiù and baigiù `end', lett. bèidzu ds.;

here lett. buoga also stands for `stony place', here belongs probably also russ. búga `flooded tract of forest'; different about beig- (to bhei- `hit') Kuiper Nasalprös. 184.

The following forms are to be kept away because of the auslauts and because of meaning and to indicate probably as onomatopoeic words:

germ. *bang- `hit' in aisl. banga `hit', bang `din, fuss, noise', engl. bang `knock, hit', with ablaut mhd. mnd. bungen `drum'; ndd. bengel `club, cudgel, boor' = nhd. Bengel, engl. dial. bangle `gnarled stick', anord. epithet bǫngull.

In addition with intensive consonant increase:

germ. *bank- in aschwed. banka, abl. bunka `hit, knock', obd. bunken `knock, bump, poke', mnd. bunken, ndl. bonken `hit, thrash'.

Lett. bungã `drum', bunga `blow, knock' derive probably from Mnd.

Maybe alb. bungë, bunga Pl. `kind of oak, Quercus sessiflora (stick for beatingö)'

References: WP. II 149 f., WH. I 503, 541, Trautmann 26.

Page(s): 114-115

Root / lemma: bhegʷ-

English meaning: to run

German meaning: `davonlaufen'

Material: Hindi bhāg- `flee';

gr. φέβομαι, φοβέομαι `flee, be afraid', φόβος `escape, fear', φοβέω `startles', φοβερός `frightening, timorous';

lengthened grade lit. bė́gu, bė́gau, bė́gti `run, flee', bėgas, bė̃gis m. `escape, run', lett. bêgu, bêgt `flee', with ablaut kausat. boginù, bogìnti `flee something, to get there quckly';

slav. *běgǫ in russ. běgu (Inf. běžátь), klr. bihú (Inf. bíčy) `run', in addition as neologism Old Church Slavic priběgnǫ, priběgnǫti etc `flee', as well as Old Church Slavic běžǫ, bežati `flee' etc;

toch. A pkönt (pköt) `remote, distant, apart, separated' (Van Windekens Lexique 96).

References: WP. II 184 f., Trautmann 29, Meillet Slave commun2 220, 235, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 717.

Page(s): 116

Root / lemma: bheidh-1

English meaning: to advise, force

German meaning: `jemandem zureden, zwingen', med. `sich einreden lassen, vertrauen'

Material: Gr. πείθομαι `lets me persuade, follow' (Aor. ἐπιθόμην, hom. πεπιθεῖν, πιθέσθαι; Perf. πέποιθα `trust'), Akt. (sek.) πείθω, Aor. ἔπεισα `persuade, convince', πειθώ, -οῦς `persuasion', πιστός (for *φιστος) `reliable, loyal, faithful, relying', πίστις, -ιος, -εως `loyalty, reliance', hom. ἐν πείσῃ `in reassurance' (*πειθ-σ-);

alb. f. `oath, vow, pledge' (*bhoidhā = Old Church Slavic běda `need'), ostgeg. per-bej `curse, hex' (in addition neologism bese f. `faith, belief, pact, covenant, loyalty');

Note: alb. f. `oath' derived from a truncated alb. betim `oath'

maybe TN illyr. Besoi : alb. besoj `believe, have faith'

lat. fīdō, -ere, fīsus sum `to trust, believe, confide in' (fīsus is to- participle), fīdus `reliable'; foedus (*bhoidhos), by Ennius fīdus (*bheidhos) n. `trusty, true, faithful, sure', fidēs `trust, confidence, reliance, belief, faith', Dius Fidius `the god of faith, a surname of Jupiter'; umbr. combifiatu (*bhidhiā-) `you shall trust, confide, rely upon, believe, be assured'; about osk. Fiisiais, umbr. Fise, Fiso, Fisovio- s. WH. I 494;


Alb. alb. fē, fēja `religion', fejonj `perform engagement ceremony (marriage vowsö)' : AN fed, OFr. feid, feit : lat. fides;

got. baidjan `constrain, oblige', aisl. beiđa, ags. bædan, ahd. beitten `urge, press, push, arrogate' = abg. causative běždǫ, běditi `constrain, oblige', poběditi `defeat, conquer', běda f. `need';

here probably also got. beidan `wait, hold on', aisl. bīđa, ags. bīdan, ahd. bītan ds., schweiz. beite = ahd. beitten, but in the meaning `wait, hold on'. basic meaning `await' from `trust' or `oneself constrain, oblige'.

References: WP. II 139 f., 185 f., WH. I 493 f.

Page(s): 117

Root / lemma: bheidh-2

German meaning: `binden, flechten'

See also: s. bhidh-.

Page(s): 117

Root / lemma: bheid-

English meaning: to prick, pierce

German meaning: `spalten'

Material: Old Indian bhinádmi (participle bhindánt- = lat. findēns, bhinná-ḥ besides bhittá-ḥ = lat. fissus), bhḗdāmi `split, carve, rupture etc', bhidyátē `is split';

probably gr. φείδομαι (redupl. Aor. hom. πεφιδέσθαι) `with which are stingy, avoid sparingly; spare; avoid a thing' (basic meaning partly perhaps `separate myself from something = take myself away', above all but `pinch off, stingy, from what cut off oneself only a little');

lat. findō, -ere, fidī (probably Aor. as Old Indian Opt. bhidēyam, ags. bite, ahd. bizzi `to split, cleave, divide, halve'), fissum `split, cloven', fissum n., fissūra f. `cleft, fissure';

got. beitan `bite', aisl. bīta `bite; penetrate (from sword under likewise)', as. ags. bītan, ahd. bīzzan `bite' (= Old Indian bhḗdati, gr. φείδομαι); Kaus. aisl. beita `allow to bite, allow to graze', ags. bætan `rein, curb, restrain, hunt, chase', ahd. mhd. beizen `ds., corrode', aisl. beizl `set of teeth, bridle, rein' (*baitislan), ags. gebǣtu N. Pl., gebǣtel n. `set of teeth'; aisl. biti m., ags. bita m. `morsel, mouthful', ahd. bizzo m., bizza f. `morsel, mouthful, nip'; got. baitrs `bitter' (`bitting from taste');

changing through ablaut aisl. bitr `biting, sharp, painful', ags. biter, bitter, as. ahd. bittar `biting, sharp, bitter'; aisl. beiskr `sharp, bitter' (*bait-skaz); got. beist `sourdough' (*bhei[d]-sto-); ags. bitela `biting', bitel `beetle, chafer', engl. beetle;

Maybe alb. bisk `branch, twig (*beamö)'

aisl. beit n. `ship' (originally `hollow dugout canoe' to aisl. bite `balk, beam'), ags. bāt m. `boat', mengl. bōt, out of it borrows nhd. Boot and perhaps aisl. bātr ds.; mnd. beitel, bētel `chisel', mhd. beizel `sting, prick' (: Old Indian bhēduráḫḥ, bhēdiráḫḥ `thunderbolt').

The fact is that bheid- extension to *bhei(ǝ)- `hit' seems possible.

References: WP. II 138 f., WH. I 500 f.

Page(s): 116-117

Root / lemma: bhei(ǝ)-, bhī- (*bher-)

English meaning: to hit

German meaning: `schlagen'

Material: Av. byente `they fight, hit' (H. Lommel KZ. 67, 11);

arm. bir `big stick, club, mace, joint' (*bhiḫro-);

gr. φῑτρός m. `tree truck, wooden log', φῑμός m. `toggle, muzzle';

maybe alb. (*bheir) bie `hit, strike', bie `fall, die', sub. bjeri `strike', bie (*bjer) bring : illyr. TN Boii

Alb. and arm. prove that Root / lemma: bhei(ǝ)-, bhī- : `to hit' derived from Root / lemma: bher-1 : `to bear, carry' through an illyr. -r > -j phonetic mutation.

ven. PN φohiio-s-, ill. VN Bοιοί `the combatants, fighters' (: russ. boj), gr.-ill. PN Bοῖον ὄρος, VN Βοιωτοί, kelt.-ill. VN Boii; messap. βίσβην δρέπανον ἀμπελοτόμων, βισβαῖα κλαδευτήρια Hes.;

lat. perfinēs `break through, break in pieces, shiver, shatter' Hes.;

air. ben(a)id `hits, knocks' (*bi-na-ti), ro-bīth `was hit', bīthe `beaten', fo bīth `weel' (= `under the blow'), mbret. benaff `cut, bite', acymr. etbinam `to mangle', without n-Infix abret. bitat `cut loose, cut off', cymr. bidio `cut a hedge', bid `thorn hedge', mir. fid(h)b(h)a `sickle' = acymr. uiidimm `lignite', ncymr. gwyddyf `scythe, pruning knife' = gallo-lat. vidubium `hack, mattock, hoe' (*vidu-bion `wood hoe'), compare mir. PN Faíl-be `(*weapon, magic wand for killing wolves) wolf killer' (*vailu-bios); air. binit f. `rennet, cleaver' (`incisive', *bi-n-antī), mir. bian `skin, fell, fur', air. bīáil `hatchet', acymr. bahell, ncymr. bwyell, bwyall ds., mbret. bouhazl ds. (*bhii̯ǝli-), air. bēimm n. `blow, knock' (*bhei-smn̥), corn. bommen ds., gall. *biliā `tree stump', frz. bille;

aisl. bīldr `head of the arrow, bloodletting iron' (*bhei-tlo-); ahd. bī(h)al `hatchet' (*bheiǝ-lo-), hence probably germ. *bilja- and not *biÞla- in ahd. ags. bill n., as. bil `sword', mhd. bil, billes `stone mattock', nhd. Bille f. `hack, mattock, hoe', mhd. billen `to hoe, chip, trim', ahd. bilōthi, bilidi, nhd. Bild; ahd. billa f. `sourdough'; with formants -li- ags. bile m. `bill, beak, neb', additional form to engl. bill;

Old Church Slavic bijǫ (bьjǫ) biti `hit', skr. bȉjêm bȉti, russ. bьju bitь ds., therefrom with formants -dhlo-: russ.-Church Slavic bilo n. `a louse rake or comb', skr. bȉlo `the transverse piece of wood at the front of a wooden rake (to rake leaves with)', čech. bidlo `shaft, pole', russ. bíɫo `beetle, hammer'; bítva `fight, struggle, blow, knock' (: messap. βίσβη), Old Church Slavic bičь `whip, scourge' (from Slav. nhd. Peitsche); in ablaut Old Church Slavic u-bojь m. `murder', skr. bôj, Gen. bȍja `battle', russ. čech. boj ds. (: illyr. Boii).

References: WP. II 137 f., WH. I 503 f., 506, Trautmann 33, Lidén KZ. 61, 12, Karstien KZ. 65, 154 f.

See also: S. above under bheid-.

Page(s): 117-118

Root / lemma: bheigʷ-

English meaning: to shine (ö)

German meaning: `glönzen'ö

Material: Apers. *bigna- `lustre, shine'ö in den PN Bagā-bignа-, ᾽Αρια-βιγνης;

gr. φοῖβος `clean, gleaming', φοιβάω, φοιβάζω `clean', ἀφοίβαντος `smudges' (*bhoigʷ-o-), ἀφικτός, ἀφικτρός (*bhigʷ-) `impure, unclean'.


Typical gʷ > b gr. phonetic mutation

About Φοῖβος ᾽Απόλλων compare Kretschmer Gl. 15, 199.

References: WP. II 138, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 299.

Page(s): 118

Root / lemma: bhei-

English meaning: bee

German meaning: `Biene'

Note: with n-, k- or t-extension

Material: The short form still in aisl. bӯ-fluga, alem. , bair. beij; besides forms with n (barely extracted only the weak Dekl.), as ahd. bini n. `bee', ablaut. bīa f. (*bīḫōn- = ags. béo, engl. bee), bīna (nhd. dial. Bein);

Old Church Slavic bъčela, bьčela ds. (*bhikelā); cymr. bydaf `beehive', аpr. bitte, lit. bìtė, bitìs, lett. bite `bee'.

Gall. *bekos `bee' (M.-L. 1014), air. bech m. `bee', göl. speach `prick, sting', cymr. begḫeg(y)r `drone' deviate of vowel (taboo causing distortionö).

References: WP. II 184 f., WH. I 555 f., Specht Dekl. 46.

Page(s): 116

Root / lemma: b(h)e1 and b(h)eĝh

English meaning: outside, without

German meaning: ... `außer, außerhalb, ohne'

Material: Old Indian bahiḥ (-š) `outdoor, outward, outside from' (m. Abl.);

Old Prussian bhe `without' (preposition m. Akk.), lit. bè `without' (preposition m. Gen., and nominal prefix), lett. bez `without' (preposition m. Gen., and nominal prefix);

Old Church Slavic bez etc (dial. also be) `without' (preposition m. Gen., and nominal prefix). Here also lit. be `still, yet' (`*in addition'), bèt `however, but' (formation as neḫt `but'), bė̃s, lett. bē̆st `possibly, perhaps' (*bhe + est, Endzelin Stud. balt. 7, 32 f.).

On account of here air. bés `perhaps', vorton. from *béis < *bhe-estiö

References: WP. II 137, Trautmann 28, Endzelin Lett. Gr. 497 f.

Page(s): 112-113

Root / lemma: bh(e)lāg-

English meaning: weak, ridiculous

German meaning: etwa `schlaff, albern'ö

Material: *bhlāg- or *bhlōg- in wruss. bɫáhyj `evil, bad, nasty' (hence borrowed lett. blāgs, lit. blõgas `feeble, weak'), bɫažić `romp', gr., russ. blagój `obstinate, nasty',

dial. blažnój `stupid', poln. bɫagi `bad, nothing worth'; barely to gr. φελγύνει ἀσυνετεί, ληρεῖ Hes., because in heavy slav. word, which points gr. light basis; see under (s)p(h)elg-.

Here (apparently with expressive Gemination), however, lat. flaccus `flabby; of men, flap-eared'.

References: WP. II 183 f., 680, WH. I 507 f.

Page(s): 124

Root / lemma: bheld-

English meaning: to knock, hit

German meaning: `pochen, schlagen'

Note: perhaps originally d-present of the onomatopoeic word bhel-

Material: From Germ. probably in addition mnd. bolte(n) `bolt for a door, dart, arrow', ahd. bolz, nhd. Bolz, Bolzen, ags. bolt `bolt for a door, dart, arrow', schwed. bult `bolt for a door' (*bhl̥d-),

perhaps also nhd. Balz, Vb. balzen andbolzen, norw. mdartl. bolt m. `male forest bird; tomcat, male-cat', nhd. Bolze `tomcat, male-cat'; norw. mdartl. bolta `rumble, storm ahead',

older dön. bolte `curl up, roll oneself', schwed. bulta `knock', schwed. mdartl. bultra `wallow, romp', norw. mdartl. bultra `rant, roister, romp', abl. norw. mdartl. baltra `wallow, romp';

lit. beldù, -ė́ti and béldžiu, bélsti `hit, knock', ablaut. bildu, bildė́ti `din, drone, rumble', báldau, -yti `knock, stark rumble', baldas `pestle'; lett. bel̂zt `hit' (perhaps contamination from *belžu = lit. béldžiu with telz- `hit', Möhlenbach-Endzelin Lett.-dt. Wb. 278).

References: WP. II 184, WH. I 560 f.

Page(s): 124

Root / lemma: bheleg-

English meaning: to shine

German meaning: `glönzen'

Note: extension from bhel- ds.

Material: bhelg-: Old Indian bhárgas- n. `radiative lustre, shine' (*bhelgos); Bhŕ̥gavaḥ, Pl. `mythical priests of the flash fire'; lett. bal̃gans `whitish';

perhaps here Old Church Slavic blagъ `good', russ. (old and mtdarl.) bólogo Adv. `good', eig. `light' (contrast `dark': `mad, wicked, evil'); toch. AB pölk- `burn, gleam, shine, get hot', A pölk, В pilko `look', A polkāṃts `stars' (: lit. bãlgans), В empalkaitte `careless, neglectful' (Negation + *palk- `gleam, shine' besides pölk-);

bhleg-: gr. φλέγω `burn, singe, ignite', φλεγέθω `singe, to set on fire; intr. burn, be in flames', φλέγμα n. `blaze; inflammation; mucus', φλεγμονή f. `inflammation, ignition; ferventness, passion; rutting', φλεγύας ἀετός ξανθός Hes. (Adj. `fiery red') φλόξ, φλογμός `flame';

lat. flagrō, -āre `to blaze, burn, glow, flame, also to glitter. Transf., to glow or burn with passion; to suffer from', wherefore probably flamma `a flame, blazing fire; Transf. a source of light, torch, star, lightning; luster, glitter; the fire or glow of passion; devouring flame, destruction' as *flagmā, osk. Flagiuí perhaps `an interpreter of lightning';

Maybe alb. (*flagrō) flegra `(*ardent, passionate breathing) nostrils', flakëroj `I shine', flakë `fire';

besides flăg- (red.- grades *bhlegró-, *bhlegmā́ or because of φλογμός, φλόξ rather *bhlogmā) stand zero grades bhl̥g-, lat. fulg- in lat. fulgō and fulgeō, -ēre, fulsī `to flash, to lighten; in gen., to shine, glitter gleam; fig., to be distinguished, to shine', fulgor, -ōris `lightning; in gen., glitter, brightness; fig., brightness, glory, lustre, shine', fulgus, -uris `a flash or stroke of lightning; sometimes an object struck by lightning; in gen., brightness', fulmen (*fulgmen) ds.;

mir. imblissiu `pupil (of the eye); orb' (*m̥bhiḫbhl̥gḫs-, Vendryes RC. 40, 431 f);

ahd. blecchen (*blakjan), mhd. blecken `become visible, allow to see', nhd. blecken `show the teeth'; ahd. blecchazzen, mhd. blecken `flash', mndl. nndl. blaken `flame, burn, glow', ags. blæcern, blacern `candlestick, flambeaux', aisl. blakra `blink, glitter, flash'; here probably as `burnt (compare nd. blaken from blackening lamp flame), sooty', ags. blæc `black', n. `ink', ahd.blah ds.;

nasalized germ. *blenk-, *blank- in mhd. nhd. blinken, mhd. blinzen (*blinkatjan), nhd. blinzeln (besides with germ. g older dön. blinge `blink, glitter, flash' under likewise, s. Falk-Torp under blingse); ahd. blanch, mhd. blank `blinking, gleaming, gleaming, white', nhd. blank, ags. blanca m. `steed' (eig. from bright color, compare:) aisl. blakkr `sallow, paled', poet. `steed' (`dun horse, grey, *white horse '), aschwed. blakker `sallow, paled, dun (horse)', but also `black, dark' (from Germ. borrows frz. blanc, ital. bianco). From this nasal form also pr. blingis `pallid';

lit. blágnytis `sober oneself up; lighten up', alit. blinginti `shine'.

A variant on -ĝ- perhaps in lett. blãzt `shimmer', blãzma (blāĝ-ma) `reflection of moonlight on the water'.

References: WP II 214 f., WH. I 510 f. 865, Pedersen Toch. 162, 218, Van Windekens Lexique 17, 98, EM. 398.

See also: Beside bheleg- stands synonymous to bhereĝ-, see there.

Page(s): 124-125

Root / lemma: bheleu-

English meaning: to hit; weak, ill

German meaning: `schlagen, durch Schlagen kraftlos machen, schwach, krank'

Material: Acorn. bal f., pl. -ow `disease, malady', mbr. baluent;

got. balwa-wēsei `wickedness, malice, cowardice', balwjan `torment, smite', ags. bealo `evil, mad, wicked, evil', aisl. bǫl, Dat. bǫlve `misfortune', ahd. balo, Gen. balawes `ruin'; got. bliggwan (*bleuu̯an) `hit', ahd. bliuwan, nhd. bleuen ds., mengl. blowe `blow, knock', aisl. blegðe m. (*blauu̯iðan-) `wedge';

abg. bolъ `sicker', bolė́ti `be ill'.

About nhd. Block etc see under bhel-5.

References: WP. II 189, Hirt Idg. Gr. II 150, Feist 79, 100, Specht Dekl. 133.

See also: Besides a root form bhlēu-: bhlǝu- : bhlū-, see there.

Page(s): 125

Root / lemma: bhelĝh-

English meaning: to swell

German meaning: `schwellen; Balg (aufgeblasene Tierhaut), Kissen, Polster'

Note: (extension of bhel- `inflate, bloat' etc)

Material: Old Indian barhíš- n. `sacrificial grass, (*sacrificial bed of straw)' = av. barǝziš- n. `cushion, pillow, cushion', npers. bāliš `pillow, cushion'; Old Indian upa-bárhaṇa-m, upa-bárhaṇī f. `cover, cushion';


Clearly alb. bar `grass, straw' derived from Indian languages. Hence alb. is a direct descendant of Sanskrit. Clearly alb. belongs to satem family.

Whether with Asp.-Diss. against forms -ha- here Old Indian bárjaha-ḥ `udder'ö

ir. bolgaim `swell', bolg f. `bubble', bolg m. `sack, bag, belly, husk, trouser', mir. bolgach f. `swelling, blister, bubble, blister; pox', bolgamm `gulp', cymr. bol, bola, boly `belly, sack, bag',

bul `seed capsule, seminal shell' (PL. of boly), bret. bolc'h `linen pod', vann. pehl-en (from *pehl-) ds., gall. bulga `leather sack' (out of it ahd. bulga `water container made of leather'); gall. Belgae `the angry (*a warlike people in the north of Gaul)';

got. balgs m. `hose', aisl. belgr m. `stripped animal skin, bag, belly', ahd. mhd. balg `bag, hose, bellows, sword scabbard', ags. bielg, byl(i)g `sac, bag', engl. belly `belly', bellows `bellows' (germ. *ƀalʒi- m., compare аpr. balsinis; perhaps hat also Old Indian barhiṣ-, av. barǝziš- idg. -i-s- as extension dieses i-stem);

aisl. participle bolginn `swollen', Kaus. belgja `make swell up', as. ags. belgan stem-V. `be angry', ahd. belgan `swell up', refl. `be angry with', afries. participle ovirbulgen `angers';

aisl. bylgja `wave', mnd. bulge ds.; *bul(h)stra- in aisl. bolstr m. `pillow, cushion', ags.bolster n. `pillow, cushion', ahd. bolstar ds., ndl. bolster `fruit skin, husk';

Old Prussian balsinis `pillow, cushion' (*bholĝhi-nos), pobalso `feather bed', lett. pabàlsts m. `pillow' (and `pad', see above S. 123); slov. blazína `pillow, cushion, mattress, a downy or feather bed; pad, ball of the foot or ball of the thumb, heel of hand [anat.]' (and `roof beam, crossbeam of the sledge, stake, stanchion', see above S. 123), skr. blàzina `pillow, cushion, feather-bed'; russ. bólozenь m. `weal, callus, swelling, blister, clavus, corn' (but russ. dial. bólozno `thick board').

Here probably as ven.-ill. Lw. Old Prussian balgnan n., alit. balgnas, lit. bal̃nas `saddle' (probably from `pillow, cushion'). Further baltoslav. forms see above S. 123.

References: WP. II 182 f., WH. I 122. compare about gr. μολγός `leather sack' Vendryes BSL. 41, 134 f.

Page(s): 125-126

Root / lemma: bhel-1, balto-slav. also bhelǝ-

English meaning: shining, white

German meaning: `glönzend, weiß', also von weißlichen Tieren, Pflanzen and Dingen, as Schuppen, Haut etc

Note: to bhā-1 standing in the same relationship, as stel- to stā- `stand', del- `split' to *dā(i)- `divide'

Material: Old Indian bhālam n. `lustre, shine, forehead', sam-bhālayati `glances' (lengthened grade); balākā `a crane's kind' with b- after baká-ḥ `a heron's kind';

arm. bal `pallidness, paleness';

Maybe alb. balë `badger (animal with white spots in the snout)', balo `a dog with white spot on the forehead'.

gr. φαλός `white' Hes., φαλύνει λαμπρύνει Hes., φαλι(F)ός `gleaming, white, white-fronted', φαληρός, dor. -ᾱρός ds., φαληρίς, dor. -ᾱρίς `coot (*bald-headed)', φαλακρός `bald-headed',

Note: dor. φαληρός - α ̄ ρίς `coot (*bald-headed)', φαλακρός `bald-headed' related to alb. alb. balë `forehead, (*shining forehead, *bold as a coot)'

dor. παμφαλάω `look shyly around'; βαλιός `white, it is white-mottled' is probably illyr. Lw.;

illyr. *balta `swamp, marsh, white clay', out of it lat. blatea f., `excrement lump', adalm. balta `sea swamp'; ligur. *bolā `swamp, marsh' (M.-L. 1191b), FlN Duria Bautica (from *Baltica), perhaps here mare Balticum (ven.-ill.ö) `Baltic Sea' (Einhard, 9. Jh), compare Bonfante BSL. 37, 7 f.;

Note: clearly illyr. Albanoi TN derived from the IE root *bal `white'

alb. balë `forehead, (*bold as a cootö)' (= Old Prussian ballo ds.), balásh `white horse or ox', baltë f., balt m. `slime, mud, swamp, marsh, white clay';

maybe alb. (*balakha) balluke `hair fringe'

lat. fulica (compare ahd. belihha) and fulix f. `coot' (*bholik- with dial. u); but whether fēlēs, -is f. `a polecat, cat, marten; hence a thief' here belongs, is dubious because of mēlēs, -is f. `marten, badger';

kelt. belo- `luminous, white' in cymr. beleu (*bheleu̯o-) `marten', air. oíbell m. `blaze, glow, heat' (f. `spark, glowing coal') = cymr. ufel m. `spark, fire' (*opiḫbhelo-), mir. Bel-tene `festival of 1st May' (= beacon), gall. GN (Apollo) Belenos, (Minerva) Belisama (Superlat.), FlN Belenā > frz. Bienne, schweiz. Biel; afrz. baille `paleness' (out of it mbret.baill ds.) could on ablaut. gall. *bali̯o- go back, compare frz PN Bailleuil < *Bali̯o-i̯alon; gall. belsa `field' from *belisā;

got. bala m. `bald horse, horse with a blaze' (from Belisar's steed [Belisar was a Byzantine commander]), engl. dial. ball `horse with white paleness' (out of it cymr. bal ds), mengl. balled, engl. bald, dön. bældet `naked, bald, bleak', ahd. belihha (compare lat. fulica), nhd. Belche `coot', BergN Belchen (to suffix s. Brugmann Grundriß II 1, 511, Specht Dekl. 213 f.), lengthened grade aisl. bāl `flame', ags. bǽl `pyres, funeral piles' (*bhēl-).

Whereas are germ. *pōl- in ags. pōl, engl. pool, ahd. pfuol `pool', ablaut. ndl. peel (*pali-) `morass', ags. pyll, engl. pill (*puli̯a-, older *bl̥i̯o-) probably from Ven.-IH. borrows (see above *bolā); different Petersson Heterokl. 205;

lit. bãlas `white' and `snowdrop', balà f. `white anemone' and m. `swamp, marsh, moor, fen, pool', balù, balaũ, bálti `become white'; lett. lengthened grade bãls `pallid, pale, wan'; Old Prussian ballo f. `forehead' and *balo `swamp, marsh' in PN;

Old Church Slavic lengthened grade bělъ `white' (*bhēlo-), f. `splint in wood', poln. dial. biel f. `marshy wood, forest', russ. dial. bil `swamp, marsh'; ablaut. bala (*bhōlā) in russ. bala-ružina `puddle, slop', klr. balka `marsh';

lit. báltas (*bholǝtos), lett. bal̃ts `white', North Sea Baltin̨a ezers;

slav. substant. neutr. Adj. *bolto- (*bholǝto-) `swamp, marsh, pond, pool, sea' in Old Church Slavic blato `sea', skr. blȁto `sea, ordure', russ. boɫóto `swamp, marsh';

lit. bá'lnas `white' (with glottal stop, idg. *bholǝnos), balañdis `baptism', balánda `orache', russ. lebedá, serb. lobòda ds.;

slav. *bolna f. (with trail tone, idg. *bholnā) in čech. slov. blána `membrane, skin, cutaneously', russ. boɫoná `sickly outgrowth on trees, sap-wood, (dial.) lump', bóɫonь f., `splint in wood', originally identical with čech. blana `meadow, grassland', poln. bɫoń f., bɫonie n. ds., russ. boɫonьje n. `deeply situated meadows';

perhaps toch. В palsk-, pölsk, A pöl(t)sk `cogitate' (*see, compare Old Indian sam-bhālayati);

whether here gr. φελλός (*bhel-so-), `cork, oak cork', φελλεύς `rocky ground', ἀφελής `even (*of land, ground, etc.: level, flat, not hilly or sloping; of uniform height)', φολίς `scale, flake (ones of reptile)'ö

References: WP. II 175 f., WH. I 108 f., 559 f., W. Schulze Berl. Sbb. 1910, 787 = Kl. Schr. 111, Trautmann 25, 29 f., Specht Dekl. 116 f.

See also: Here further bhel-2; bheleg-; bhlei-, -g-, -k-; bhlendh-; bhles-; bhleu-, -k-, -s-; bhlēu̯o-; bhl̥ndho-; bhlǝido-.

Page(s): 118-120

Root / lemma: bhel-2

English meaning: in names of henbane

German meaning: in Bezeichnungen of Bilsenkrautes

Note: probably with bhel-1 identical

Material: Gall. (illyr. ö) belinuntia f., βελένιον n. `hyoscyamus', to names of Apollo Belenos (see above bhel-1);

ags. beolone (*bhelunā), as. bilene, zero grade older dön. bylne (germ. *bulḫn-), bølme, schwed. bolmört, nhd. dial. bilme; but ahd. bil(i)sa is probably kelt. Lw. (compare aprov. belsa);

slav. *belena-, *belenā in r.-Church Slavic belenъ m., russ. belená f., slav. *belnъ m. in slov. blèn, ačech. blén, zero grade slav. *bьlnъ in skr. bûn.

References: WP. II 180, WH. I 99 f., Trautmann 30, Kretschmer Gl. 14, 97, Specht Dekl. 140.

Page(s): 120

Root / lemma: bhel-3, bhlē-

English meaning: to grow, spread, swell

German meaning: `aufblasen, aufschwellen, sprudeln, strotzen'

Material: Old Indian bhāṇḍa- n. `pot, pan, vessel' (*bhālnḫdaö); after Thieme (ZDMG. 92, 47 f.) here av. barǝ-s-man- `bundle of branches', Old Indian bársva m. Pl. `bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb, gums' (Lw. from av. *barsman `cushion'); compare under ahd. bilorn.

Arm. beɫun `fertile' (: gr. φάλης), beɫn-awor ds. (: gr. φαλλός), Adontz, Mél. Boisacq 9.

Gr. φαλλός, φάλης `penis' (φαλλός from *bhl̥nós or *bhelnós; compare air. ball, nhd. Bulle);

Maybe alb. geg. pallosh `penis' : gr. φαλλός `penis'

in addition φάλλαινα (formation as λύκαινα), φάλλη `whale' (compare that probably borrowed through illyr. mediation lat. ballaena; also mhd. bullich calls big fish kinds;

identical is φάλλαινα `moth', about ἀφελής and supplementary see above Z. 1; about ὄφελος see below phel-; after Persson Beitr. 299 also φλόμος (φλόνος) Great mullein, plant with thick woolly leaves, as *bh(e)loḫmoḫsö

Probably phryg. βάμ-βαλον, βά-βαλον `αἰδοῖον' Hes., also βαλλιόν `penis'; thrak. VN Τρι-βαλλοί.

Lat. follis `a leather bag; a pair of bellows; a purse; a puffed-out cheek' (*bhl̥nis or *bholnis, compare the germ. words with -ll- from -ln-);

cymr. bâl f. `elevation, rise, mountaintop' (*bhl̥ā);

zero grade air. ball m. `limb, member, part, body part', then `deal, portion, place, spot, mark' (also in the body), hence perhaps also cymr. ball `epidemic', balleg `sack, bag'; changing through ablaut bol, boll in cymr. dyrn-fol `glove', arfolli `become pregnant', ffroen-foll `with swollen nostrils' (: φαλλός);

Maybe alb. bole `testicle'

zero grade with formants -ko- and meaning as ahd. bald (see below): nir. bale `strong', cymr. balch, bret. balc'h `stout, proud, hubristic, overbearing'.

bhl̥- (bhel-) in aschwed. bulin, bolin `swollen', bulde, bolde, byld `hump, ulcer'; aisl. bulr, bolr m. `tree truck, trunk', mnd. mhd. bole f. `plank' (nhd. Bohle); aisl. boli `bull', ags. bula ds., bulluc `young bull', engl. bull, mnd. nhd. Bulle (as *bull-ōn = gr. *φάλλων from a stem *bulla- = φαλλό-ς); hess. bulle `vulva'; aisl. bolli m. drinking bowl' (`*spherical vessel'; mir. ballán `drinking vessel' probably from Nord.), ags. bolla m. `bowl', hēafodbolla `brain box, cranium', afries. strotbolla `larynx', as. bollo `drinking bowl', ahd. bolla f. `vesicle, blister, fruit skin or knot of the flax', mhd. bolle f. `bud, spherical vessel', ahd. hirnibolla `cranium', nhd. Bolle, Roßbollen, mhd. bullich, bolch `big fish among others cod' (compare φάλλαινα), compare also ahd. bolōn, mhd. boln `roll, throw, toss, fling' and with the meaning swollen = `thick, big, large', schwed. mdartl. bål, bol `thick and large, strong, very daring', aisl. poet. bolmr `bear'; here probably aisl. bulki `ship load', schwed. dön. bulk `hump, nodules, tubers';

in heterokl. paradigm (ö) *bhelr̥, Gen. *bhelnés interprets ahd. bilorn m. f. `gums' (*bilurnō `swelling, bulge; bead; lip; torus; wreath; roll; bulb'), whether not from *beluznō;

germ. *belḫn- also in hess. bille `penis' (: bulle), mnd. (ars-)bille, ndl. bil `buttock', schwed. fotabjölle `ball of the foot';

also alb. bili `penis', bole `testicle'

changing through ablaut ahd. ballo, balla, nhd. Ball, Ballen, ahd. arsbelli m. Pl. `buttocks', ags. bealluc m. `testicles' (*bholḫn-), aisl. bǫllr `ball, sphere, testicle'; aisl. bali `elevation along the the edge of the lake bank; small rise on ground level'; with formants -to- and the meaning `swollen, inflated' = `arrogant, bold', got. bal-Þaba Adv. `boldly', balÞei f. `boldness', aisl. ballr `dreadful, dangerous', baldinn `defiant', ags. beald `bold, audacious', ahd. bald `bold, audacious, quick, fast', nhd. bald Adv.; in addition ags. bealdor `prince, lord, master, mister', aisl. GN Baldr.

With coloring gradation *bhōl- probably norw. bøl `in heat, rutting, of the sow' (changing through ablaut bala `rutting, be in heat').

root form bhlē-:

Gr. φλήναφος `gossip, talkative', φλην-έω, -άω `be talkative'; ἐκωφλαίνω as φαίνω from bhā-, Aor. ἐκφλῆναι `bubble out';

lat. flō, flāre `to blow; intransit., of winds, persons and instru- ments; transit., to blow, blow forth; to blow on an instrument; to cast metals, to coin' (probably from *bhlǝ-i̯ō), but flēmina `varicoses' is probably Lw. from gr. φλεγμονή; norw. dial. blæma `bleb on the skin, skin vesicle'; aschwed. blæmma ds.; ahd. blāt(t)ara, as. blādara `blister, bubble', ags. blǣdre ds., reduplication-stem aisl. blaðra `vesicle, blister, bubble', ahd. etc blat `leaf'; aisl. blā- in Zs. `excessive, very'; with prevalent meaning `blow' ahd. i̯o-present blājan, blāen `blow, swell, blow out', ags. blāwan `blow' (here w from Perf.), ahd. blāt, ags. blæd `blow, breath, breeze, gust of wind', aisl. blǣr `gust of wind'; with -s- got. ufblēsan `inflate, bloat', aisl. blāsa `blow, pant, gasp, inflate, bloat; unpers.: `swell up', ahd. blāsan `blow', blāsa `bubble', blāst `blast, breath, breeze', ags. blǣst, aisl. blāstr (*blēstu-) `blast, breath, breeze, snort, rage, fury';

Maybe alb. plas `blow'

lett. blèn̨as `prank' derives from russ. Lw. blèdis `confidence trickster, swindler'.

Maybe alb. geg. blenj `I buy, bargain, strike a deal)' similar meaning shift as lat. īcō -ĕre `hit, wound, strike, smite; esp., to strike a bargain'

Here perhaps got. blōÞ `blood', s. bhel-4.

References: WP. II 177 f., WH. I 515, 524 f.

See also: In addition bhel-4 `bloom' etc and the extensions bhelĝh-, bhlē̆d-, bhlegʷ-, bhlei-, bhleu- `to swell' etc

Page(s): 120-122

Root / lemma: bhel-4 and bhlē-, bhlō-, bhlǝ-

English meaning: leaf; bloom

German meaning: `Blatt, Blöte, blöhen; öppig sprießen'

Note: probably from bhel- `to swell' in sense of `vegetable lushness' and `swelling = bud'

Material: Gr. φύλλον `leaf' (*bhul̥i̯om), lat. folium ds.; mir. bileóc `leaf' (from *bile < *bheli̯o-); moreover probably air. bile n. `tree';

Maybe alb. (*φύλλον) pyll `forest' [common alb. shift u > y]

bhlē-, mostly bhlō- in: lat. flōs, -ris m. `a flower, blossom. Transf., the prime, flower of anything, the best, the pride; on the face, first beard, down'; flōreō, -ēre `to bloom, flower. Transf., to be in one's prime, to prosper, flourish, be in repute; with abl. to abound in, swarm with'; osk. Fluusaí `the goddess of flowers, whose festival was celebrated on the 28th of April, often with unbridled license', Fluusasiaís `of the festivals of Flora', sabin. Flusare `of or belonging to the festival of Flora, of the Floralia'.

Mir. blāth m. `bloom, blossom, flower', cymr. blawd, acorn. blodon `bloom, blossom' (*bhlō-t-), mbret. (with -men-suffix) bleuzven, nbret. bleun̄(v)enn ds., with s-derivative mhd. bluost `bloom, blossom', nhd. Blust, ags. blōstma, blōsma, blōstm `flower, blossom', an. blōmstr ds., ndl. blōsen `bloom' (= mnd. blōsen `blush', see below bhles- `shine');

got. blōma m., ahd. bluomo m. `flower, blossom', aisl. blomi m. ds., blōm collective `flower, blossom'; ahd. bluojen, bluowen, as. blōjan, ags. blōwan `bloom'; ahd. bluot f. `blossoming, bloom, blossom' = ags. blēd f. `scion, shoot, twig, branch, flower, blossom, fruit'; but got. blōÞ n., aisl. blōð, as. ags. blōd, ahd. bluot `blood' probably to *bhelē- `effervesce'.

With ē: ags. blǣd m. `breath, breeze', n. `bubble', f. `bloom, blossom', ahd. blāt `bloom, blossom' (compare also ags. blǣd, ahd. blāt `life, breath, breeze' and bhel- `inflate, bloat');

with ǝ: ahd. blat, as. blad, ags. blæd, aisl. blað n. `leaf'; toch. A. pölt ds.

References: WP. II 176 f., WH. I 518 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 351.

Page(s): 122

Root / lemma: bhel-5, mostly with -ĝ- (-k̂-) suffix: bhelǝĝ-, bhelǝ-n-ĝ-, bheleĝ-; bhl̥k̂-

English meaning: balk

German meaning: `Bohle, Balken'

Material: Basic bhel- in Old Indian bhuríjāu Du.`arms, arms or shafts of the cart's pole'; gall. *balākon `(wall) projection', cymr. balog `pinnacle' (M.-L. 890).

With guttural extensions:

Gr. φάλαγξ, -γγος f. `stem, balk, beam; battle row, array', φάλαγγαι `planks, planking' (if only with secondary nasal rendering from other nouns in -γξ, so *φαλαγ- = Old Indian bhurij-; yet perhaps with bhelǝ-ĝ- only parallel -extension from a n-stem *bhelǝn- from); with -k-: φάλκης m. `balk, beam plank in ship'.

Lat. fulciō, -īre, fulsī, -tum (*bhl̥ki̯ō) `to prop up, support; to strengthen, secure; morally, to support, stay, uphold' (eig. `through balk, beam'); fulcrum (*fulc-lomö) `the post or foot of a couch (prop, rack, rest camp)'.

Perhaps also sufflāmen `a brake, drag, hindrance' (*flăg- = idg. *bhlǝĝ-smen);

aisl. bialki (*belkan-) `balk, beam'; ablaut. (*balkan-): ags. balca, bealca; ahd. as. balko `balk, beam'; aisl. balkr `partition wall, dividing off, partitioning off', bǫlkr `dividing off, partitioning off';

zero grade ags. bolca m. `gangplank'; but ahd. bloh(h), mhd. bloch, nhd. (ndd.) Block `clot, chunk, balk, plank' contains idg. u, also from idg. *bhluko- or, whether with germ. consonant increase, from *bhlugo-, to mir. blog `piece, fragment', further perhaps to got. bliggwan, ahd. bliuwan, nhd. bleuen `hit', from idg. *bhleu̯-ono-; see under bheleu-.

Whereas belong probably to *bhelĝh- `to swell' from a meaning mediation `thick, tumescent' from:

lit. balžienа `long beam in the harrow', balžíenas `crossbar, crossbeam', lett. bàlžiêns, bèlziêns m. `prop', ostlett. bòlgzds m. `props connected in the wood sledge level', lett. pabàlsts m. `prop, handle, grasp, handle in the plow', bàlzît, pabàlstît `prop, sustain';

russ. mdartl. (Gouv. Olonez) bólozno `thick board', slov. blazína `roof beam, crossbeam of the sledge, stake, stanchion'; kašub. bɫozno `the runners connecting the sledge skids'.

References: WP. II 181 f., WH. I 559, Trautmann 25 f.

Page(s): 122-123

Root / lemma: bhel-6

English meaning: to sound, speak, onomatopoeic words

German meaning: `schallen, reden, bröllen, bellen'; Schallwurzel

Material: Old Indian bhaṣáḫḥ `barking, baying' (*bhelḫs-), bhāṣatē `talks, speaks, prattles'; bhaṇḍatē (Dhatup.) `speaks, jeers, rebukes' (*bhelḫnḫdō), bháṇati `talks, speaks' (*bhel-nō) are after Kuiper Proto-Munda 32 f. nichtidg.

aisl. belja `roar, bellow', mndl. belen `bark, bay'; aisl. bylja, bulda `threaten, drone, roar', bylr `gust of wind', ags. bylgan `roar, bellow', mhd. boln `cry, roar, bellow';

with germ. ll (consonant increase in the onomatopoeic words), ahd. bellan `bark, bay', ags. bellan `roar, bellow, bark, bay, grunt'; ahd. bullōn `howl (from the wind), bark, bay, roar, bellow', isl.-norw. bulla `babble, chat'; aisl. bjalla, ags. belle, engl. bell, mnd. belle `bell', nhd. (eigentl. ndd.) Bellhammel `bellwether (with bell)';

with germ. ld (probably from a present dh- and perhaps with lit. bìldu to compare, because latter contains most probably idg. dh) dön. baldre, norw. mdartl. baldra, schwed mdartl. ballra `rant, roister' mnd. ndl. balderen ds., dön. buldre, schwed. bullsa, mnd. ndl. bulderen, bolderen, mhd. buldern, nhd. poltern; Old Prussian billit `say, speak', lit. bìlstu, bilaũ, bìlti `to start to talk', bīlu, biloti `talk', bilóju, -óti `say, talk', byl-aũ, -óti ds., bylà `speech, pronunciation, conversation, entertainment', lett. bil̂stu, bil̂žu, bil̂st (in Zs.) `talk, address, speak to', bil̂dêt `address, speak to'; lett. bil̨̃l̨ât (from *bil̨n̨a) `weep, cry'; with formants -so- lit. bal̃sas `voice, sound, tone';

toch. AB pöl-, pāl- `praise, laud' (Van Windekens Lexique 89).

References: WP. II 182, WH. I 516, Trautmann 25.

See also: From this derived *bhlē- `bleat'.

Page(s): 123-124

Root / lemma: bhendh-

English meaning: to bind

German meaning: `binden'

Material: Old Indian badhnā́ti, only later bandhati `binds, fetters, captures, takes prisoner, put together', av. bandayaiti `binds', participle Old Indian baddhá-, av. ap. basta-, Old Indian bándhana- n. `ligation', bandhá-ḥ m. `ligation, strap',


Probably from av. ap. basta- n. `ligation' derived alb. besë `pact, covenant, faith, belief, armistice', previously illyr. TN Besoi [common alb. shift st > s]; clearly illyr. displays simultaneous satem and centum characteristics since it was created before the split of Indo European family. Because the institution of besa is the most important pagan medium that surpasses monotheistic religions in alb. psyche, that means alb. are the descendants of illyr. Only alb. and Indic languages relate to the fact of blood bond. The institution of besa marks the ancient code of blood revenge and the victory of patriarchy or the blood line of the father.

av. banda- m. `band, manacle' (: aisl. as. bant, ahd. bant n., nhd. Band; got. bandi, ags. bend f. ds.; lit. bandà `cattle', see under); Old Indian bándhu-ḥ m. `kinsman, relative' (as πενθερός).

Gr. πεῖσμα `rope, hawser, rope, cable' (from *πενθσμα, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 287, compare Brugmann IF. 11, 104 f., also for πέσμα and πάσμα), πενθερός `father-in-law' (*`linked by marriage');

here after Pedersen (REtIE. 1, 192) also πάσχω `suffer' as `is bound, is entrapped', as also lat. offendō `to strike against, knock; to hit upon, fall in with; to shock, offend, displease; intransit. to knock, strike; to run aground; to stumble, make a mistake, to give offence (with dat.); also to take offence', dēfendō `(*release from the entanglement) to repel, repulse, ward off, drive away (2) to defend, protect; esp. to defend in court; in argument, to maintain a proposition or statement; to sustain a part'; πάθνη (covers late, but old), with sound rearrangement hom. att. φάτνη `crib' (*bhn̥dhḫnā; under a basic meaning `twisted, woven basket' as kelt. benna `carriage basket');

thrak. βενδ- `bind' (vgl Kretschmer Einl. 236); alb. besë `pact, covenant, faith, belief, armistice';

illyr. TN Besoi

lat. offendimentum, offendix `the knot of a band, or the band itself, chin strap under priest's cap, apex (a Roman priest's cap), fastened with two strings or bands';

gall. benna `kind of vehicle', galat. Ζεὺς Βέννιος, cymr. benn `wagon, cart' (out of it ags. binn, and through roman. mediation nhd. dial. benne `carriage boxes', ndl. ben `basket, trough'; basic form *bhendh-nā); mir. buinne `strap, bangle' (*bhondhiā);

got. ags. bindan, aisl. binda, ahd. bintan `bind', got. andbundnan `is unfastened', got. bandi etc see above;

lit. beñdras `partner, comrade' (formant associated with gr. πενθερός), bandà `herd of cattle' (eig. `the tied (down) cattle, the bound cattle').

Here also got. bansts m. `barn' (*bhondh-sti; compare in other meaning afries. bōst `matrimonial union' from *bhondh-stu- `bond';

ndd. banse `silo, garner, barn', ags. *bōs, engl. boose `cattle shed', ags. bōsig `crib', aisl. bāss m. `room for keeping, cattle stall' (*band-sa-);

jöt. bende `divided off room in cattle shed' erases probably every doubt about the relationship of above group with binden.

References: WP. II 152, WH. I 102, Feist 79, 80 f., 93.

Page(s): 127

Root / lemma: bhend-

English meaning: to sing, rejoice

German meaning: etwa `singen, schön klingen, jauchzen'

Material: Old Indian bhandatē `receives cheering shout, is praised, glares, gleams', bhándiṣṭha-ḥ `in loudest cheering, shrilly, screaming, best of all praising',

bhandána-ḥ `cheering', bhandánā `merry tintinnabulation, cheer' (doubts the meaning partly); zero grade air. mir. bind `melodic', abret. bann `melodious, harmonious'.

References: WP. II 151 f.

Page(s): 126-127

Root / lemma: bhenĝh-, bhn̥ĝh- (Adj. bhn̥ĝhú-s)

English meaning: thick, fat

German meaning: `dick, dicht, feist'

Material: Old Indian bahú- `dense, rich, much, a lot of' `compounds Sup. baṁhīyas-, baṁhišṭha- (= gr. παχύς);

bahulá- `thick, dense, vast, spacious, big, large, rich, much, a lot of' (= gr. παχυλῶς Adv. by Aristot., if these not newer formation); báṁhatē (uncovered) `increase, multiply', bháṁhayatē `clamps, fastens, strengthens';

av. bązah- n. `height, depth', bąšnu- m. ds., bal. bāz `much, a lot of', baz `dense';

gr. παχύς `thick, dense, fat, obese' (compounds πᾰσσων), πάχος n. `thickness, fatness' (occurs after παχύς for *πέγχος = av. bązah-), πάχετος `thick; thickness, fatness';

aisl. bingr `heap', aschwed. binge ds., ahd. bungo `tuber, bulb', nhd. Bachbunge; in addition with intens. consonant-sharpening aisl. bunki `stowed away shipload', norw. bunka (and bunga) `small heap, swelling, blister', ndl. bonk `clump, lump' under likewise;


Alb. bungë `kind of edible oak fruit' : with -u- grade alb. (*beuka) buka `bread' : phryg. βεκός `bread', actually `crumb' prove that from an extended Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, bh(e)u- : `expr. sound of hitting' derived Root / lemma: bheg-, bheng- : `to break', Root / lemma: bhenĝh-, bhn̥ĝh- (Adj. bhn̥ĝhú-s) : `thick, fat', Root / lemma: bheug-1 : `to flee, *be frightened', Root / lemma: bheug-2, bheugh- : `to clear away, free', Root / lemma: bheug-3, bheugh- : `to bow', Root / lemma: bheug-4 : `to enjoy, *consume, bite' as taboo words.

lett. bìezs `dense, thick', bìezums `thickness, fatness';

lat. pinguis `fat; oily; rich, fertile; n. as subst. fatness, fat. Transf. thick, dense; heavy, stupid; easy, quiet' has perhaps originated through hybridization of *fingu-is = παχύς, bahú- with that to opīmus, πίων respective words;

toch. В pkante, pkatte `greatness, bulk, extent' (Van Windekens Lexique 96);

hitt. pa-an-ku- (panku-) `all, in general'.

References: WP. II 151, Couvreur H̯ 177.

Page(s): 127-128

Root / lemma: bhen-

English meaning: to hit, wound

German meaning: `schlagen, verwunden'; also von durch den Schlag böser Geister bewirkter Krankheit (avest.; compare to diesem Aberglauben Havers IF. 25, 380 f.)

Material: Av. bąnayǝn `it makes me sick', banta- `sickens, waste away';

got. banja `blow, knock, wound, ulcer', aisl. ben, ags. benn f., as. beniḫwunda `wound'; aisl. bani m. `death; murderer', ags. bana, ahd. as. bano `killer, murderer', ahd. bano, mhd. bane, ban `death, ruin'; perhaps also mhd. bane, ban f. and m. `pathway, way, alley' as `*by all means through an wood, forest' or `*a (well-) beaten track, a way used often'; mir. epit f. `scythe, pruning knife' from *eks-bhen-tī; corn. bony `axe'; but cymr. bon-clust `slap in the face, box on the ear' contains bon `stick'.

Av. bata-, if `ground coarsely, from the grain', could be related as *bhn̥ḫto-, but because of the uncertain meaning is only to name with reservation.

References: WP. II 149, Feist 80.

Page(s): 126

Root / lemma: bheredh-

English meaning: to cut; board

German meaning: `schneiden'


Root / lemma: bheredh- : `to cut; board' derived from Root / lemma: bhereĝh- : `high; mountain, *sharp' [common illyr. - balt -ĝh- > -dh- phonetic mutation].

Material: Old Indian bardhaka-ḥ `cutting, clipping', m. `carpenter', śata-bradh-na-ḥ `having 100 metal points'; perhaps gr. πέρθω `destroy, smash', πορθέω `destroy, smash, devastate';

bhredhos- in as. ags. bred `board', ahd. bret n., therefrom ahd. britissa, nhd. Pritsche;

bhr̥dho- in got. fōtu-baúrd n. `splint', aisl. bord n. `board, table, desk', ags. bord n. ds., ahd. bort ds. = umbr. forfo- ds. in furfant `they lay on the board'; probably with it identical aisl. borð `edge, border, ship's rim', ahd. mhd. bort ds. (nhd. Bord from Ndd.), ags. bord `board, edge, shield'; ags. borda m. `edge, ornament, decoration', ahd. borto, nhd. Borte;

bhordho- in aisl. barð `edge, border', norw. dial. bard ds.

From germ. *burð- derive skr. bȑdo, russ. bërdo etc `weaver's reed' and lett. birde f. `weaver's rack'.

References: WP. II 163, 174, Devoto Mél. Pedersen 227 f., Meillet Slave commun2 75.

Page(s): 138

Root / lemma: bhereg-

English meaning: expr. to sound, roar, cry, etc., *sharp voice

German meaning: in Schallworten `brummen, bellen, lörmen under likewise'

Note: compare bher- ds. as well as that by bhreg- `break, rupture' and `crack, creak' encountering onomatopoeic sounds


Root / lemma: bhereg- : `expr. to sound, roar, cry, etc., *sharp voice' derived from Root / lemma: bhereĝh- : `high; mountain, *sharp'.

Material: Ags. beorcan stem-V., bearkian (*barkōn), engl. bark `bark, bay', aisl. berkja `bark, bay, rumble, rage, clamor';

lit. (žem.) burgė́ti `drone, grumble, quarrel, squabble, be unfriendly', burgèsus `crosspatch, grouch'; presumably also skr. br̀gljati `mumble, murmur, chat', brgalica `turtledove'.

Besides similar bhereq-: lett. brę̀cu, brèkt `cry', russ. brešú, brechátь `yelp, cry, quarrel, squabble, lie', brechnjá `empty gossip', skr. brȅšēm, brèhati `pant, gasp, loud cough' (*bhreq-s-), brȅkćēm, brèktati `pant, sniff, snort'.

Somewhat different because of the clear onomatopoeic words are the following words, which in their partial i- and u-vocalism in these by bher(e)ĝ- `roast' remind present vocal differences, which are explained from different sound imitation:

gr. φρυγίλος `a small bird' (transposition from *φριγύλος: lat. frig-ö);

lat. frigō, -ere `squeak (of small children)', friguttiō, -īre `chirp, twitter (from birds), lisp', later fringuliō, fringultiō ds., frigulō, -āre `cry (from the jackdaw)', fring(u)illa `finch, sparrow';

maybe alb. (*fringuilla) fërgëlloj `shiver, tremble (like a birdö)'

russ. bergléz `goldfinch', skr. br̀glijez `Sitta syriaca', čech. brhel `Eurasian golden oriole, golden oriole', möhr. `woodpecker', poln. bargiel `mountain titmouse'.

Similar ones, but indeed new onomatopoeic words are lat. merulus frindit, lit. briz-gė́ti `bleat, grouse, drone, hum, grumble'.

References: WP. II 171 f., WH. I 548.

Page(s): 138-139

Root / lemma: bhereĝh-

English meaning: high; mountain

German meaning: `hoch, erhaben'


Root / lemma: bhereĝh- : `high; mountain' derived from Root / lemma: bherǝĝ-, bhrēĝ- : `to shine; white, *ash wood, ashen, birch tree, elm'

Material: Old Indian Kaus. barháyati `increases', br̥ṁháti `makes fat, obese, strengthens, uplifts', presumably barha-s, -m `tail feather, tail of a bird, esp. from a peacock'; br̥hánt- `big, large, high, convex, elevated, noble, sublime', also `high, loud (of the voice)', fern. br̥hatī (= ir. Brigit, germ. Burgund), av. bǝrǝzant- (npers. buland), f. bǝrǝzaitī `high', in compound bǝrǝzi- (: *bǝrǝzra-), bǝrǝz- `high' and `height, mountain' (= npers. burz ds., ir. bri ́; the Nom. av. barš Subst. could contain ar. -ar-, but also ar. -r̥-, Bartholomae IF. 9, 261), zero grade av. uz-barǝzayeni `I shall allow to grow up' (in addition Σατι-βαρζάνης `improve luck', iran. *barzana-), barǝzan- m. barǝzah- n. `height', barǝšnu- m. `elevation, height, sky, heaven, head', barǝzyah- `higher', barǝzišta- `the highest, the most suitable'; npers. bālḫā `height' (*barz-), burz (see above);

Old Indian br̥hánt- stands for also `big, large, vast, grand, thick, massive' and br̥ṁhati `makes fat, obese, invigorates, strengthens, increases, furthers', bŕ̥háṇā Adv. `dense, tight, firm, strong, proficient; very, absolutely', paribr̥ḍha-ḥ `standing firm, dense, solid'.

Arm. berj `height' in erkna-, lerna-berj `sky-, mountainous' (*bherĝhos), barjr `high' (*bhr̥ĝhú-), (ham-)baṙnam (*barjnam, Aor. barji) `lift up' etc.

Berg- in PN the Mediterranean countries: thrak. Βεργούλη, maked. Βέργα, ill. Berginium (Bruttium: Bergae), lig. Bergomum, kelto-lig. Bergusia, hisp. Bergantia etc about p- in kleinas. Πέργη, Πέργαμος, maked. kret. Πέργαμος suppositions by Kretschmer Gl. 22, 100 f., Krahe ZNF. 19, 64.

Lat. for(c)tis, alat. forctus, dial. horctus, horctis `physically, strong, powerful, robust; morally, brave, courageous, steadfast, bold, audacious' (from *forg-tos, idg. *bhrĝh-tos = Old Indian br̥ḍháḥ).

Cymr. bera `heap' (= nhd. Berg), acorn. bret. bern ds. (-rĝh-n-ö s. Pedersen KG. I 105), gall. PN Bergusia, zero grade mir. brí, Akk. brig `hill' (see above), cymr. bry `high, above', fem., cymr. corn. bret. bre `hill', gall. Litano-briga among others PN; gall. Brigantes, Βρίγαντες people's name (either `the sublime, noble' or `troglodyte, cave dweller, cliff dweller'; Old Indian br̥hant-), Brigantia PN `Bregenz (western Austria)' and name of a feminine divinity, air. Brigit (*bhr̥ĝhn̥tī) `name of a famous saint and generally women's name' (also Old Indian br̥hatī́ is used as woman's name, also ahd. Purgunt), cymr.braint `privilege, prerogative' (eig. `highness'), pl. breiniau, in addition mcymr. breenhin, ncymr. brenin `king', corn. brentyn, bryntyn ds. (*brigantīnos).

Got. baírgahei `mountain range, mountainous region', aisl. bjarg and berg, ahd. as. berg `mountain', ags. beorh, beorg `height, burial mound', engl. barrow `burial mound' (compare arm. -berj, cymr. bera, Old Indian barha-);

germ. *burgundī (= Old Indian br̥hatī, kelt. *brigantī, ir. Brigit) in Burgund, oldest name of Bornholm (Danish island) (eig. `the high-rising') and name Danish and norw. islands, ahd. Purgunt women's name, in addition Burgundiōnes, family name.

Got. baurgs f. `town, city, tower', ahd. burg etc `castle' is genuine germ. equivalent of av. bǝrǝz-, kelt. brig- with the meaning `fortified height as refuge'; With it is coincident though lat. burgus `castle, fort', that is borrowed from gr. πύργος `tower', an oriental loanword from urart. burgana `palace, fortress' derives (820 v. Chr., s. Adontz REtIE 1, 465), whereof would have also derived arm. burgn, aram. burgin, burgon `tower' etc. after Kretschmer though πύργος germ. Lw.

Maybe alb. burg `prison'

This contemplates *berĝhō `save, hide, shelter', originally ostensibly `providing sancturay for someone at a refuge' as retrograde derivative to *bherĝh- `mountain' (Gl. 22, 113); s. above S. 145.

Old Church Slavic brěgъ `bank, border, shore, slope', skr. brȉjeg `hill, bank, border, shore', russ. bēreg ds., is probably not germ. Lw., but rather ven.-ill. origin; Bröckner KZ. 46, 232, Persson Beitr. 927;

Maybe alb. bregu `bank, border, shore, slope'.

from latter with brěgъ as genuine Slavic words related klr. o-boříh, čech. brah `haystack' etc belongs rather to Old Church Slavic brěgǫ `care' (*preserve, save, hide, shelter), as stogъ : στέγω.

Maybe alb. brengë `care, sadness, sorrow', brengos `sadden, worry'

With other vowel gradation *bhregh- perhaps in ags. brego, breogo `master, mister, ruler, prince, lord', aisl. bragr `best, most exquisite, most distinguished, leader, chief, prince', mhd. brogen `rise, direct upwards, wanton brag'.

Toch. AB pörk- `rise', A pörkānt, В pirko `the rising', A pörkör, В parkre, pörkre `tall';

perhaps A prākör, В prākre `tight, firm, solid' (compare lat. fortis); hitt. pár-ku-uš (parkus) `high' (: arm. barjr).

Maybe alb. (*parkus) pragu `threshold, elevation before the door' : hitt. pár-ku-uš (parkus) `high'

References: WP. II 173 f., WH. I 124, 535 f., 853, Feist 75 f., 85 f., Trautmann 30 f., Van Windekens Lexique 90, Couvreur H̯ 178.

Page(s): 140-141

Root / lemma: bherem-1

English meaning: to stick out; edge, hem

German meaning: `hervorstehen, eine Spitze or Kante bilden; Kante, Spitze'ö

Material: bhorm-:

Aisl. barmr `edge, hem', eyḫbarmr `the edge of an island', norw. dial. barm `extremity, border, brim, edge, rim' (e.g. in the sail), ndd. barm, berme `a ledge at the bottom of a bank or cutting, to catch earth that may roll down the slope, or to strengthen the bank; a narrow shelf or path between the bottom of a parapet and the ditch'.

bhrem-: bhrom- :

Perhaps lat. frōns, frondis f. `a leaf, foliage; meton., a chaplet or crown of leaves' (*bhrom-di-, as glāns from *glanḫdi-);

Note: common lat. ph- > f- shift

an. brum n. `leaf buds', ahd. brom, brum ds., schweiz. brom `flower bud, young twig, branch', ablaut. brāme ds.

In a basic meaning `bristly, thorn' go back: ags. brōm m. `broom' (*bhrēmo-), mnd. brām `blackberry bush, broom', ahd. brāmo m., brāma f. `briar, blackberry bush', brāmberi, nhd. Brombeere, ags. brēmel, engl. bramble (proto germ. *brāmil), ablaut. mnl. bremme, ahd. brimma `broom' and mnd. brēme, brumme ds.

With the meaning `edge, border': mhd. brëm n. `border, edging, edge', nhd. verbrömen, changing through ablaut mengl. brimme, engl. brim `edge'.

References: WP. II 102.

Page(s): 142

Root / lemma: bherem-2

English meaning: to buzz, drone

German meaning: `brummen, summen, surren'

Material: Old Indian bhramará-ḥ `bee';

gr. φόρμινξ, -γγος f. `zither', because of suffixes loanwordö Initial sound variant *brem- probably in βρέμω `boom, blaster, sough, rustle, bawl, blaster', βρόμος m. `noise, crackling', βροντή f. `thunder' (*βρομ-τᾱ);

lat. fremō, -ere `roar, murmur, growl; with acc. to murmur out something, grumble, complain'; frontēsia `thunder and lightning' is Lw. from gr. βροντήσιος (to βροντή);

Maybe alb. frymë `breath, exhalation', frynj `blow'

cymr. brefu `bleat, roar, bellow'; ahd. breman `drone, grumble, roar, bellow', ags. bremman `roar, bellow', brymm n. `flood, sea', mhd. brimmen ds., ablaut. brummen `drone, grumble' (in addition brunft `heat, rut, rutting season'); mnd. brummen and brammen ds., ahd. as. bremo `gadfly, brake', mhd. breme, as. bremmia, ahd. brimisse, nhd. Breme and (from dem Ndd.) Bremse;

poln. brzmieć `sound, clink, buzz' (*brъm-), bulg. brъmčъ́ `buzz, drone, hum', brъ́mkam ds., brъ́mb-al, -ar, -ъr `bumblebee, beetle, chafer'.

Maybe alb. geg. diminutive (*brum-el) brumull, tosk. brumbull `bumblebee, beetle, bug' [common alb. m > mb phonetic mutation]

As extensions *bhrem- perhaps here the onomatopoeic words: Old Indian bhr̥ŋga-ḥ `giant black bee'; poln. brzęk `sound, tinkling, clinking; gadfly, brake', russ. brjákatь `clang, clink, clatter', čech. brouk `beetle, chafer'; lit. brį́nkterèti `fall chinking' etc;

lit. brenzgu, brengsti `clang, clink, knock', ablaut. branzgu, brangsti `sound, clink'; slav. bręzgъ in russ. brjázgi Pl. `empty gossip'; russ.-Church Slavic brjazdati `sound, clink'.

References: WP. II 202 f., WH. I 544 f., Trautmann 37.

Page(s): 142-143

Root / lemma: bheres-

English meaning: quick

German meaning: `schnell'

Material: Lat. festīnō, -āre `to hasten, hurry; transit., to hasten, accelerate', Denom. von *festiō(n)-, -īn- `haste, hurry', Erweit. to *festi- (from *fersti-) in cōnfestim `immediately, without delay' (from *com festī `with haste, hurry');

mir. bras `quick, fast, stormy' (*bhresto-), cymr. brys ds. (*bhr̥sto-), mbret. bresic, brezec `hasty';

lit. bruz-g-ùs `quick, fast', bruz-d-ùs `movable, nimble', besides burz-d-ùlis ds., burz-dė́ti `run to and fro';

slav. *bъrzъ in Old Church Slavic brъzo Adv. `quick, fast', skr. br̂z `quick, fast', russ. borzój `quick, fast, fiery', besides *bъrzdъ in wruss. bórzdo Adv. `quick, fast', skr. brzdìca f. `rapids, speed in stream'.

Perhaps here ligur. FlN Bersula, schweiz. FlN Birsig (Krahe ZONF 9, 45).

Maybe alb. (*bersul) vërsul, `rush forward, attack', truncated (*vërsul) sul `rush, attack' [common alb. b- > v- shift].

References: WP. II 175, WH. I 259, 488 f., Trautmann 40, Specht Dekl. 192.

Page(s): 143

Root / lemma: bh(e)reu- : bh(e)rū̆-

English meaning: to boil, to be wild

German meaning: `sich heftig bewegen, wallen, especially vom Aufbrausen beim Gören, Brauen, Kochen etc'

Note: extension from bher-2.

Material: A. ablaut bheru- (bheru-), bhrū̆-:

Old Indian bhurváṇi-ḥ `restless, wild', bhurván- `uncontrollable movement of water'.

Arm. bark `sharp, sour, cruel, savage' (barkanam `I get angry'), which is very much ambiguous, it is constructed here from Dumézil BSL. 40, 52 as *bhr̥ḫu̯-, likewise berkrim `I am glad' as *bherḫu̯-; very doubtful!

Gr. φαρυμός τολμηρός, θρασύς Hes. (*bher-u-) and φορυτός `mixture, rubbish, chaff, crap, muck', φορύ̄νω, φορύσσω `knead, jumble, mingle, sully, besmirch', probably also φρυ-άσσομαι `gestures, behaves impatiently (esp. from wild horses); be rollicking, wanton' common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation.

Thrak. βρῦτος (see below).

Alb. brum m., brumë f. `sourdough', mbruj, mbrönj `knead'.

Lat. ferveō, -ēre, fervō, -ĕre `to be boiling hot, to boil, seethe, glow. Transf., to be in quick movement, to seethe; to be excited by passion, rage' (about fermentum s. bher-2); dēfrū̆tum `leaven, yeast; a kind of beer. Transf. anger, passion' (: thrak. βρῦτος, βρῦτον, βροῦτος `a kind of barley beer'; from thrak. *brūti̯ā (gr. βρύτια), derives illyr. brīsa `skins of pressed grapes', proto extension alb. bërsí ds., from which serb. bersa, bîrsa, bîrza `mould on the wine'; lat. brīsa from dem Venet. or Messap.).


Not only alb. is the direct descendant of illyr. but Albans in Alba Longa brought their beer formula from Illyricum (Albanoi illyr. TN) to Italy. Slavic languages borrowed their cognates from illyr.

Mir. berbaim `cook, simmer, seethe', cymr. berwi, bret. birvi `simmer, seethe, boil', bero, berv `cooked, boiled', gall. GN Borvo (from spa, mineral spring), compare with other suffix Bormō above S. 133; perhaps also frz. bourbe `slime, mud' from gall. *borvā `mineral water'; air. bruth `blaze, glow, fury', mir. bruith `cook', enbruithe `broth, meat broth' (to en- `water', see under pen-2), acymr. brut `courage, spirit, vivacity; also pride, arrogance', ncymr. brwd `hot' (cymmrwd `mortar' from *kom-bru-to-, compare mir. combruith `simmer, seethe, boil'), brydio `seethe, froth', acorn. bredion `dealer, broker' (Umlaut), abret. brot `jealousy', nbret. broud `hot, fermenting'.

About germ. bru-forms see under B.

B. ablaut bhrē̆u- and (partially again) bhrū̆-:

At first in words for `wellspring' = `bubbling over' (r/n-stem, perhaps bhrēu̯r̥, bhrēu̯n-, bhrun-); arm. aɫbiur, aɫbeur (Gen. aɫber) `wellspring' (from *bhrēw(a)r =) gr. φρέαρ, -ᾱτος `stream, brook' (*φρῆFαρ-, -ατος, hom. φρήατα, consigns φρείατα); mir. tipra f. `wellspring' (maybe from air. *tiprar < *to-ek̂s-bhrēu̯r̥), Gen. tiprat (*to-ek̂s-bhrēu̯n̥tos); air. -tiprai `streams against... `(*to-ek̂s-bhrēu̯-ītö); from stem bhrun- the case obliqui from as en-stem proto germ.*brunō, *brun(e)n-, got. brunna, ahd. brunno, ags. brunna, burna `well, water hole, spring' (aisl. brunn), with metathesis nhd. (ndd.) Born.

Maybe alb. buronj `spring, originate', burim `origin, source, spring, bubbling water (as if boiling)' : russ. brujá `current'; also alb. (*bruth) burth `Cyclamen europaeum (burning of donkey's mouth)' where -th is a diminutive alb. ending.


Alb. shows that Root / lemma: bh(e)reu- : bh(e)rū̆- : `to boil, to be wild' is an extended Root / lemma: bher-2 : `to boil, swell; to get high' (see below) while the latter root evolved from Root / lemma: bher-1

: `to bear, carry'.

With similar meaning russ. brujá `current', bruítь `rapidly flowing, streaming in', wruss. brújić `urinate, pass water' (this meaning also in mhd. brunnen and in nhd. dial. brunzen, bair. brunnlen `urinate, pass water' from Brunnen), formal next to lit. br(i)áujs, br(i)áutis `push forward with brute force' (*bhrēu-), lett. braulîgs `horny, lustful'; also Old Prussian brewingi `conducive, helpful'ö

bhre-n-u- (present with nasal infix, compare nhd. brennen) with with respect on licking flames lies before in got. ahd. as. brinnan, ais. brinna, ags. beornan, birnan `burn', Kaus. got. brannjan, aisl. brenna, ahd. brennan, ags. bærnan `burn', wherefore among others ahd. brant `blaze', brunst `burn, blaze', aisl. bruni, ags. bryne `blaze', ahd. bronado, ags. brunaÞa `itchiness, heat in the body', schwed. brånad `rutting';

bhréu̯- : bhruu̯- in: ahd. briuwan, ags. brēowan `brew', aschwed. bryggja (from *bryggwa) ds.; germ. *bruđa- in: aisl. ags. brođ, ahd. prođ `broth' (: defrūtum, air. bruth, thrak. βρῦτος; mhd. brodelen, nhd. brodeln);

germ. *brauđa- in: aisl. brauđ, ags. brēad, ahd. brōt `bread' (from the ferment); about ahd. wintes prūt `storm; tempest, whirlwind' s. Kluge11 692.

References: WP. II 167 f., WH. I 333 f., 487.

Page(s): 143-145

Root / lemma: bherǝĝ-, bhrēĝ-

English meaning: to shine; white, *ash wood, ashen, birch tree, elm

German meaning: `glönzen, weiß'

Note: equivalent with bherē̆k̂-, s. d. the groups bhereĝ-, bherek̂- shine, appear, seem to be extensions to bher- `bright, brown'. Similar to extension bheleg- besides bhel- `shine'.

Material: Old Indian bhrājatē `glares, gleams, shines'; Old pers. brāzaiti ds. (*bhrēĝō), npers. barāzīdan `shine', barāz `jewellery';

bsl. *brēsk- from bhrēg-sk- in lit. brė́kšta, brė́ško, brė́kšti `break, (dawn), (from the day)', apýbrėškis `time around daybreak'; slov. brę̂sk, čech. břesk, poln. brzask `daybreak, dawn', poln. obrzasknąć `become bright', brzeszczy się `it dawns, the day breaks', with Assimil. of auslauts -sk- to the sounding word anlaut Old Church Slavic pobrězgъ `dawn, twilight, daybreak', russ. brezg, poln. brzazg ds.

With gradation bh(e)rōĝ- probably schwed. brokig `varicolored', norw. mdartl. brōk `a young salmon with transverse bands (', also as brōka f. `large-scale mottled animal'.

With lengthened grade the 1. syllable: got. baírhts `bright, gleaming, distinct', ahd. beraht, mhd. berht `gleaming' (also in names ahd. Bert-, -bert, -brecht), ags. beorht `gleaming, radiating' (engl. bright), aisl. biartr `light, bright'; cymr. berth `gleaming, beautiful', PN bret. Berth-walart, ir. Flaith-bertach; lit. javaĩ béršt `the grain becomes white'; probably also norw. mdartl. bjerk `very bright' (compare noch berk `white trout', schwed. björkna `Abramis blicca').

reduction grade alb. barth (bardhḫi) `white' (*bhǝrǝĝo-).


Common alb. -ĝ- > -dh- phonetic mutation

Illyr. Bardhylus `Illyrian king' a compound of illyr. barth (*bherĝ-) `white' + illyr. hyllus `sun, star'.

In names of the birch (slav. partly elm, lat. ash tree):

Old Indian bhūrjá-ḥ m. `a kind of birch'; osset. börz `birch'; dak. PN Bersovia; lat. farnus `ash tree'(*fár[a]g-s-no-s, originally stuff adj. `ashen', as well as:) frāxinus ds. (to begin probably with ā, *bherǝĝ-s-enós); twofold development of -erǝ- in farnus and frāxinus would be caused by old accent difference as in palma = gr. *πάλαμᾱ, παλάμη compared with lātus = τλητός;

Maybe alb. geg. frashën `ash-tree' : lat. frāxinus `ash-tree';

ahd. birihha (*bherǝĝ-i̯ā), ags. beorc, birce, aisl. bjǫrk (*bherǝĝā) `birch';

lit. béržas m., Pl. béržai `birch', ablaut. bìržtva f. `birch forest'; bir̃žliai `birch twigs', lett. bęr̃zs m., Old Prussian berse `birch'; russ. berëza, skr. brȅza, аčеch. břieza `birch' (the old color meaning still in bulg. brěz `white spotted' = norw. bjørk s. о., slov. brę́za `name of a white spotted cow or nanny goat');

Maybe alb. brez `stripe'

with formants -to- (= got. baírhts) and intonation change slav. *berstъ in russ. bérest m. `elm, framework', skr. brȉjest, čech. břest ds., but with the meaning `birch' against russ. berësta f., berësto n. `birch bark', čech. břesta `upper birch bark'.

Ahd. -brecht could, if this vocalization instead of -ber(h)t not a innovation is, are applied to bherek̂-, as also in got. baírhts, cymr. berth, hitt. parkuiš.

References: WP. II 170 f., WH. I 458, 510 f., 544, Trautmann 32, 37 f., Specht Dekl. 57.

Page(s): 139-140

Root / lemma: bherǝk̂-, bhrēk̂-

English meaning: to shine

German meaning: `glönzen'

Note: equivalent with bherǝĝ-, bhrēĝ- ds. (see there, also because of ambiguous words)

Material: Old Indian bhrā́śatē `blazes, shines' (uncovered);

gr. φορκόν λευκόν, πολιόν, ῥυσόν Hes., compare but S. 134;

perhaps here air. brecc `mottled, speckled, *tabby', cymr. brych ds., gall. PN Briccius (from *bhr̥k̂-, with expressive consonant stretch);

uncertain suppositions about the origin of cymr. breuddwyd `dream', mir. bruatar ds. by Pedersen Litteris 7, 18, Pokorny IF. Anzeiger 39, 12 f.; whether from *bhrogʷhdh-eiti-, -ro-ö

mhd. brehen `sudden and strong flash', aisl. brjā, brā (*brehōn) `flash', braga, bragða `sparkle, glitter, flame, burn', bragð `(*blink) moment', with originally bare prös. -dh- also aisl. bregða, preterit brā `quick, fast move, swing, reproach', ags. bregdan, brēdan st. V. `quick, fast move, swing', engl. braid `flax, wattle, braid', upbraid `reproach', ahd. brettan, mhd. bretten `pull, tear, twitch, weave' (in addition ahd. brīdel, ags. brīdel, older brigdels `bridle, rein');

with formants -u̯o- got. braƕ in in braƕa augins `ἐν ῥιπῇ όφθαλμοῦ, in a flash, at the moment' (compare aisl. augnabragð n. `blink, winking the eyes') and lengthened gradees *brḗhwā, *brēʒwā́ in aisl. brā f. `eyelash', ags. brǣw, brēaw, brēg m. `eyelid', as. brāha `eyebrow', slegi-brāwa `eyelid', ahd. brāwa f. `brow', wint-prāwa `eyelash' (the meaning `brow' oriented from *ƀrū- `brow', idg.*bhrū-); that in spite of Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I. 350, 4636 and Specht Dekl. 83, 162 ahd. brāwa could go not back to *bhrēu̯ā, is proved through the grammat. variation in Ags., the form with -ku̯- assumes (Sievers-Brunner 200).

Here probably a kind of fish ahd. brahs(i)a, brahsina, as. bressemo `bream, freshwater bream', norw. brasma, brasme ds., ablaut. aisl. brosma `a kind of codfish'.

Hitt. párḫkuḫiš (parkuiš) `clean, pure', pár-ku-nu-uz-zi (parkunuzi) `purified, clean'.

References: WP. II 169, Feist 76 f., 103 f., Couvreur H̯ 327.

Page(s): 141-142

Root / lemma: bherĝh-

English meaning: to hide, keep

German meaning: `bergen, verwahren'

Material: Got. baírgan `save, store, keep', aisl. bjarga, ags. beorgan, ahd. bergan, as. gibergan `save, store'; changing through ablaut ags. byrgan `bury', byrgen (*burgiznō), byrgels,

as. burgisli `burial, funeral' and ahd. bor(a)gēn `spare, look after, entrust, borrow', ags. borgian `look after, watch over, keep, borrow'.


Alb.-illyr. and celt.- slav. languages prove that from a zero grade of Root / lemma: bhereĝh- : `high; mountain' derived Root / lemma: bherĝh- : `to hide, keep'. Cognates deriving from those two roots mark of wave of IE people who introduced burial mounds in Europe.

Maybe alb. nasalized (*bergo) brengë `concern, sadness (for a dead personö)', brengos `sadden' : Old Church Slavic brěgǫ, brěšti `care, worry'.

Slav. *bergǫ in Old Church Slavic brěgǫ, brěšti `care, worry' in nebrěšti `neglect', russ. beregú, beréčь `beware, preserve, protect, spare, look after, spare', skr. older bržem, brijeći `guard, watch, preserve, protect, care, worry; hold festivities'; changing through ablaut klr. oboŕíh, gen. oboróha `haystack',

čech. brah `haystack, heap', poln. bróg `barn, haystack' (out of it lit. brãgas ds.); zero grade čech. brh `cave, cottage, tent'; ostlit. bir̃ginti `spare'.

Perhaps here gallo-rom. (rhöt.-ill.) bargā `covered thatched hut', whether from *borgā; Tagliavini ZrP. 46, 48 f., Bonfante BSL. 36, 141 f.

References: WP. II 172, Trautmann 31, Feist 76.

See also: compare above S. 141.

Page(s): 145

Root / lemma: bher-1

English meaning: to bear, carry

German meaning: `tragen, bringen' etc (also Leibesfrucht tragen; med. `ferri'), also `aufheben, erheben'

Grammatical information: The root bher-, forms the exceptional both themat. and athemat. present, because the durative recognizes neither Aor. nor Perf. in Idg.

Note: Beside bher-, with them. vowel bhere-, sees a heavy basis bherǝ : bhrē-.

Material: Old Indian bhárati `carries', av. baraiti ds. (and `ride'), Old pers. barantiy 3. Pl. ds. (= arm. berem, phryg. αβ-βερετ, gr. φέρω, lat. ferō, air. biru, alb. bie, got. baira,

Old Church Slavic berǫ); Old Indian bhárti (also as gr. φέρτε, lat. fert old unthem. form), bibhárti, bíbharti, bibhr̥máḥ, bibhrati (compare that probably with πίφραμεν = bibhr̥me derived ἐσ-πιφράναι `bring in, take in'), them. abibhran, bibhramāṇa-ḥ and av. -bībarāmi;

Perf. babhāra and jabhāra (hybridization of babhāra with jahāra from hárti);

participle Old Indian bhr̥tá-ḥ, av. bǝrǝte-; Supin. Old Indian bhártum; Kaus. Old Indian bhāráyati = Iter. av. bāraya-;

Sup. av. bairišta- `he cherishes best, cares, looks after' (= gr. φέριστος `most superior, best', probably `he carries the richest, most fertile');

Old Indian bhr̥tíḫḥ `carrying, sustenance, livelihood, food, wage' = av. bǝrǝtis `carrying' (= lat. fors, got. gabaúrÞs, arm. bard); Old Indian bhr̥tyā́ `food, nourishment, care, cultivation' (compare got. baúrÞei);

Old Indian bhárman- n. `preservation, nourishment, care, cultivation; load' (= gr. φέρμα, Old Church Slavic brěmę), heavy basis in bharīman- n. ds.; bharítraḫm `arm' (`*wherewith one carries');

Old Indian bhára-ḥ `acquiring, carrying off, profit, gain, booty; burden'

Maybe alb. barrë `burden' : Old Indian bhāráḫḥ `bundle, work, load';

npers. bar `fruit' (= gr. φόρος, Old Church Slavic sъ-borъ); Old Indian -bhará-ḥ `bearing, carrying, bringing etc', av. -barō ds. (= arm. -vor, gr. -φορος, e.g. δύσφορος = Old Indian durbhara-ḥ);

maybe alb. bar `grass, herb' related to npers. bar `fruit'.

Old Indian bháraṇa-m `carrying, bringing, providing, support' (= Inf. got. baíran); Old Indian bhártar-, bhartár- `bearer, provider', prábhartar- `carrier (of the sacrifice)', av. fra-bǝrǝtar- `carrier of things, secondary priest' (compare lat. fertōr-ius, umbr. arsfertur), fem. Old Indian bhartrī́, av. barǝϑrī `supporter, upholder, mother'; lengthened grade Old Indian bhāráḫḥ `bundle, work, load', bhārin- `bearing, carrying', bhā́rman- (n.) `bringing, attendance', bhārya-ḥ `to bear, carry, support, nourish' (== ahd. bāri or = *bhōrio- in gr. φωριαμός); ba-bhrí-ḥ `bearing, carrying, borne'.

Arm. berem `bear, bring' (Aor. eber = ἔφερε, ábharat), beṙn, Gen. beṙin `burden, load' (compare gr. φερνή `dowry'), ber `yield, fruit, fertility' and `movement, run', -ber `bringing, bearing, carrying', e.g. in lusaber `light-bringing, morning star', secondary instead of -vor, e.g. lusa-vor `light-bringing' (compare lat. Lūci-fer, gr. λευκο-φόρος); bari `good', barv-ok `good, best'; bard `heap; compound', lengthened grade *bhōr- in buṙn `hand, fist; force, might';

phryg. (κακουν) αββερετ (also αββερεται) `(injury, evil) cause, carry';

gr φέρω `bear' (only present system, once participle φερτός; Ipv. φέρτε), med. φέρομαι `moves me fast' (also Old Indian bharatē, lat. ferrī, compare above arm. ber and under Alb.), Iter. φορέω `bear etc' (= alb. mbaj); about φέριστος `the best, noble', Kompar. φέρτερος see above S. 128 and Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 3002, 535, 538; about ὄφρα s. Boisacq s. v. and S. 132;


common alb. b- > mb- > m- phonetic mutation as in alb. geg. maj `bear'

φέρτρον, with them. Vok. φέρετρον `bier, stretcher' (lat. feretrum `a litter, bier' from dem Gr.); φέρμα `fruit, field crop, agricultural crop, unborn child; fruit of one's womb, fetus'; φερνή `dowry', öol. with them. vowel φέρενα f. ds.; φόρος `yield, tax', -φόρος `bearing, carrying', φορά: `carrying, plentiful yield, fullness, wealth'; ἀμφ[ιφ]ορεύς `means: container/vessel with two grips/handles'; φόρτος `burden, load, cargo'; φαρέτρᾱ `quiver'; δί-φρος `the charioteer's and the combatants' holding part of the war chariot'; φώρ `thief' (= lat. fūr), ἴσφωρες λησταί, κλέπται. Λάκωνες Hes.; from φώρ derived φωράω `spy on the thief', then generally `spy on, track', φωpά: `house search'; φωριαμός `box for the storage of clothes' due to *bhōrios `wearable, bearable'.

From the heavy basis bh(e)rē- (ö): Fut. -φρήσω, Aor. -έφρησα, -φρῆναι joined together (with δια- `let pass', with εἰσ- `let in, put in', with ἐκ- `bring out, let out, unburden'); paradigmatic with (ἐσ)-πι-φράναι (see above to Old Indian bibhr̥máḥ).

Ligur. FlN Porco-bera `guiding fish', Gando-bera `guiding scree'.

Mess. maḫberan, beram etc, tabara `priestess' (*to-bherā), dor.-ill. βερνώμεθα κληρωσώμεθα. Λάκωνες, Hes. (to gr. φέρνη `dowry'), doubtful ἀβήρ οἴκημα στοὰς ἔχον, Hes.


Illyr., Mess. and later alb. display satem characteristics the same as Old Indian and av. Not only illyr. shares with Old Indian and av. the cognates for `bear' but also the institution of priesthood and earth fertility: Mess. maḫberan, beram etc, tabara `priestess' : av. fra-bǝrǝtar- `carrier of things, secondary priest' (compare lat. fertōr-ius, umbr. arsfertur), fem. Old Indian bhartrī́, av. barǝϑ rī `supporter, upholder, mother';

Alb. [causative bjer] bie (*bherō), 2. Pl. biṙni `bring, bear, lead, guide', also `fall, fail, hit', ber, beronje `dart, arrow'; kompon. *dz-bier, vdjer etc `fall, lose, destroy', ndzjer `bring out', zbjer `fall, lose'; also bie in the meaning `fall' (compare φέρομαι etc), wherefore dzborë, vdorë etc `snow' (prefix dz-, dë- and *bhērā eig. `the falling down, falling off');

iterative *bhoréi̯ō in tosk. mbanj, mbaj, older mba, geg. mba, mbaj `keep, tend, look after, observe, bear', nordostgeg. also used from carrying pregnant animals, with restored r also mbar, bar `bear, drag'; [common alb. b- > mb- phonetic mutation]


Alb. (*ndë-borë) dëborë, dzborë, vdorë, bdorë, xborë, borë `snow' is a translated Germanic cognate.

Albanian ndë- `below, low' + (*bherō) `fallen' = Swedish nederbörd `snowfall' (nedan `below' + börd `descent, fall (birth, descent, ancestry, lineage, parentage)' = German niederschlagsmenge (nieder-schlagsmenge).

Alb. abbreviated (*nde-bor) zborë `snow': rum. zbura `fly, fly out, flight, flit, tower, flash, career, sweep, hover, sail, dart, dash, flee, fleet, slip, glide', zbor `flight, soar, soaring, fly, flying, race, volitation, gliding, towering'.

Latvian birt `to snow (*fall, descend)' : Latvian: bḕrt `scatter' from Old Church Slavic: bь rati `gather, select' [verb], berǫ : Polish zbór `(church) gathering' : Russian sobór `church, assembly, meeting'

Also alb. borë `(fallen) snow' : Latvian birt `to pour, fall, rain, snow, hail' : Hungarian porhó n. `snow'.

Altaic etymology :

Protoform: *pŏ̀ru

Meaning: `to snow, rain'

Turkic protoform: *bora-

Mongolian protoform: *boruɣa

Tungus protoform: *pur-

Korean protoform: *pora

Japanese protoform: *pùr-

Note: Poppe 21, Ozawa 288-289, ОСНЯ 1, 188-189, АПиПЯЯ 69. Cf. *boru, a contamination with which should explain Mong. *b- (one would expect *h- with low tone and shortness).

Kaus. *bhōrei̯ō in gr.-alb. bonj, pass. bonem from mating of the mares and cows, eig. `make bear, make pregnant', and dzbonj (etc) `chase away, drive out, drive away' (*`make fall away, make flee'); mbarë `good, lucky', barrë `load' (*bhornā, compare got. barn n. `kid, child'); mberat `pregnant', bark `belly' etc, bar `grass, herb' (*bhoro- `yield');


Maybe alb. (*brauk) barku `belly' derives from Root / lemma: bhreu-s-1 : `to swell' (see below).

bir `son' (*bher-, compare got. baur `son'), bijë, gr. cal. bilë `daughter' (with diminutive suffix -ëlë, -ëjë) : ags. byre `son';


Maybe alb. l/r are mere allophones as in alb. gjarpën, gjalpër `snake'.

burrë (*baur) `man, husband' (compare to meaning ahd. baro `man, husband'; alb. basic form *bhornos, reduplication-stem besides got. barn); presumably also mburr `praise', mbur̄em `boast, brag, be proud'.

Maybe kurd. bere `offspring'

Lat. ferō, ferre `to bear, bring, carry; to bring forth, produce; to bring to a place or a person, fetch, offer; to bear away, carry off; to bear along, move forward, put in motion. Transf., to move, impel, carry away; without object, to lead, tend' (as gr. φέρω only present system), umbr. fertu `you shall bear' etc, volsk. ferom `bear, carry', marruc. ferenter `they are carried, they are born' (compare from compound ad-, afferō: got. atbaíra; efferō: ἐκφέρω, air. as-biur); ferāx `fertile';

Lat. ferculum `a frame, litter, bier, tray; of food, a course or dish', praefericulum `wide offering vessel'; *fertor `the bearer', assumed from fertōrius `a sedan which serves for carrying' and = umbr. ař-fertur, arsfertur `the priest of some particular god'; fertilis `fertile', pöl. fertlid Abl. Sg.; -fer in compound secondary instead of -for `bearing, carrying, bringing'; forda f. `pregnant' (do- extension of Adj. *bhoró-s `bearing, carrying', s. WH. I 527); fūr `thief' (= gr. φώρ, s.o.; to lat. ū s. WH. I 569);

fors Nom. (= idg. *bhr̥tis), forte Abl. `chance, luck' = pöl. forte Pl. `chance, hap, luck, fate, fortune';

fortūna `chance, fate, lot, luck, fortune. Transf., lot, condition, state, mode of life; property, possessions' (from tu-stem *bhr̥-tu-s).

Note: common lat. ph- > f- shift.

Air. 1. Sg. biru, -biur, 3. Sg. berid `bear, carry', as-biur `tell', do-biur `give', cymr. cymeraf `take' etc; mir. bert m. `bundle, load', f. `feat, dead, act, plan, birth' etc, birit `sow' = Old Indian bháranti `bearing, carrying';

air. mir. breth and (eig. Dat. Akk.) brith, breith (Gen. brithe `carrying, parturition (Verbaln. to biru); birth; judgement' (*bhr̥tā); cymr. bryd `thought, notion' (rather *bhr̥tu- as *bhr̥ti-, s. Lewis-Pedersen 345), corn. brys `thought, notion', brys `womb'; gall. uergo-bretus Office title, whether for *-britos;

ir. barn `judge', cymr. bret. barn `judgement' (probably *bhornos, compare above alb. burre; Pedersen KG. I 51 nimmt -r̥̄-, i.e. e, an);

air. brāth, gen. -o `court', cymr. brawd `judgement', corn. bres ds., bret. breut `address to the jury; summation; summing up; plea', Pl. breujou `the assizes of justice, judgments of a court of law', gall. Brātu-spantium PN, βρατουδε `from judgment' (*bherǝ-tu-); gall. *com-boros `the amassed', out of it mhd. kumber `rubble, heap of rubble', nhd. Kummer.

Got. baíran `bear, carry, bring, beget, spawn, to give birth to children' (bērusjōs `parents');

aisl. bera `bear, carry, bear, endure, bring, produce, give birth to children', ags. ahd. beran `bear, carry, beget, spawn, to give birth to children', nhd. gebören;

got. aisl. ahd. as. barn, ags. bearn `kid, child'; got. barms `breast', schwed. dan. barm `breast, lap', aisl. baðmr `bosom', ahd. as. barm `lap', ags. bearm ds. (= gr. φορμόςö s. S. 137); ahd. baro `man, husband';

schwed. mdartl. björe (*ƀeron-), bare (*ƀaron-) `(carrying, i.e.) luck-bringing magical creature'; aisl. Pl. barar, barir, bǫrur `barrow, bier', ags. bearwe, engl. barrow, ostfries. barwe, ndl. berrie `barrow, bier';

lengthened grade ahd. -bāri, nhd. -bar (e.g. fruchtbar = bearing fruit, bearing, carrying), ags. bǣre (wæstmǣre `fertile'), aisl. bǣrr `capable for carrying, bearable';

ahd. as. bāra, ags. bǣr f. `barrow, bier' (also aisl. bāra, mengl. mnd. bāre `wave'ö perhaps here as `the lifting one', compare below the group from ahd. burian `soar, rise');

zero grade got. baúr `the born', aisl. burr, ags. byre `son'; got. gabaúr n. `money collected from people, (φόρος), tax', gabaúr m. `feast, festival' (to gabaíran `collect, gather'), mhd. urbor, urbar f. n. `interest of a property', m. `tax-payer'; ahd. bor f. `upper space, height', ahd. in bor(e) `at the height, upwards', mhd. enbor(e), nhd. empor, ahd. burian, mhd. börn `raise, uplift'; here obd. borzen `overhang' = ags. borettan `swing' (germ.*-ati̯an), in addition nhd. Börzel under purzeln; ahd. giburian, mhd. gebörn `occur, happen, close juridically, to be due', as. giburian, ags. gebyrian, aisl. byrja `be proper, befit, be suitable', aisl. byrja also `begin', eig. *`lift, raise';

Maybe alb. buronj `begin, gush, spring, originate'

ags. byre, gebyre m. `favorable occasion, opportunity', got. gabaúrjaba adv. `willing, fain, yearning', gabaúrjōÞus `lust, desire'; from the concept of `aroused, lifted, high' arose from the strengthening sense of ahd. bora-, e.g. in bora-tall `very tall, very high', next to which o-grade as. bar- in barwirdig `very solemn, honorable, noble'; presumably also aisl. byrr m., ags. byre `favorable wind', mnd. bore-los `without wind' as `(the ship) bearing, carrying'.

Got. gabaúrÞs f. `birth, parentage, ancestry, gender, sex', aisl. burðr m. `carrying, parturition, birth', byrð f. `birth', ags. gebyrd f., ahd. giburt, as. giburd `birth', also `fate, destiny' (=Old Indian bhr̥tí-ḥ, lat. fors); got. baurÞei `burden, load', ahd. burdī f. `burden', *bhr̥ti̯ōn-: -tīn; aisl. byrdr, ags. byrÞen, byrden ds.

Old Church Slavic berǫ, bьrati (bъrati) `gather, collect, take', skr. bȅrēm brȁti ds., russ. berú bratь ds. etc (slav. *bъrati derived from an older *bъrti after the preterite stem bsl. *birā-), Old Church Slavic brěmę `load, burden', skr. brȅme, russ. mdartl. berémja, ač. břiemě (*bherǝ-men-), Old Church Slavic sъ-borъ `congregation, meeting'; Church Slavic brěždа `pregnant', russ. berëžaja `pregnant (from the mare)', skr. brȅda ds. from cows (*bherǝ-di̯ā), in forms similarly lat. forda; Old Church Slavic brašьno `dish, nourishment, food' see under bhares- `barley'.

Lit. bérnas `youngling; farm laborer', alit. `kid, child', lett. bę̄̀rns `kid, child'; probably lett. bars `heap, bulk, mass'.

Here with specialization on delivering the seminal grain: transitive lit. beriù, bėriaũ, ber̃ti `strew, distribute' (from grain, then also from flour, ash, cinder etc), lett. beṙu, bèrt ds., in ablaut intransitive lit. byrù, biraũ, bìrti `strew, distribute, fall out', lett. bir̃stu, biru, bir̃t `fall out, fall off, drop', etc.

Toch. А В pör- `bear, carry, bring, get, fetch', perhaps also in A kos-preṃ `how muchö' ku-pre `if', töpreṃ `if', tāpör(k) `yet', whether to gr. ὄ-φρα ... τό-φρα `as long as' (see129).

About hitt. bar-aḫ-zi `hunts, scuds, chases' s. Pedersen Hitt. 185.

Specht will restore here also (Dekl. 148), with i- and u-forms, ags. briḫd, bird `young bird', germ. brū-tis `wife, woman, bride', Old Indian bhrūṇá- `embryo', lett. braũna, čеch. brnka (*bhru-nka) `placenta, afterbirth'. S. but under bh(e)reu- `gush, well up, soak'.

References: WP. II 153 f., WH. I 483 f., 527, 569, 865, 866, Trautmann 31, E. Hermann Stud. Bait. 3, 65 f.

Page(s): 128-132

Root / lemma: bher-2

English meaning: to boil, swell; to get high

German meaning: etwa `aufwallen', von quellendem or siedendem Wasser (also vom Aufbrausen beim Göhren, Kochen, as well as vom fire) `sich heftig bewegen'

Note: often with m- forms; also as heavy basis bherǝ- : bhr̥̄-, bh(e)rēi-, bh(e)rī̆-. compare bher-6.

Material: Old Indian bhuráti (*bhr̥̄-é-ti) `moves, shrugs, jerks, flounces, flounders', Intens. jár-bhurīti ds.; also: `flickers, from fire'; bhuraṇyáti `shrugs, jerks, is restless; sets in violent movement, stirs, stirs up' with m-forms Old Indian bhramati, bhrāmyati `wanders around, turns round',

bhramá-ḥ `whirling flame, whirlpool', bhŕ̥mi-ḥ `movable, nimble; whirlwind' (see under aisl. brimi etc); bhū́rṇiḫḥ `violent, angry, irate, wild, keen, eager', might be based as *bhr̥̄ni- likewise on the heavy basis;

here probably av. avabaraiti `streams from', uzbarǝnte `they stream forth (ö)', barǝnti ayąn `during one day, where it squalls, storms'.

From gr. πορφύ̄ρω (*πορφυρι̯(ω) `boils up, surge up, be in restless stir' (: Old Indian járbhurīti); presumably also φύ̄ρω `mix up, mix' (if originally from bubbling up from cooking; basic form *bhori̯ō with u- colouring conditioned by the labial of the reduction vowel), wherefore φύρδην `chaos, in a mess', φυρμός `perplexity', φυράω `mix, mingle, stir chaos, knead, bewilder'.

About lig. and ven. names see under.

Alb. burmë `fully ripe' (*fully cooked) from *bhormo-.

Maybe alb. burim `spring, bubbling up', buronj `to spring, bubble'

From Lat. probably fretum -i `n. a strait, sound, estuary, firth, channel; the sea in gen., usually plur.; fig., disturbance, turmoil', fretus, -ūs m. `a strait; an interval, difference (surging of the sea, esp. strait, stream, foaming, heat)', fretāle `frying pan';

fermentum `leaven, sourdough, yeast; a kind of beer. Transf. anger, passion,' (: ags. beorma, engl. barm, nd. barme, from which nhd. Burme `brewer's yeast'); also fervēre S. 144;

Air. topur, nir. tobar `wellspring' (*to-uks-boro-), mir. commar = cymr. cymmer `confluence' (*kom-bero-); lig. FlN Comberanea; mir. fobar `wellspring, subterranean stream, brook' = cymr. gofer `stream, brook', bret. gouver ds. (*u[p]o-bero-), cymr. beru `drip, trickle', mbret. beraff `flow', gall. FlN Voberā, frz. Woevre, Voivre etc; with m-forms kelto-lig. aquae Bormiae, GN Bormō, hisp. PN Bormāte, FlN Borma, dak. PN Βόρμανον, ven. FlN Formiō (but gall. GN Borvō belongs to bhereu- `boil'). Über mir. brēo `flame' see under.

Ags. beorma m. etc (see above); from of a root form *bh(e)rē- : bh(e)rō-: ahd. brādam m. `breath, breeze, heat', mhd. brādem `haze, mist', nhd. Brodem, ags. brǣð `haze, mist, breath, breeze, blow' (engl. breath), aisl.brāðr `stormy, hot tempered, hasty', brāð `tarred wood, creosoted', brāðna `melt', intrans., ahd. brātan, ags. brǣdan `fry'; ablaut. mnd. bröien `singe, brood', mhd. bröejen, bröen, nhd. bröhen, ags. brōd f., engl. brood `brood, breed, breeding'; mhd. bruot f. `heat, Brut', ahd. bruoten `brood'; unknown origin are ahd. brāto m. `soft eatable meat' (Braten previously are reinterpreted mhd. time to `roasted meat'), nhd. Wildpret, anord. brādo `calf', late lat. borrows brādo `ham', ags. brǣde m., aisl. brāð `raw meat'.

Beside the very productive root form bhereu- (see there) has to be recognized probably also bh(e)rē̆i-, bh(e)rī̆- . These are based on Old Indian jar-bhurī-ti, gr. *φυρι̯-ω, *πορφυρι̯-ω (see above);

with m-formant presumably gr. φριμάω, φριμάσσομαι `makes me anxious, spring, snort' common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation;

aisl. brimi `fire'; mengl. brim `blaze, glow', probably also aisl. brim n. `surf, surge, breakers', ags. brim n. `sea'; in bröhen, Brodem, braten present meaning colouring turns again in norw. prim `a kind of cheese prepared from sour wheys under strong cooking' (also nhd. Brimsenköse), mdartl. also brīm `ds.; also crust, sediment of boiled down liquid' (nhd. bair. Brimsen, Brinzen `what settles with the mush browned in the frying pan'); besides with formant -u̯o- very probably ahd. brīo, mhd. brī(e), ags. brīw `porridge, mash' (as `*south, hot; cooked'), briwan `cook'; moreover also mir. brēo `flame' (*bhriḫu̯o-).

An s-extension perhaps in Old Indian bhrḗṣati `wavers, staggers, sways', norw. mdartl. brīsa `blaze, flare, shine, show off; set on fire', brīs `fire, flame', brisk `agile, lively, alert, awake, smart'.

Maybe alb. brisk `sharp, smart, keen; knife'

References: WP. II 157 f., WH. I 482 f., 546, 865.

See also: compare the related root forms bhereg- `cook', bhereu- `boil', bhreus- `to swell', bhrīg-, bhrūg- `cook, fry'

Page(s): 132-133

Root / lemma: bher-3

English meaning: to scrape, cut, etc.

German meaning: `with einem scharfen Werkzeug bearbeiten, ritzen, schneiden, reiben, spalten'

Material: Old Indian (gramm.) bhr̥nāti (ö) `injures, hurts, disables' = npers. burrad `cuts, slices'; av. tiži-bāra- `with with sharp edge' (= arm. bir, compare also alb. boríg(ë); perhaps here Old Indian bhárvati `chews, consumes' (av. baoirya- `what must be chewed', baourva- `chewing') from *bharati is transfigured through influence of Old Indian cárvati `chews up'.

Arm. beran `mouth' (originally `cleft, fissure, orifice'), -bir- `digging up' in getna-, erkra-, hoɫa-bir `digging up the ground, ransacking' (*bhēro-), in addition brem (*birem) `digs out, hollows out, drills out', br-ič̣ `hack, mattock, hoe'; bah, Gen. -i `spade' (*bhr̥ḫti-, perhaps *bhorti- = russ. bortь), bor, Gen. -oy `scurf'.

Gr. *φάρω `split, cut up, divide' (φάρσαιv σχίσαι EM), φαρόω `plow' = ahd. borōn), φάρος n. `plough, plow (ö)', m. = φάρυγξ (*bheros), ἄφαρος `plowed up', φάραγξ `cliff with gaps, gorge, ravine, gulch' (in addition rom. barranca `gorge, ravine, gulch', M.-L. 693a), jon. φάρσος n. `ragged piece, deal, portion'; here perhaps φάσκος m. `moss villus' as *φαρσ-κος. A k-extension in φαρκίς `wrinkle', φορκός `wrinkly' Hes.

Perhaps here (IJ. 13, 157 n. 100) mak. βίρροξ δασύ (compare βιρρωθῆναι ταπεινωθῆναι Hes.), basic meaning `wool villus', gr. lesb. thess. βερρόν δασύ, dor. βειρόν ds., βερβέριον `shabby dress', lat. burra f. `straggly garment', respectively `wool', reburrus `wool with bristling hair'.

Alb. bie (2. pl. birni, Imp. bierɛ) `knocks, hits, plays an instrument; whether (hit there)'.

Alb. brimë `hole' (*bhr̥ḫmā), birë ds. (*bhe), geg. brêj, tosk. brënj `gnaw, argue'; britmë `September and October' (if eig. `harvest, autumn', due to *bhr̥ḫti- `the reaping'); bresë `bitter root, chicory' (`bitter' = `incisive'; -së from -ti̯ā, boríg(ë)) `splinter, chip' (*bhēr- m. form. -igë).

Maybe alb. mbresë `print, shock' [common alb. b- > mb- shift]

Lat. feriō, -īre `to strike, knock, smite, hit; esp. to strike dead, slay, kill; colloq., to cheat' (see also WH. 1481 to ferentārius `a light-armed soldier, skirmisher'). About forma `form, figure' s. WH. I 530 f.

forō, -āre `to bore, pierce' (meaning as ahd. borōn, but in ablaut different; denominative of *bhorā `the drilling'), forāmen `hole, opening, aperture'; forus, `the gangway of a ship; a block of seats in the theater; plur., tiers of cells in a beehive'; but forum (alat. also forus) `an open square, marketplace' not as `space surrounded by planks' here (umbr. furo, furu `forum'); see under dhu̯er-.

Mir. bern, berna f. `cleft, gap, slit', bernach `cleft';

probably also mir. bairenn `cliff piece' (in addition bairnech `mussel plate'); air. barae, mir. bara (Dat. barainn) `rage, fury', bairnech `angry, irate', cymr. bar, baran `rage, fury'.

Aisl. berja (preterit barða) `hit, bump, poke', berjask `fight', bardage `battle', ahd. berjan, mhd. berjen, bern `hit, knock, knead', ags. bered `low-spirited' (germ.*ƀarjan = slav. borjǫ), afries. ber `attack'; mhd. bā̆r f. `balk, beam, bar, gate, barrier, enclosed land' (: lat. forus, -um), engl. bar `bar, gate, barrier', aisl. berlings-āss `balk, beam'; germ. is probably (different Wartburg I 260) also mhd. barre `balk, beam, bar, bolt' and rom. family of frz. barre, barrière etc (-rr- from -rz-);

*ƀaru-ha, -ga- `castrated pig' (perhaps with slav. *borv-ъ based on *bhoru-s `castrated animal' and ending in -ha-: -ga- after *farha- `pork, pig' extended) in: ahd. barug, barh, nhd. Barg, Barch (Borg, Borch);

Maybe alb. bariu `shepherd, herdsman (of pigsö)' phonetically equal to lett. baṙu, bãru, bãrt `scold, chide' (see below) not a truncated gr. βώτωρ `herdsman, shepherd'.

ags. bearg, bearh, engl. barrow, aisl. -bǫrgr `a castrated boar' (in addition also aisl. val-bassi `wild boar' as *barhḫsḫanö s. Falk-Тоrp under basse N.); ahd. as. borōn, ags. borian, aisl. bora, -aða `bore' (see above); ahd. bora `borer', ags. bor, byres ds.; aisl. bora `hole' (auga-, eyra-bora).

Lit. bãras, lett. bars `grain swath, strip of cut grain'; lit. barù (and bariù), bárti `scold, chide, vilify', refl. `be quarrelsome', lett. baṙu, bãru, bãrt `scold, chide' (== sl. borjǫ);

Maybe alb. (*bárti) bërtas `scold, yell, scream', mbaroj, `extinguish, finish, end, make ashamed', alb. geg. (*bar-) mbare, marre `shame, sth to be scolded', [common alb. b- > mb- shift].

lit. barnìs (Akk. bar̃nį) `quarrel' (=Old Church Slavic branь); lit. burnà `mouth' = bulg. bъ́rna `lip' (basic form *bhornā, compare above ir. bern and to meaning arm. beran).

Here with balt. forms ž: lett. ber̂zt `rub, scour, rub, clean', intrans. birzt `crumb, spall, crumble', bìrze `sowing furrow', lit. biržìs f. `field furrow'.

With of a basic meaning `notch': lit. bùrtai Pl. `lot, fate, charm, spell' = lett. burts `mark, token, sign the magician, alphabetic letter', lit. bùrti `conjure, perform magic', lett. bur̃t `conjure, perform magic', bur̃tains `perform wood-carving notch'; gr. φάρμακον `remedy, magical cure, magic potion; philtre' (probably not idg.) has nothing to do with it.

Old Church Slavic borjǫ, brati `fight' (frequent reflexive), russ. borjú, borótь `subjugate, prostrate', refl. `fight', poln. dial. bróć się `wrestle, struggle'; Old Church Slavic branь `fight, struggle', aruss. boronь `fight, struggle', russ. bóronь `forbid', čech. braň `weapon, armament, armor' under likewise, russ. za-bór `fence, plank fence';

maybe alb. (*broñ) mbronj `defend', mburojë `shield, armour' : poln. broñiæ `defend' [common alb. b- > mb- shift]

(as lat. forus on the concept `board' rejecting: compare russ. alt. zaborolo `wooden town wall, scaffold, trestle', čech. zábradlo `handrail, parapet' under likewise); russ. boroná `harrow', and with slav. -zda-forms slav. *borzda in Old Church Slavic brazda, russ. borozdá `furrow';

maybe alb. brazda `furrow' a Slavic loanword.

russ. bórov `hog, castrated boar, (dial.) boar, castrated bull', skr. brâv `sheep, cattle', mdartl. `castrated pig', slovak. brav `castrated pig', poln. mdartl. browek `fattened boar, porker' (see above germ. *ƀaruha-); *bъrtъ `drilling, cavity' (*bhorti-) in russ. bortь `the hollow of the tree in what bees have nested' etc.

References: WP. II 159 f., WH. I 481 f., 537, 865, 866, Trautmann 27, Möhlenbach-Endzelin 354.

See also: compare the related root forms bheredh-, bhrēi- (bhrēig-, -k-, see there also about bherĝ-), bhreu-, bhreu-q-, -k̂- `cut, clip', bhreus- `break, rupture', bherug- `gullet'.

Page(s): 133-135

Root / lemma: bher-4

English meaning: to roar, buzz, onomatopoeic words

German meaning: in Schallworten `brummen, summen' under likewise

Note: An extension at most in *bherem- `drone, grumble' and treated onomatopoeic words under bherg- `drone, grumble'.

Material: Arm. boṙ, -oy `bumblebee, hornet', to redupl. Old Indian bambhara-ḥ (unbel.) `bee', bambharāliḥ (unbel.) `fly', bambhā-rava-ḥ `the bellow of the cows';

gr. πεμφρηδών `kind of wasp' (formation as ἀνθρηδών, τενθρηδών); similarly also skr. bȕmbar `bumblebee', klr. bombàr `cockchafer'.

Maybe alb. (*bȕmbar) bumballa `bumblebee' [common alb. r > l shift]

Here at least partly (with fractured reduplication) also the bsl. group from lit. barbė́ti `clang, clink', birbiù, -iaũ, bir̃bti `buzz', burbiù, burbė́ti `drone, grumble, bubble, seethe' under likewise;

Maybe alb. (burbut-) burbuqe `ladybug' a compound *burbiù `bug' + kuqe `red' (lat. coccinus `scarlet-colored') = ital. coccinella `ladybug, ladybird'

klr. borborósy Pl. `sullen talk', skr. br̀blati `chat' under likewise, in which indeed the meaning `talk indistinctly, stammer' would go back to the group of Old Indian barbarāḥ etc (see *baba).

References: WP. II 161 f., Trautmann 39 f.

Page(s): 135-136

Root / lemma: bher-5

English meaning: shining; brown

German meaning: `glönzend, hellbraun'

Note: extensions of bher- `shine, appear, seem', bhereĝ-, bherek̂- `shine'.

Material: Old Indian bhallaḫḥ, bhallakaḫḥ bhallū̆ka-ḥ `bear' (-ll- from -rl-); ahd. bero, ags. bera `bear' (*bheron-), aisl. biǫrn ds. (*bhernu-, whose u as like ū̆ from Old Indian bhallū̆ka-ḥ from the stem *bheru- derive might) = ags. beorn `warrior, chieftain';

aisl. bersi `bear' (s as in Fuchs : got. fauhō, Luchs: schwed. lo); ablaut. lit. bė́ras, lett. bę̃rs `brown (from horses)';

gr. φάρη νεφέλαι Hes.ö (*φαρε[σ]a or *φάρεFαö If finally exactly to:) φαρύνει λαμπρύνει Hes., φρύ̄νη, φρῦνος `toad, frog' (*`the brown one' = ahd. brūn); if φάρη as `blanket of clouds' to 7. bher-ö

nep. bhuro `brown' (*bhrūro-); ahd. mhd. brūn `gleaming, brown', ags. brūn, aisl. brūnn ds.; russ. mdartl. bryně́tъ `white, gray shimmer', changing through ablaut bruně́tъ ds. (*bhrou-no-ö) and (from *bhr-ono-, -eno-) russ.-Church Slavic bronъ `white; varicolored (from horses)', russ. bronь (and mdartl. brynь), klr. breńíty `become dun (of a dull or dingy brown colour, dull greyish-brown), ripen', Old Church Slavic brьnije (brenije) `ordure, excrement', slov. br̂n `river mud';

Old Indian babhrú-ḥ `reddish brown; giant ichneumon kind', av. bawra-, bawri- `beaver'; lat. fiber, fibrī `beaver' (also feber s. WH. I 491; probably i has changed for e, as also) kelt. (only in names): *bibros, *bibrus in gall. PN and FlN Bibracte, abrit. VN Bibroci, mir. VN Bibraige (*bibru-rīgion), PN Bibar (*Bibrus) besides *bebros in gall. FlN *Bebrā, frz. Bièvre; Bebronnā, frz. Beuvronne, Brevenne etc; ahd. bibar, ags. beofor (oldest bebr), mnd. bever, aisl. biōrr ds. (urg. *ƀeƀru-); compare also nhd. FlN Bever, old Biverna;

lit. bẽbras, bãbras, bẽbrus ds. (dissimil. debrùs under likewise), Old Prussian bebrus ds.; about lit. bruĩšis etc `roach (lat. Leuciscus rutilus)', Old Prussian brun-se ds. s. Specht Dekl. 120;

slav. *bebrъ in poln. FlN Biebrza, russ. etc bobr (zur o-reduplication s. Berneker 47; besides perhaps *bъbrъ in skr. dȁbar `beaver' and aruss. bebrjanъ `from beaver fur'). compare noch lat. fibrīnus `of the beaver, beaver', volsk. Fibrēnus brook name, av. bawraini- `of the beaver'; ahd. bibarīn, gall. bebrinus (Schol. Iuv.), lit. bẽbrinis ds.;

toch. B perne, A parno `luminous', therefrom B perne, A paröṃ `majesty, grandeur'.

References: WP. II 166 f., WH. I 490 f., Van Windekens Lexique 93.

See also: compare further bhel-1 with similar meaning.

Page(s): 136-137

Root / lemma: bher-6

English meaning: to roast, cook

German meaning: `rösten, backen, kochen'

Note: with g-extensions, before partly i-, u- vowels; it derived from bher-2 `move violently, surge, boil, cook'.

Material: 1. forms without -i- or -u-: bhereĝ-:

Old Indian bhurájanta `cooking' (*bhereg-); bhr̥jjáti `roasts', bhr̥ṣ̌ṭaḫḥ `roasted', bhrā̆ṣ̌ṭra-ḥ `frying pan', bharj(j)ayati `roasts, bröt', bharjana-ḥ `roasting',

mpers. barštan ds.; presumably is *bhraž- (*bhoraž- in bhurájanta), *bharž- ar. root form and ind. -jj only in present *bhr̥ĝ-skō, from which derived *bhr̥()sĝō, as gr. μίσγω from *μιγ-σκω.

Lat. fertum `a kind of sacrificial cake', alat. ferctum (firctum, s. Ernout Él. dial. lat. 165), participle *fergō `bake', osk. fertalis `the ceremonies where sacrificial cakes were needed'.


common lat. ph- > f- shift.

Maybe alb. (**fergō) fërgonj `bake'; also truncated alb. (*fertalis) fli `sacrifice'.

Lit. bìrgelas `basic, simple beer', lett. bir̂ga `haze, mist, fume, smoke, coal smoke', Old Prussian aubirgo `cookshop', birgakarkis `a big soup ladle' (with ven.-illyr. g).

2. forms with i, ei:

Npers. biriš-tan `fry', barēzan `oven', bal. brējag, brijag `fry', npers. biryān (*briĝāna-) `roasted', pam. (shifted) wirzam `roast' under likewise (Iran. *briǰ-, *braij-).

Lat. frīgō, -ere `roast, dehydrate, desiccate', umbr. frehtu `cooked, boiled'.

3. forms with ū: bhrūĝ-:

gr. φρύ̄γω `roast, dry', φρῡκτός `roasted; fire brand', φρύ̄γανον `dry wood', φρύ̄γετρον `vessel for roasting barley'.

It is extraordinary that in the onomatopoeic words of gr. φρυγίλος `a bird', lat. frigō `(*roast, parch) squeak', poln. bargiel `mountain titmouse', russ. berglézъ `goldfinch' the distribution of the forms with u, with i, and without either, is the same like in the words for cook.

References: WP. II 165 f., WH. I 486 f., 548 f.

Page(s): 137

Root / lemma: bher-7

English meaning: to weave

German meaning: `flechten, weben'ö

Material: Hom. φᾶρος = att. φάρος n. (*φαρFος) `kerchief, cloth, canvas, fabric, velum, cover'; φάραι (ö) ὑφαίνειν, πλέκειν Hes.; φορμός `pannier, mat';

lit. burva `a kind of garment', lett. burves Pl. `small sail' (-u̯- suffix as in gr. *φαρFος), lett. buras ds., lit. bùrė `sail'. S. to vocalism Walde Streitberg-Festschrift 176.

References: WP. II 164, Specht Dekl. 182.

Page(s): 137-138

Root / lemma: bhes-1

English meaning: to smear, spread

German meaning: `abreiben, zerreiben, ausstreuen'

Material: Old Indian bábhasti `chews up', 3. Pl. bápsati; bhásma- n. `ash' resulted through verbal extensions of psā(i)-, psō/i/-, psǝ(i)-, psī- in Old Indian psāti `consumes', gr. ψάω, ψάιω `rub', ψαίρω ds., ψαύω `touch', ψηνός `baldheaded', ψῆφος f., dor. ψᾶφος `pebble', ψήχω `rub off', ψώχω `grind, pulverize';

Ψόλος, φέψαλος `soot, smoke'; ψάμμος f. `sand, beach, seaside' from *ψάφμος, compare ψαφαρός `frail, breakable' (*bhsǝ-bh-) and lat. sabulum `coarse sand, gravel' (*bhsǝ-bhlo-ö);

with already idg. sporadic alteration of anlaut. bhs- to s-: gr. ἄμαθος `sand' (= mhd. samt); through various contaminations ἄμμος and ψάμαθος ds., in addition ψῑλός `naked, bald, bleak, bare', ψιάς `drop' etc;

alb. fšiṅ, pšiṅ, mëšiṅ `sweep, thresh';

Maybe alb. fšeh, pšef, mšef `cover, hide, sweep away' [common alb. p- > mp- > m- phonetic mutation].

lat. sabulum `sand' (see above), wherewith EM. 881 compares arm. awaz ds.;

mhd. samt (*samatho-) besides ahd. sant `sand' (*samtho-, germ. sanda-, out of it finn. santa);

toch. A pös- `diffuse, sprinkle' (ö).

References: WP. II 189, Boisacq 48, 1074, Kluge11 s. v. Sand, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 328 f., 676; Specht Dekl. 255, 325, Van Windekens Lexique 91.

Page(s): 145-146

Root / lemma: bhes-2

English meaning: to blow

German meaning: `hauchen, blasen'

Note: probably onomatopoeic words

Material: Old Indian bábhasti `blows', bhástrā f. `bellows, hose', bhasát f. `rump', bháṁsas n. `abdominal part';

gr. ψύ̄-χω `blow' (to suffix s. Hirt Idg. Gr. 3, 256), ψῡχή `breath, breeze, soul'.

Here probably ψύ̄-χω `cools off' (originally through blast), ψῦχος `coldness', ψῡχρόs `cold' etc in spite of Benveniste BSL. 33, 165 ff.; after Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 329 onomatopoeic, as also ψίθυρος `lisping'.

References: WP. II 69, WH. I 477, Boisacq 1075, Uhlenbeck Old Indian W. 186, 198.

Page(s): 146

Root / lemma: bheudh-, nasal. bhu-n-dh-

English meaning: to be awake, aware

German meaning: `wach sein, wecken, beobachten; geweckt, geistig rege, aufmerksam sein, erkennen, or andere in addition veranlassen (aufpassen machen, kundtun, gebieten; darbieten)'

Material: Themat. present in Old Indian bṓdhati, bṓdhate `awakened, awakens, is awake, notices, becomes aware', av. baoδaiti `perceives', with paitī- `whereupon direct one's attention' (= gr. πεύθομαι, germ. *biuðan, abg. bljudǫ); Aor. Old Indian bhudánta (= ἐπύθοντο), Perf. bubṓdha, bubudhimá (: germ. *bauð, *buðum), participle buddhá- `awakened, wise; recognized' (== gr. ἀ-πυστος `ignorant; unfamiliar');

maybe alb. (*bubudhimá) bubullimë `thunder (*hearö)' [common alb. : lat. dh > ll shift].

Old Indian buddhí- f. `understanding, mind, opinion, intention' (= av. paiti-busti- f. `noticing', gr. πύστις `investigating, questions; knowledge, tidings'); causative in Old Indian bōdháyati `awakens; teaches, informs', av. baoδayeiti `perceives, feels' (= abg. buždǫ, buditi, lit. pasibaudyti); of state verb in Old Indian budhyátē `awakes, becomes aware; recognizes', av. buiδyeiti `becomes aware', frabuidyamnō `awakening'; Old Indian boddhár- m. `connoisseur, expert' (: gr. πευστήρ-ιος `questioning'); av. baoδah- n. `awareness, perceptivity', Adj. `perceiving' (: hom. ἀ-πευθής `unexplored, unacquainted; ignorant'); av. zaēni-buδra- `keenly watching' (:abg. bъdrъ, lit. budrùs); av. baoiδi- `fragrancy' (= Old Indian bṓdhi- `plenary cognition');

gr. πεύθομαι and πυνθάνομαι (: lit. bundù, air. ad-bond-) `to learn; to find out, perceive, watch' (πεύσομαι, ἐπυθόμην, πέπυσμαι), πευθώ `knowledge, tidings'; πύστις, πεῦσις f. `question';

maybe alb. (*peus) pyes `ask questions', pyetje `question' : gr. πύστις, πεῦσις f. `question'.

Proto-Slavic form: pytati: Old Church Slavic: pytati `examine, scrutinize' [verb], Russian: pytát' `torture, torment, try for' [verb], Slovak: pytat' `ask' [verb], Polish: pytać `ask' [verb], Serbo-Croatian: pítati `ask' [verb], Slovene: pítati `ask' [verb], Other cognates: lat. putāre `cut off branches, estimate, consider, think' [verb].


From Root / lemma: bheudh-, nasal. bhu-n-dh- : `to be awake, aware' derived Root / lemma: peu-1, peu̯ǝ- : pū̆- : `to clean, sift', Root / lemma: peu-2 : `to research, to understand' (see below).

cymr. bodd (*bhudhā) `free will, approval', corn. both `volition' (: aisl. boð), air. buide `contentedness, gratitude'; here also air. ad-bond- `announce, promulgate', uss-bond- `call off, cancel, refuse' (e.g. Verbaln. obbad); zero grade air. robud `admonishment', cymr. rhybudd `warning', rhybuddio `warn' (: russ. probudítь `awaken');

got. anabiudan `order, dispose', faúrbiudan `forbid', aisl. bjōða `offer, bid, give recognition', ags. bēodan, as. biodan, ahd. biotan `offer, bid, proffer', nhd. bieten `gebieten, verbieten, Gebiet eigentl. `(area of) command'; aisl. boð n., ags. gebod n., mhd. bot n. `commandment', ahd. etc boto `summoner', ahd. butil (nhd. Böttel), ags. bydel `summoner, court servant'; got. biuÞs, -dis `table, desk'; aisl. bjōðr, ags. bēod, ahd. beot, piot `table, desk; dish', eig. `which is offered on tray' (in addition also ahd. biutta, nhd. Beute `kneading or dough trough; dough tray; hutch, beehive').

With ū (compare Hirt Idg. Gr. II 96): got. anabūsns f. `commandment' (*-bhudh-sni-), as. ambūsan f. ds., ags. bȳsen f. `model, example', aisl. bȳsn n. `wonder, miracle' (from `*warning'), bȳsna `foretoken, warn';

lit. bundù, bùsti `wake up, arouse' and (without nasal infix) budù, budė́ti `watch', bùdinu, -inti `waken, arouse, revive', budrùs `watchful, wakeful'; causative baudžiù, baũsti `punish, curse, chastise, castigate'; refl. `intend, mean, aim' (*bhoudhḫi̯ō), baũdžiava `socage, compulsory labour',

lit. bauslỹs `command, order', lett. baũslis `command', lett. bauma, baũme `rumor, defamation' (*bhoudhḫm-), lit. pasibaudyti `rise, stand up, sally', baudìnti `to cheer up, liven up; ginger up, encourage, arouse, awaken one's lust', Old Prussian etbaudints `to raise from the dead, reawaken'.

Themat. present in abg. bljudǫ, bljusti `look after; protect, beware, look out', russ. bljudú, bljustí `observe, notice' (about slav. -ju from idg. eu s. Meillet Slave commun2 58).

causative in abg. buždǫ, buditi `waken, arouse, revive', russ. bužú, budítь ds. (etc; also in russ. búdenь `workday', probably eig. `working day' or `day for corvée'); stative verb with ē-suffix in abg. bъždǫ, bъděti `watch', perfective (with ne-/no- suffix as in gr. πυνθ-άνο-μαι, wo -ανο- from -n̥no-, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 700) vъz-bъnǫ `awake' (*bhud-no-, shaped from Aor. of type gr. ἐπύθετο, etc, s. Berneker 106 f.;

Maybe truncated alb. (*zbudziæ) zgjoj `awaken' : Old Church Slavic: ubuditi `awaken' [verb]; vъ zbuditi `awaken' [verb]; phonetically equal alb. -gj- : poln. -dzi- sounds budzić `awaken, arouse' [verb], perf. zbudziæ `awaken, arouse'.

also about skr. bȁdnjī dân `Christmas Eve', bȁdnjāk `wooden log which one lays in the in the fire of Christmas Eve' etc), abg. sъ-na-bъděti `φυλάττειν'; abg. bъdrъ `πρόθυμος; willing, ready', bъždrь ds., russ. bódryj `alert, awake, smart, strong, fresh', skr. bàdar `agile, lively'.

Toch. В paut-, A pot `honour'ö (Van Windekens Lexique 87).

References: WP. II 147 f., Feist 41, 97, Meillet Slave commun2 202 f.

Page(s): 150-152

Root / lemma: bheug-1

English meaning: to flee, *be frightened

German meaning: `fliehen'

Note: after Kretschmer (Gl. 30, 138) to bheug(h)-2 (av. baog- in the intransitive meaning `escape')

Material: Gr. φεύγω (Aor. ἔφυγον, Perf. πέφευγα) `flee', φυγή f. (= lat. fuga) `escape, a fleeing, flight, running away', hom. φύζα (*φυγι̯α) ds., Akk. φύγα-δε `to flight, to flee' of consonant-stem *φυγ-;

perhaps in ven. PN Φεύγαρον (Westdeutschl.) `refuge, escape castle';

lat. fugiō, fūgī, -ere `to take to flight, run away; to pass away, disappear. Transit., to flee from, run away from, avoid; with infin.,'fuge quaerere', do not seek; of things, to escape the notice of a person', fuga f. `flight, running away; esp. flight from one's country, exile, banishment. Transf., swift course, speed; avoiding (with genit.)';

Note: common lat. ph- > f- shift

maybe alb. fugonj `run'

lit. bū́gstu, bū́gau, bū́gti intr. `be frightened', kaus. baugìnti `jemd. get a fright', baugùs `timorous'.

References: WP. II 144, 146, WH. I 556 f., Kretschmer Gl. 30, 138.

Page(s): 152

Root / lemma: bheug-2, bheugh-

English meaning: to clear away, free

German meaning: `wegtun, reinigen, befreien'; intrans. `sich retten'

Material: Av. baog-, bunja- `loosen, escape, they escape before' (bunjainti `release, escape', būjayamnō `discarding', bunjayāt̃ `he escapes'), būjim Akk. `cleaning, purification', ązō-buj- `from need of releasing', baoxtar- `liberator';

Maybe alb. (*bhujissa) bujis, bujisa aor. `bloom', bujë `fuss' : pāli bhujissa- `released, free'

pehl. paz. bōxtan `escape, release', södbal. bōjag `unbolt, loosen, unbind', as pers. Lw. arm. bužem `heal, save, relieve', boiž `healing, deliverance'; pāli paribhuñjati `purifies, cleans, sweeps from'; but pāli bhujissa- `released (from previously slave)' = Old Indian bhujiṣyà- `free, independent' (Lex., in the Lit. as `exploitable', Subst. `maid; maidservant, servant'), to bheug-4.

Illyr. PN Buctor, ven. Fuctor (: av. baoxtar-), Fugonia, vhuχia, vhou-χontios, etc


Here illyr. Buctor : ven. Fuctor : av. baoxtar- `liberator' proves that av. a satem language can display centum characteristics. Alb. follows the same illyr. - ven. pattern in -tor,-tar suffixes. The tendency in illyr. -g- > -ct- shows the intermediary phase from centum to satem in later alb.: common alb. -g(h)- > -th-, -k- > -t- phonetic mutation in the middle of the word.

Got. usbaugjan `sweep up, sweep out, sweep away', nhd. dial. Bocht `rubbish, crap, muck'; moreover probably also mhd. biuchen `cook in lye', originally `clean', būche f. `lye' (with secondary ablaut).

The doubleness germ. gh : ar. g- also by bheugh- (nhd. biegen): bheug- (Old Indian bhujati etc) `bend'. Probably identical with it.

References: WP. II 145, WH. I 560, Kretschmer Gl. 30, 138.

Page(s): 152

Root / lemma: bheug-3, bheugh-

English meaning: to bow

German meaning: `biegen'

Material: Old Indian bhujáti `bends, pushes away', bhugná-ḥ `bent, curved', bhúja-ḥ `arm', bhujā `twist, arm', bhōgáḫḥ `coil of a snake; ring' (: ahd. boug); niṣḫbhuj- `push', Pass. `flunk, escape; to get away';

perhaps bierher alb. butë `soft, flexible' from *bhug(h)-to- `pliable';

common alb. -g(h)- > -th-, -k- > -t- phonetic mutation in the middle of the word.

ir. fid-bocc `wooden bow', probably also bocc `tender' (`*pliable'), nir. bog `soft' (from*buggo-), KZ. 33, 77, Fick II4; for abret. buc `rotten, putrid; loose, crumbling, friable, flabby', pl. bocion `rotten, decayed', nbret. amsir poug `soft, mild weather', allowed to expect brit. -ch- = ir. -gg-, Pedersen KG. I 161 considers borrowing from Ir.

In Germ. *bheugh-: got. biugan, ahd. biogan `bend', aisl. participle boginn `bent, curved'; ablaut. ags. būgan `be bent', with fram `flee';

Kaus. aisl. beygja, as. bōgian, ags. bīegan, ahd.bougen, nhd. beugen; aisl. biūgr `bent, curved', ahd. biugo `curve'; aisl. bogi, ags. boga (engl. bow), ahd. bogo, nhd. Bogen (ahd. swibogo `Christmas candle arcs (which literally means „an arched buttress“)' from *swi[bi-]bogo); perhaps in addition got. bugjan `let out, lend, buy', aisl. byggia `obtain a wife', ags. bycgan, as. buggian `buy' (compare nhd. dial. `be bent by something' = `acquire, take'); in addition probably lett. bauga and baũgurs `hill'.

Intensive (with intensification) germ. *bukjan in mhd. böcken, schweiz. bukche; mnd. bucken, afries. buckia `to stoop, bend forward, bend down' (Wissmann Nom. postverb. 171, 181).

References: WP. II 145 f., WH. I 556, Feist 96.

Page(s): 152-153

Root / lemma: bheug-4

English meaning: to enjoy, *consume, bite

German meaning: `genießen'

Material: Old Indian bhuṅktḗ (with Instr., newer Akk.) `enjoys', compare bhunákti, bhuñjati `grants pleasure, enjoys, consumes', bubhukṣā `hunger', bhṓga-ḥ `enjoyment';

about Old Indian bhujiṣyà- see above under bheug-2;

common Old Indian ĝh- > kṣ- phonetic mutation

alb. bungë f., bunk, bungu m. `kind of edible oak fruit' (as `nourishing or nutritious tree', post-verbal = `food granter');


Alb. bungë `kind of edible oak fruit' : with -u- grade alb. (*beuka) buka `bread' : phryg. βεκός `bread', actually `crumb' prove that from an extended Root / lemma: b(e)u-1, bh(e)u- : `expr. sound of hitting' derived Root / lemma: bheg-, bheng- : `to break', Root / lemma: bhenĝh-, bhn̥ĝh- (Adj. bhn̥ĝhú-s) : `thick, fat', Root / lemma: bheug-1 : `to flee, *be frightened', Root / lemma: bheug-2, bheugh- : `to clear away, free', Root / lemma: bheug-3, bheugh- : `to bow', Root / lemma: bheug-4 : `to enjoy, *consume, bite' as taboo words.

lat. fungor `to occupy oneself with anything, to perform, execute, undergo, usually with abl.; absol. in special sense, to be affected, suffer', with Akk., later Abl., dēfungor `to perform, discharge, have done with, bring to an end, survive', perfungor `to perform fully, execute, discharge; to go through, endure'.

References: WH. I 565 f., Wackernagel Synt. I 68, Jokl L.-k. Unters. 179.

Page(s): 153

Root / lemma: bheu-, bheu̯ǝ- (bhu̯ā-, bhu̯ē-) : bhō̆u- : bhū-

English meaning: to be; to grow

German meaning: ursprönglich `wachsen, gedeihen'

Note: (probably = `to swell'), compare Old Indian prábhūta-ḥ with Old Indian bhūri-ḥ etc under *b(e)u-, bh(e)u- `inflate, bloat, to swell',

from which `originate, become, be', farther `where usually one is, live'; i̯o/ī- present bhu̯-ii̯ō, bhu̯-ii̯e-si, bhu̯-ī-si etc as verb `be' supplies often paradigm of es- `be'; extended root bheu̯ī-, bhu̯ēi-

Material: Old Indian bhávati `is, there is, happens, prospers, becomes' = av. bavaiti `becomes, originates; happens; will be', Old pers. bavatiy `becomes'; Fut. Old Indian bhavišyáti,

av. būšyeiti participle būšyant- `will come into existence' (latter = lit. bū́siu, Church Slavic byšęšteje `τὸ μέλλον',

compare gr. φύ̄σω); Aor. Old Indian ábhūt (= gr. ἔφῡ) and bhúvat, Perf. babhū́va, participle Perf. Akt. babhūvā́n, f. babhūvúšī (: gr. πεφυώς, πεφυυῖα, lit. bùvo, Old Church Slavic byvati), Inf. bhávitum, Absol. bhūtvā́ (compare lit. bū́tų passive `to be', Old Prussian būton Inf.);

Old Indian bhūtá-ḥ, av. būta- `become, being, Old Indian bhūtá-m `entity' (: lit. búta `been', aisl. būð f. `dwelling', russ. bytъ `entity, way of life, lifestyle'; with gr. φυτόν, air. -both `one was', both f. `cottage', lit. bùtas `house'); prá-bhūta-ḥ `rich, numerous', npers. Inf. būdan `be';

Old Indian bhū́ti-ḥ, bhūtí-ḥ f. `being, well-being, good condition, prospering; flourishing' (av. būti- m. `name daēva'ö = Old Church Slavic za-, po-, prě-bytь, russ. bytь, Inf. Old Church Slavic byti, lit. bū́ti; with gr. φύσις).

Pass. Old Indian bhūyate; kaus. bhāvayati `brings into existence; looks after and nurtures, refreshes', participle bhāvita-ḥ also `pleasantly excited, in good mood' (=Old Church Slavic iz-baviti `free, release'), with ders. lengthened grade bhāvá-ḥ `being, development, becoming, affection' (: russ. za-báva f. `conversation, entertainment') besides bhavá-ḥ `development, welfare, salvation';

bhavítram `world' (ablaut. with gr. φύτλᾱ `nature, gender, sex' and lit. būklà `dwelling' etc, and with germ. *buÞla- and *bōÞla-, next to which with formants -dhlo- čech. bydlo); bhavana-m `the development, becoming; dwelling, house (: alb. bane, but mir. būan `unwavering, steadfast' from *bhou-no-), ablaut. bhúvana-m `entity';

Old Indian bhū́- f. `earth, world', bhū́mī, bhū́miḥ-, av. ap. būmī-, npers. būm `earth', Old Indian bhū́man- n. `earth, world, being' (= gr. φῦμα), bhūmán- m. `fullness, wealth, bulk, mass, wealth'; pra-bhú-ḥ `mighty, salient';

s-stem bhaviṣ-ṇu-ḥ `becoming, thriving', bhū́ṣati `makes thrive, strengthens', bhūṣayati `bedecks, blazons', bhūṣana-m `amulet, jewellery'.

The ī-basis *bh(e)u̯ī-, as it seems, in Old Indian bṓbhavīti Intens. and bhávī-tva-ḥ `future'; about iran. -forms see under.

Arm. bois, Gen. busoy `sprout, herb, plant', busanim `burst forth, spring forth', further perhaps boin, Gen. bunoi `nest' (*bheu-no-), zero grade bun, Gen. bnoi `stem'.

Thrak. PN Κασί-βουνον.

Gr. φύω (lesb. φυίω as osk. fuia, see under), `beget' (Aor. ἔφυσα), φύομαι `become, grow' (compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I, 686), probably neologisms to Aor. ἔφῡν `was, became', besides (neologismö) ἐφύην; φυτόν `growth, plant, kid, child, ulcer', φυή `growth; nature, character', φῦμα n. `plant, growth, ulcer', φύσις `nature', φῦλον n. `stem, gender, sex, kind of', φῡλή `municipality and from it located department' (:Old Church Slavic bylъ, l-participle bylьje); lengthened grades *bhō[u]lo- perhaps in φωλεός, φωλειός `hiding place, nook, bolt-hole, den of wild animals', φωλεύω `sleep in a cave', φωλίς `a sea fish which is hidden in the mud'; but aisl. bōl n. `a camp for animals and people', is not from bōl (probably from *bōÞla) `dwelling' miscellaneous word; in addition zero grade schwed. mdartl. bylja, bölja `small nest' from *bulja.

As 2. compound-part in ὑπερφυής, ὑπερ-φ[*F]ίαλος. About φῖτυ see under.

Illyr. VN Buni, PN Bοῦννος (: alb. bunë).

Messap. βύριον οἴκημα, βαυρία οἰκία Hes. (:ahd. būr);

alb. buj, bûj (*bunjō) `stay, stay overnight, spend the night', burr, burrë (*buro-) `man, husband', banë `dwelling, abode, residence, half dilapidated house' (*bhou̯onā: Old Indian bhavanam), banoj `stay, dwell'; bun(ë) `chalet' (*bhunā); perhaps also bōtë `earth, bottom, world, people' (*bhu̯ā-tā or *bhu̯ē-tā).


Clearly alb. banë, Illyr. VN Buni, PN B οῦννος, Messap. βύριον, Thrak. PN Κασί - βουνον prove that illyr. was indeed a satem language displaying also centum characteristics. The common alb. shift t > nt > n inherited from illyr. and thrak. proves the common origin of those Balkan lang.

Lat. fuī (alat. fūī) `I have been' from *fū-ai, rearrangement of older Aor. *fūm (= gr. ἔ-φῡν, Old Indian á-bhūt `he was'), fu-tūrus `future, about to be', forem `would be', fore `will be', alat. Konj. fuam, fuat `be' (*bhuu̯ām; compare lit. bùvo `was' from *bhu-u̯āt), besides -bam (*bhu̯ām : osk. fu-fans `they were', air. -bā `I was') in legē-bam etc, compare lat.-fal. -bō (from *bhu̯ō) in amā-bō, alat. venī-bō, fal. pipafÞ etc with dem ir. b- future (do-rīmiub `I will enumerate' from *to-rīm-ī-bu̯ō), intensive futāvit `he/she was';

osk. fu-fans `they were', fu-fens `they were', fusíd = lat. foret, fust (= umbr. fust) `he/she will be' and `he/she will have been', fuid Konj.-Perf. `he/she will have been'; but about futír `daughter' s. Vetter Gl. 29, 235, 242 ff. against WH. I 557, 867;

umbr. fust `he/she is going to be', furent `they are going to be' (*fuset, *fusent), fefure `they will have been', futu `you will be' (fuu̯etōd or fu-tōd).

A i̯o/ī- present to root *bhū̆- : *bhu̯-ii̯ō lies before in lat. fīō, fī̆erī `of persons and things, to be made, come into existence; with predicate, to become, be appointed; with genit., to be valued at; of actions, to be done; of events, to happen', the ī instead of is correlated to fīs, fīt (*bhu̯-ī-si, *bhu̯-ī-ti); osk. fiiet (*bhu̯ii̯ent) `they become, they are made', umbr. fito `good deeds, benefitsö', fuia `he/she will become, he/she will be made', fuiest `he/she will make' (*bhu-i̯ō besides *bhu̯ii̯ō as in lesb. φυίω, see above);

lat. nominal formation only in dubius `doubtful; act., wavering; in opinion, doubting; uncertain; as to action, hesitating, irresolute; pass., uncertain, doubted, doubtful, dangerous, critical' (*duḫbhu̯ḫii̯o-s `of double form, consisting of two parts', compare umbr. di-fue `split into two parts' < *du̯i-bhui̯om), probus `good, excellent, fine; morally good, upright, virtuous, right' (*pro-bhu̯os : Old Indian praḫbhú- `salient, superb'), osk. amḫprufid `dishonest, lacking probity', prúfatted `has shown, marked, indicated, manifested, proven', umbr. prufe `upright, honest, proper'; lat. superḫbus `haughty, exalted, proud; arrogant, overbearing; brilliant, splendid'.

About lat. moribundus see Niedermann Mél. Meillet 104, Benveniste MSL. 34, 189.

Air. baë `benefit' (*bhu̯ǝ-i̯om), būan `steadfast, good' (*bhouno-, in addition cymr. bun `queen, wife, woman'); mir. baile `home, place' (*bhu̯ǝ-lii̯o-);

air. buith `be' (originally Dat. of ā- stem both < *bhutā = cymr. bod, corn. bos, bret. bout = air. both f. `cottage', cymr. bod f. `dwelling': lit. bùtas `house'; moreover also mir. for-baid `burial cloth, shroud, barrow, bier'), Fut. -bīa `will be' (= lat. fiat), preterit 1. Sg. (*bhu̯ām), 3. Sg. boī (*bhōu̯e), Pass. preterit -both `one was' (*bhu-to-); the paradigm of the verb Subst. and the copula exists from forms von es- and bheu-, e.g. hat 1. Sg. present Konj. air. bēu (*bh-esō) the anlaut related to bheu-;

air. -bīu `I care to be', mcymr. bydaf, corn. bethaf, mbret. bezaff ds. (*bhu̯ii̯ō = lat. fīō, besides *bhu̯ī- in air. bīth, mcymr. bit `([Imperative Future Tense] you will be' = lat. fīt);

gall. PN Vindo-bios (*-bhu̯ii̯os), compare cymr. gwyn-fyd `luck' (`weiße world', byd), air. su-b(a)e `pleasure, joy' (*su-bhu̯ii̯o-), du-b(a)e (du = gr. δυς-) `mourning, grief';

got. bauan `stay, dwell, inhabit', ald bauan `lead a life', gabauan `erect a house' (*bhōu̯ō, vocalism as in Old Indian bhāvayati, bhāva-ḥ, slav. baviti),

aisl. būa (bjō, būinn) `stay, dwell, bring in good condition, equip', ags. būan and buw(i)an (būde, gebūen) `stay, dwell, farm' (besides ags. bōgian, afries. bōgia `stay, dwell', phonetic type based on got. stōja from *stōwijō and ō as initial vowel), ahd. būan (būta, gibūan) `stay, dwell, farm', nhd. bauen; aisl. byggja `live at a place, farm, populate', later `construct, build' (from *buwwjanö*bewwjanö); aisl. n. `domicile, household', ags. n. `dwelling' (Pl. by n. of i-stem *būwi- = aisl. bȳr m. `dwelling, residential site, court'; similarly lit. būvis `permanent stay, residence'), ahd. , mhd. , Gen. būwes m., seldom n. `tilling of the field, dwelling, edifice', nhd. Bau;

aisl. būð f. `dwelling, tent, cottage'; aschwed. bōÞ, mnd. bōde, mhd. buode and būde `cottage, tent', nhd. Bude (*bhō[u]-); mnd. bōdel `fortune', bōl `estate', ags. bold and botl n. `dwelling, house', *byldan, engl. to build `to build', afries. bold and bōdel `house, household utensil, household appliance, property' (*bōÞla- from idg. *bhō[u]tlo- and *buÞla-, compare lit. būklà and westsl. bydlo), also aisl. bōl n. `dwelling' [(see above also to bōl `den (of animals)'];

aisl. būr n. `pantry, zenana (part of a house for women in India)', ags. būr m. `cottage, room', ahd. būr m. `house, cage', nhd. (Vogel-)Bauer, whereof ahd. nāhgibūr, ags. nēahgebūr, nhd. Nachbar, engl. neighbour and ahd. gibūr(o), mhd. gebūr(e), then būr, nhd. Bauer `farmer, peasant';

ags. bēo `I am' (*bhu̯ii̯ō = lat. fīō, air. -bīu), besides bēom, ahd. bim etc after *im from *es- `be', as ahd. bis(t), ags. bis after is.

Perhaps got. bagms, ahd. bōum, ags. bēam `tree' from *bhou̯(ǝ)mo- `φυτόν' and aisl. bygg n. `barley', as. Gen. PL bewō `sowing, seed, yield', ags. bēow n. `barley' (*bewwa-) as `the tilled, the sown'.

Maybe alb. (*bēam) bimë `plant', alb. geg. ba `ripen, become', bafsh sub. `be!'

Lit. bū́ti (lett. bût, Old Prussian boūt) `be', bū́tų Supin. `to be' (Old Prussian būton Inf.), participle bū́tas `been', Fut. bū́siu (lett. bûšu), preterit bùvo `he was' (compare also buvó-ju, -ti `care to be' and Old Church Slavic Iter. byvati); Opt. Old Prussian bousai `he is', preterit bēi, be `he was' (from an expanded basis with -ēi-);

lit. bū̃vis m. `being, life', buvinė́ti `stay here and there a while', Old Prussian buwinait `live!';

lett. bûšana `being, entity, condition', Old Prussian bousennis `state, condition'; lit. bùtas, Old Prussian (Akk.) buttan `house';

lit. būklas (*būtla-) `nest, den, hideout, lair of wild animals', pabū̃klas `tool, utensil; apparition, ghost', būklà, būklė̃ `presence (of mind), dwelling', ostlit. búklė ds. (see above; in addition buklùs `wise, sly, cunning');

Old Church Slavic byti `become, be', lo- participle bylъ `been' (therefrom bylьje `herb; healthy herb', compare to meaning φυτόν), Aor. bě `was' (*bhu̯ē-t);

Imperf. běaše, Fut. participle Church Slavic byšęšteje, byšąšteje `τὸ μέλλον', Kondiz. 3. Pl. bǫ (*bhu̯ā-nt), participle za-bъvenъ `forgotten', besides miscellaneous participle *byt e.g. in russ. zabýtyj `forgotten', compare in addition also Subst. russ. bytъ `entity, way of life, lifestyle' under likewise, apoln. byto `nourishment, food', Old Church Slavic iz-bytъkъ `affluence, remnant' under likewise, bytьje `the existence';

maybe alb. mbetje `residue, leftover', mbetet `is left', mbeturinë `trash' [common alb. b- > mb- shift]

Old Church Slavic zabytь `oblivion', pobytь `victory', prěbytь `abode, residence', russ. bytь `entity, creature; facts (of the case), facts (of the matter), matter of fact'; present Old Church Slavic bǫdǫ `become, γίγνομαι', as Fut.: `will become' (if lat. Adj. in -bundusö);

maybe reduced alb. (*bǫdǫ) do Future: `will become'

Kaus. Old Church Slavic izbaviti `free, release' under likewise (: Old Indian bhāva-yati, compare to vocalism also got. bauan and Old Church Slavic zabava `stay, activity, pastime'); čech. bydlo `whereabouts, dwelling', poln. bydɫo `cattle' (from *`state, prosperity, possessions').

Maybe alb. (*zabava) zbavit `entertain, (*pastime)'

Perhaps here (Pedersen Toch. 2281) toch. В pyautk-, A pyotk-, AB pyutk- `come into being', med. `bring about'.

From the basis bh(e)u̯ī-:

npers. Imp. bīḫd `be!'; Old pers. Opt. bī-yāh is placed by Wackernagel KZ. 46, 270 = Old Indian bhū-yā́-ḥ, -t;

gr. φῖτυ n. `germ, sprout, scion, shoot' = φίτῡμα, φῑτύω `produce, sow, plant';

lit. alt. bit(i) `he was', also Kondit. 1. Pl. (sùktum-) bime; lett. biju, bija `I was, he was' (lett. bijā- extended from athemat. *bhu̯ī-); ablaut. Old Prussian bēi, see above;

maybe alb. bujis `germ, sprout, scion, shoot, bloom'

Old Church Slavic Kondit. 2. 3. Sg. bi `were, would be' (*bhu̯īḫs, *bhu̯ī-t), wherefore secondary 1. Sg. bi-mь with primary ending.

References: WP. II 140 f., WH. I 375 f., 504 f., 557 f., 865, 867, EM. 812 f., 1004 f., Trautmann 40 f., Feist 83 f.

Specht will place (KZ. 59, 58 f.) under citation of gr. φάFος `light, salvation' = Old Indian bhava- `blessing; benediction, boon, salvation', φαε-σί-μβροτος etc unsere root as *bhau̯ǝ-, not as *bheu̯ǝ-. see also above S. 91.

Page(s): 146-150

Root / lemma: bhēgh- : bhōgh-

English meaning: to resist

German meaning: `streiten'

Material: Gall. bāgaudae `insurgent guerilla' (suffix as in alauda, bascauda), air. bāgaid `fights, brags, threatens', bāg f. `fight, struggle', mcymr. bwyo (*bāgi̯-) `hit',

kymwy (: mir. combāg ds.) `fight', -boawc = mir. bāgach `warlike'; whether cymr. bai `fault, error', beio `rebuke' in addition belongs, it must contain idg. *bhǝgh-;

ahd. bāgan, (bāgēnö) `squabble, quarrel', aisl. bāga, bǣgja `oppose, resist', ahd. bāga `quarrel, fight', as. bāg m. `vainglory, boastfulness', mhd. bāc, -ges m. `loud yelling, quarrel', aisl. bāge, bāgi `adversary', bāgr `difficult, hard, sullen, obstructive'; it is presumed whether germ. family is not borrowed from Kelt., ablaut germ. ē : kelt. ā (idg. ō);

lett. buôztiês `be angry' (*bhōgh-), Endzelin KZ. 52, 118;

russ. bazel `bawler, crier', bazgala `malicious' (Scheftelowitz KZ. 54, 242);

perhaps toch. В pakwāre `evil, bad' (Adverb), A pkönt `hindrance' (*bhǝgh-), Van Windekens Lexique 85, 96.

References: WP. II 130.

Page(s): 115

Root / lemma: bhē̆2, bhō̆

English meaning: a kind of particle

German meaning: Partikel especially the Beteuerung and Hervorhebung

Material: Av. , bāt̃, bē, bōit̃ (the latter, as lit. beĩ, probably with strengthening particle *id) particles of the protestation and emphasis, δa `yea, in truth' (`if Old Indian baḍhamö'Bartholomae Wb. 953);

Maybe emphasizing particle alb. bah `absolutely not' [alb. preserved the old laryngeal -ḫ]

arm. ba, bay emphasizing particle;

got. ba conditional particle (here iḫba, iḫbai `if, becauseö' Konj. `that not', ni-ba, niḫbai `possibly not yetö', Konj. `if not', ja-bai `if', ahd. ibu, oba, mhd. ob(e) `if, whether' etc, s. Kluge11 422);

lit. bà `yes, of course; certainly; sure', ben `at least, not only but also', ostlit. bè (= Old Prussian bhe), beĩ (see above) `and', bè, bà, bès, baũ interrogative particle, Old Prussian beggi `for'; Old Church Slavic (etc) bo `for', iḫbo `καὶ γάρ', uḫbo `also', neḫboḫnъ `for indeed'; changing through ablaut klr. ba `yes, of course; certainly; sure', čech. poln. ba `trusted, yea, in truth'.

maybe alb. po `if, whether, yes' : poln. ba `yea, in truth'.

References: WP. II 136, Trautmann 22 f.

Page(s): 113

Root / lemma: bhē- : bhō-

English meaning: to warm, fry, *bath

German meaning: `wörmen, rösten'


From Root / lemma: bhē- : bhō- : `to warm, fry, *bath' : Root / lemma: bhoso-s : `naked' derived from Ossetic: bægnæg [adj] `naked' of Root / lemma: nogʷ-, nogʷod(h)o-, nogʷ-no- : naked' common Indo Iranian m-/n- > bh phonetic mutation : gr.-illyr. βαγαρόν χλιαρόν .

Material: Ahd. bāen, bājan, nhd. böhen (*bhēi̯ō) `warm with covers, bake bread', in addition with idg.-to-suffix aisl. bađ `steam bath', as. bath, ags. bæÞ, ahd. bad `spa, bath'; in addition also norw. dial. bara `clean with warm water', schwed. bara `warm up'.


The cognates aisl. bađ `steam bath', as. bath, ags. bæÞ, ahd. bad `spa, bath' are created according to alb. phonetic laws -g > -th, -d; maybe euphemistic alb. mbath `get dressed, wear', zbath `get naked, get undressed (to have a bathö)'

Root / lemma: bhē- : bhō- : `to warm, fry, *bath' : Root / lemma: bhoso-s : `naked' as in: Ahd. bar `naked, bare' (*baza-), nhd. bar, ags. bær, aisl. berr `naked, bare'; lit. bãsas, lett. bass, Old Church Slavic bosъ `barefoot'; arm. bok `barefoot' (*bhosoḫgo-).

thereof with g-extension bhōg-

in gr. φώγω `roast, fry', ags. bacan, bōc, ahd. bahhan, aisl. baka, -ađa ds., mhd. sich becheln `bask, get warm, lounge in the sun'; besides with intensive consonant-sharpening ahd. backan, nhd. backen;

gr.-illyr. βαγαρόν χλιαρόν; Λάκωνες Hes. (v. Blumental IF. 49, 175);

In addition perhaps (as `burning desire, ardent wish') russ. bažítь, bažátь `wish, want, whereupon starve', čech. bažiti, perf. zabahnouti `ask for something'.

References: WP. II 187.

Page(s): 113

Root / lemma: bhidh-

English meaning: vessel, cauldron

German meaning: `Topf, Köbel, Faß'


From an early root *bhegh- [common illyr. -gh- > -dh- phonetic mutation] derived Root / lemma: bhedh-2 : `to bow, bend', Root / lemma: bhadh-sko- : `bundle, heap' and in -i grade Root / lemma: bhidh- : vessel, cauldron (see above).

Material: gr. πίθος n. `barrel, vat, cask, wine cask', πιθάκνη, att. φιδάκνη ds., lat. fidēlia (*fides-liā) `earthenware vessel, pot, pan'; presumably aisl. biða f. `milk tub', norw. bide n. `butter tub' (*bidjan-), bidne n. `vessel'.

There from lat. fiscus `a basket; hence a money-bag, purse; the state treasury; under the empire, the emperor's privy purse', fiscina `a small basket' (from *bhidh-sko-) may be reconstructed for its family a basic meaning `twisted vessel', it belongs probably to a root bheidh- `bind, flax, wattle, braid'.

References: WP. II 185, WH. I 492 f., 506.

Page(s): 153

Root / lemma: bhili-, bhilo-

English meaning: harmonious, friendly

German meaning: `ebenmößig, angemessen, gut, freundlich'

Material: Mir. bil (*bhiḫli-) `good', gall. Bili- in PN Bili-catus, Bilicius etc, ahd. bila- `kind, gracious', newer bili-, bil- in 1. part of people's name; ags. bile-wit `simple, just, innocent' = mhd. bilewiz, bilwiz `fairy demon, ghost' (eigentl. `good ghost'); ahd. bil-līch `proper'; abstract noun *biliÞō in as. unbilithunga `unconventionality', mhd. unbilde, unbilede n. `wrong; injustice, the incomprehensible', nhd. Unbilde, to adjective mhd. unbil `unjust; unfair', substantivized schweiz. Unbill. About nhd. Bild see under bhei(ǝ)- `hit', wherefore R. Loewe (KZ. 51, 187 ff.) will place also Unbilde .

Gr. φίλος `dear, friend' etc places Kretschmer (IF. 45, 267 f.) as pre Greek to lyd. bilis `be'; against it Loewe aaO., which explains the stress of the first syllable from the vocative.

References: WP. II 185, Kluge11 under Bild, billig, Unbill, Weichbild.

Page(s): 153-154

Root / lemma: bhlagh-men-

English meaning: priest

German meaning: `Zauberpriester'; originally probably Neutrum `Opferhandlung'


Root / lemma: bhlagh-men- : `priest' derived from the extended Root / lemma: bhlaĝ- : `to hit', meaning Aryan priests assumed they would gain the grace of gods through immolation.

Material: Air. brahmán- m. `magic priest', bráhman- n. `spell, charm, devotion'; messap. βλαμινι `priest'; lat. flāmen, -inis m. `the priest of some particular god, sacrificial priest' (not the old *-ēn).

Because of the numerous congruities in the religious terminology between the Italic and Indic this is equation of the preferred explanation of flāmen from *bhlād-(s)men, angebl. `sacrifice, immolation' (to got. blōtan `worship', an. blōta, ags. blōtan, ahd. bluozan `sacrifice', an. blōt n. `sacrifice, oblation' [-es-stem, compare finn. luote `chant, incantation' from proto germ. *blōtes], ahd. bluostar n. ds., etc). compare also Dumézil REtIE. 1, 377, still compares arm. baɫjal `strive after'.

Maybe alb. lut `chant, pray' : finn. luote `chant, incantation'

References: WP. II 209, WH. I 512 f., 865 f., Feist 100 f., 580 a.

Page(s): 154

Root / lemma: bhlaĝ-

English meaning: to hit

German meaning: `schlagen'

Material: Lat. flagrum `whip, scourge', flagellum ds. `a whip, scourge; the thong of a javelin; a young sprout, vine-shoot; plur. the arms of a polypus; fig. `the sting of conscience', with lengthened grade probably flāgitō, -āre `to entreat, ask, demand earnestly; to demand to know; to summon before a court of justice' (originally probably with blows and threats), flāgitium `a disgraceful action, shameful crime; shame, disgrace; meton., scoundrel, rascal' (originally `public castigation and suppression'; conflages `places exposed to all the winds, place blown by the winds' Paul Fest. 35 a appears a spoil for conflūgēs);

Maybe alb. flak `hurl'

aisl. and nnorw. dial. blaka, blakra `strike back and forth, fan, flutter, flap', aisl. blak `blow, knock', aisl. blekkja (*blakjan) `hit' (norw. `flicker'), schwed. mdartl. blökkta (*blakatjan), mndl. blaken `fan, flutter, shiver' (in Germ. phonetic coincidence with the family of aisl. blakra `blink, glitter, flash' etc, see below *bheleg- `shine'; so is e.g. norw. blakra `fan' as well as `shine').

Lit. blaškaũ and bloškiù (-šk- from -ĝ-sq-) `fling sidelong, travel here and there, run around here and there'.

References: WP. II 209, WH. I 511 f.

Page(s): 154

Root / lemma: bhlegʷ-

English meaning: to swell

German meaning: `sich aufblöhen, schwellen'

Note: extension v. `inflate, bloat'

Material: Gr. φλέψ, -βός f. `vein', φλεβάζοντες βρύοντες Phot.; ahd. bolca, bulchunna (*bhl̥gʷ-) `a round swelling; in water, a bubble'.

References: WP. II 215, WH. I 519 f.

Page(s): 155

Root / lemma: bhlei-2

English meaning: to swell

German meaning: `aufblasen, schwellen, strotzen, öberfließen'

Note: extension from bhel- ds.

Material: Norw. dial. bleime, aschwed. blēma `bleb on the skin' (compare norw. blöema ds. under bhel-, bh(e)-); dön. blegn(e) `vesicle' (*blajjinōn), ags. blegen f., engl. blain, mnd. bleine, older dön. blen(e), aschwed. blena `vesicle' (*blajinōn).

That gr. φλῑά: `door pillar, door post' eig. `(*tumid =) thick balk, beam' is required only of foreign confirmation (Prellwitz2 and Boisacq s. v.; basic form *bhlī-u̯ā or -sā); τὰ φλιμέλια `haematoma, effusion of blood' is corrupted from lat. flēmina `a bloody swelling or congestion of blood about the ankles'.

bhleis-: aisl. blīstra `blow, whistle'ö (compare got. -blēsan under bhel-, bh(e)l-ē-; new variation with i to the imitation of the bright toneö); perhaps serb. blîhām, blíhati `flood; spit; have diarrhea'; blîhnēm, blíhnuti `splash, spray', bulg. bličъ́, blíknъ, blíkvam `pours out of me, flows out' (if not as proto slav. *blychajǫ to u-variant from gr. φλύω etc).

bhleid- (presumably d-present *bhliḫdḫō).

Gr. φλιδάω `overflow of humidity, thereof swell up', ἔφλιδεν διέρρεεν Hes., διαπέφλοιδεν διακέχυται Hes., πεφλοιδέναι φλυκτανοῦσθαι Hes., φλοιδάω, -έω, -ιάω `ferment, seethe, boom, blaster', ἀφλοισμός `scum, froth, foam, slobber' (α- = `ἐν'); presumably also φλοῖσβος `surging of the sea, the tumult of fighting', πολύφλοισβος θάλασσα (*φλοιδσβος, forms after onomatopoeic words as κόναβος, ἄραβοςö); common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation

perhaps here mir. blāed `bellowing, braying, roar' (out of it cymr. bloedd ds.);

engl. bloat `to bloat, bulge, swell' (*blaitōn = φλοιδάω);

lett. blîstu, blîdu, blîzt and bliêžu, -du, -st `grow fat, put on weight'.

References: WP. II 210 f.

Page(s): 156

Root / lemma: bhleiq-

English meaning: to shine

German meaning: `glönzen'

Note: extension from bhlē̆i- (: bhel-) ds., as bhlē̆iĝ-.

Material: Ags. bǣlge (*blaigi̯ōn-) `gudgeon (type of freshwater fish)'; mnl. mnd. blei(g) and bleger, nhd. Bleihe, Blei `fish names'; besides mhd. blicke `carp',

nhd. Blicke (norw. dial. blekka, nhd. Blecke `dace (*white fish)' from the e-root bhleg-ö); in other meaning change (`shine : glance, look') aisl. blīgr `looking staringly and rigidly', blīgja `stare'

In addition russ. blëknutь `bleach, fade, wither, wilt', blëklyj `sallow, paled, faint, languid, wilted; faded, flaccid, withered', blëkotъ `fool's parsley, Aethusa cynapium', poln. blaknąć `fade, expire'.

References: WP. II 211.

Page(s): 157

Root / lemma: bhlendh-

English meaning: pale, reddish

German meaning: `fahl, rötlich'; `undeutlich schimmern'; `tröbe sein or machen' (also durch Umröhren of water etc); `irren, schlecht sehen'; `Dömmerung'

Note: It belongs probably to bhel-1.

Material: Old Indian bradhná-ḥ (*bhl̥ndh-no-) `reddish, dun';

germ. *blundaz (*bhl̥ndh-o) in mlat. blundus, ital. biondo, frz. blond, from which mhd. blunt, nhd. blond;

got. blinds `blind', aisl. blindr `blind, undistinguishable', as. ags. blind, ahd. blint `blind', also `dark, cloudy, dull, not obvious'; got. blandan sik `mingle, diffuse, intermingle', aisl. blanda `mix' (blendingr `mixture'), as. ags. blandan, ahd. blantan, mhd. blanden `mix, tarnish' (nhd. Blendling `hybrid, mongrel, half breed'); to germ. a compare the iterative-causative: ahd. blendan (*blandjan) `darken, blind', ags. blendan `blind' (: blandýtis, Old Church Slavic bląditi); aisl. blunda `close the eyes', blundr `slumber', mengl. blundren `stir, bewilder', nengl. blunder `be grossly mistaken, wander';

lit. blendžiù, blę̃sti `sleep; stir flour into soup, talk nonsense, become cloudy', lett. blendu, blenst `have poor eye-sight, be short-sighted'; lit. blandaũ̃s, -ýtis `low the eyes down, be ashamed', lett. bluôdîties `ds.; roam, be ashamed',

Maybe alb. geg. (*flenj) fl, tosk. fle `die, sleep'; [rare alb. ph- > f- phonetic mutation, found in gr. and lat.]

lit. blañdas `sleepiness, turbid weather, cloudiness', blandùs `dim, cloudy, thick (soup), murky; dark'; lit. blį́sta, blíndo, blísti `dim, dusky, cloudy, become dark; become cloudy, from water',

prýblindė (and prieblandà) `dusk, twilight'; here also bliñdė, blendìs, blùndė `sallow';

maybe alb. geg. blî, blini, tosk. bliri `linden tree' n/r stem

Old Church Slavic blędǫ, blęsti `err; wander; πορνεύειν', blędь `gossip, prank', slov. blé-dem, blésti `maunder, drivel, fantasize', ačech. blésti (2. Sg. bledeš) `maunder, drivel'; Old Church Slavic blǫdъ `debauchery, depravity, adultery', poln. bɫąd `mistake, delusion', Old Church Slavic blǫždǫ, blǫditi `err, indulge in debauchery', skr. blúdīm, blúditi `err, wander, cheat, deceive, spoil, caress' etc.

maybe alb. geg. blê, tosk. blenj `(*cheat), barter, buy' similar shift of the meaning in gr. ἤπαφον `cheat, barter, exchange'.

References: WP. II 216, 218, Trautmann 34 f., Endzelin KZ. 52, 112, Specht Dekl. 58, 117.

Page(s): 157-158

Root / lemma: bhles-

English meaning: to shine

German meaning: `glönzen'

Note: : up to now only in the Germ. provable extension from bhel- `shine'

Material: Mhd. blas `naked, bald, bleak, pallid' (nhd. blaß) n. `torch, burning candle', ags. blæse `torch, fire', engl. blaze `blaze, glow; white forehead spot',

ahd. blas-ros `horse with with a bright spot' (with a bright spot on the forehead), mnd. bles, blesse (*blasjō) `paleness', aisl. *bles- in blesōttr `marked with a white spot' and in compound on -blesi.

References: WP. II 217.

Page(s): 158

Root / lemma: bhleu-(k)-, (-s-)

English meaning: to burn

German meaning: `brennen'

Note: extension from bhel- `shine'.

Material: *bhleu-s- in gr. περι-πεφλευσμένος πυρί `blazed by the fire', ἐπέφλευσε, περιφλύ̄ω `sear all around'; aisl. blys n. `flame', ags. blȳsa m. `flame, torch', mnd. blūs `torch', ags. blyscon `blush', engl. blush.

*bhleuḫk- in mhd. bliehen `burning luminously', ahd. bluhhen.

The westslav. forms as čech. blýštěti `shimmer', blýskati `shine' (besides Old Church Slavic blъštati etc, see below *bhleiĝ-) are against it probably reshuffling after *lyskati, poln. ɫyskać `flash, shine' etc - meaning not direct accordingly, respectively only from a primordial meaning `shine' to justify, Trautmann GGA. 1911, 245 compares with mhd. bliehen: lit. blunkù, blù̀kti `become pale, lose one's color'.

References: WP. II 214.

Page(s): 159-160

Root / lemma: bhleus-

English meaning: weak, mild

German meaning: etwa `schlaff'ö

Note: Perhaps to bheleu-.

Material: Schwed. mdartl. bloslin `weak', norweg. blyr `mild, lukewarm', bløyra `weakling, wimp', nhd. schwöb. blūsche(n) `slow, idle': lit. apsi-blausti `despond, despair, become sad'.

References: WP. II 214.

Page(s): 160

Root / lemma: bhleu-

English meaning: to blow; to swell, flow

German meaning: `aufblasen (schnauben, bröllen), schwellen, strotzen, öberwallen, fließen'

Note: extension from bhel- `(inflate, bloat), swell up'

Material: Gr. φλέ(F)ω `to be full of, to abound with, to be bursting with, to be bristling, be brimful', Φλεύς (*Φληυς, lengthened grade), ephes. Φλέως (*ΦληFος) epithet of Dionysos as a vegetation God; presumably from the lushness of growth also att. φλέως, jon. φλοῦς `reed plant';

φλοίω (*φλοFι̯ω) `swell, to be full of, to abound with, to be bursting with, to be bristling, be in bloom, blossom', ὑπέρφλοιος `growing excessively' or `exceedingly succulent', Φλοῖος, Φλοία `epithet of Dionysos and the Kore as vegetation divinities' probably also φλοιός, φλόος `bark, husk';

changing through ablaut φλύω `surge up, bubble, chat; be fruitful', ἀποφλύειν ἀπερεύγεσθαι Hes. φλύος m. `gossip', φλύᾱξ `gossip, prank; buffoon';

lit. bliáuju, blióviau, bliáuti `roar, bellow, bleat', bliū́vauti `roar, bellow', lett. bl'aûnu, bl'aût ds.; Old Church Slavic bl'ujǫ, bl'ьvati `spit, vomit' (based on old preterite stem, compare lit. bliùvo from idg. *bhluu̯ā-); in addition perhaps also Old Prussian bleusky `reed' (would be correct in the meaning to gr. φλέως!).

With a s-extension nd. blöstern `violent blow, storm, pant, sniff, snort', engl. bluster `boom, blaster, rant, roister' and skr. bljuzgati `stream noisily, chat silly stuff'; also skr. blíhati etcö (see under bhlei-s-).

With dental formant: mhd. blōdern `chat, prate'ö (rather new onomatopoeic word; compare Kluge11 under plaudern); rather schweiz. bloder `big bubble etc', blodern `effervesce, surge, boil', nhd. Pluderhosen; perhaps skr. blútiti `speak absurd, speak inappropriate', Berneker 62; about ahd. blāt(t)ara `bubble' (*blē-drō-) s. S. 121;

with -d- (originally present formingö): φλυδάω `flows about, dissolves, become soft', φλυδαρός `muddy, sludgy, slushy, squashy, squishy, slobbery, sloppily', ἐκφλυνδάνειν `break open, from ulcers'.

g-extension bhleugʷ- (compare the root form bhlegʷ-):

gr. οἰνό-φλυξ `wine-drunken'; φλύζω `to bubble up, boil up, surge up, overflow, also with words'; φλυκτίς, φλύκταινα `bubble'; but πομ-φόλυξ `blister, shield hump' stays away;

lat. fluō, -ere, flūxi, flūctum, newer flūxum `to flow; of a solid object, to flow, drip with any liquid, stream, pour; of abstr. things, to proceed, issue, spread; of circumstances, to tend; of language, to flow; to sink, droop', flūctus, -ūs `current, wave, a streaming, flowing. Transf., commotion, disturbance', flūmen (*fleugsmen) `flowing water; hence a river, stream', conflūgēs alat. `confluence of two stretches of water', fluvius `river' (from present fluō from), flustra Nom. PL `calm (at sea)' (*flugstrom); if here (with nasalization) cymr. blyngu `become angry', blwng `angry, irate', bret. blouhi `rebuke'ö

References: WP. II 213 f., WH. I 519 f., Trautmann 35; different EM. 372.

Page(s): 158-159

Root / lemma: bhlē̆d-, bhl̥d-

English meaning: to boil; to chatter, boast

German meaning: `aufsprudeln, heraussprudeln, also von Worten'

Material: Gr. φλέδων `babbler', φλεδών `gossip'; φληδῶντα ληροῦντα Hes.; παφλάζω `bubble, seethe, foam'; moreover also Aor. φλαδεῖν (intrans.) `tear'; compare to meaning lat. fragor `a breaking; a noise of breaking, crack, crash';

with varying lengthened grade bhlōd- air. indlāidi `brags, boasts', indlādud `boasting' (*ind-blād- `puff oneself up or make inflated words') and lett. blādu, blāzt `chat';

zero grade ahd. uz-ar-pulzit `boil, bubble out';

nhd. platzen, plötschern are probably certainly of new onomatopoeic word formation.

References: WP. II 210, 216, WH. I 515, 518.

See also: to bhel-3.

Page(s): 155

Root / lemma: bhlē̆iĝ-, bhlīĝ-

English meaning: to shine

German meaning: `glönzen'

Note: extension from bhlē̆i- ds., as bhleiq-

Material: Ags. blīcan `shine', as, blīkan `shine', ahd. blīhhan st.-V. `become pallid', mhd. blīchen st.-V. `shine, blush', aisl. blīkja, bleik `appear, gleam, shine';

aisl. bleikr, ags. blāc, ahd. bleih `pallid, pale, wan'; ahd. bleihha `dace, roach', norw. bleikja and blika ds.; aisl. blik n. `bright lustre, shine; gold, gold plating',

ahd. bleh `(*shiny) thin metal panel', nhd. Blech, mnd. blick ds.; ags. blike m. (*bliki-) `bare place'; ahd. blic, -eches `quick highlight, flash, lightning', mhd. blic, -ekes `lustre, shine, look, lightning', nhd. Blick, ahd. blecchazzen (*blekatjan), mhd. bliczen, nhd. blitzen; as. bliksmo `lightning', aschwed. blixa `blink', nschwed. also `flash'.

Lit. blizgù, -ė́ti `flicker, shine', blýškiu, blyškė́ti `sparkle, glitter, shimmer, shine', blykštù, blyškaũ, blỹkšti `blanch, pale', ablaut. blaikštaûs, -ýtis `clear up, of the sky'; lett. blaiskums `spot, mark', meln-blaiskaińš `dark grey'.

Russ.-Church Slavic blěskъ `lustre, shine' (*bhloiĝ-sko-); changing through ablaut Old Church Slavic bliskъ `lustre, shine' and *blьskъ in čech. blesk, Gen. old blsku `lightning', Old Church Slavic blьštǫ, blьštati `shine', Iter. bliscajǫ, bliscati sę.

References: WP. II 21 If., EM. 398, Trautmann 34, Meillet Slave commun2 133, Specht Dekl. 144.

Page(s): 156-157

Root / lemma: bhlē̆i-1 : bhlǝi- : bhlī-

English meaning: to shine

German meaning: `glönzen', also von Narben

Note: extension from bhel- ds.

Material: Germ. *blīÞia- (*bhlei-tio- or rather *bhlī-tio-) `light, cheerful, fair (of sky, heaven, then of the looks, appearance, the mood:) cheerful' in got. bleiÞs `merciful, mild',

aisl. blīðr `mild (of weather), friendly, pleasant', ags. blīÞe `cheerful, friendly', ahd. blīdi `cheerful, blithe, glad, friendly', as. blīthōn, ahd. blīden `be glad'.

As. blī n. `paint, color', Adj. `coloured', afries. blī(e)n `paint, color', bli `beautiful', ags. blēo n. `paint, color, apparition, form' (probably *blīja-).

On account of germ. *blīwa `lead' (ahd. blīo, -wes, as. blī, aisl. blȳ) with lit. blývas `purple, mauve, violet-blue' corresponding color adj. with formants -u̯o- of our root (to accept nhd. blau congruent, indeed unoccupied kelt. *blīu̯o- from *bhlēḫu̯o- as wellspring, was conceivable), would be debatable, but the most likely.

Here (after Specht Dekl. 117) russ. bli-zná `thread break, flaw in fabric', čech. poln. bliḫzna `scar'; because of the parallel forms under bhlēu-1 barely with WH. I 517 to bhlīĝ-.

Lit. blývas `purple, mauve, violet-blue'; perhaps lit. blaĩvas `sober' (if not as *blaidḫvas to related *bhlǝido-s), blaivaũs, -ýtis `clear up, become sober'; perhaps lett. blīnêt `lurk, a furtive (glance), blink'.

Toch. A. plyaskeṃ `meditation'öö (Van Windekens Lexique 97).

References: WP. II 210.

See also: see also under bhlēu-1 and bhlǝido-s.

Page(s): 155-156

Root / lemma: bhlēu-1 : bhlǝu- : bhlū-

English meaning: to shine

German meaning: `glönzen', also von weißem Hautausschlag, Narben, Schinn etc

Note: derivatives to bhel-1.

Material: Russ. blju-šč `ivy' (Specht Dekl. 117); poln. bɫysk (*bhlū-sk-) `lightning'; sorb. bl'u-zná `scar', wruss. blu-zná `weaving flaw'; lett. blau-zgas, blau-znas, lit. blù-zganos `dandruff', lett. blū-zga `peeling skin', blu-zga `small particles, drill dust' etc

Maybe alb. bluanj `grind, mill'

References: Specht Dekl. 117.

See also: compare the parallel formation under bhlēi-1.

Page(s): 159

Root / lemma: bhlēu-2 : bhlǝu- : bhlū-

English meaning: bad

German meaning: `schwach, elend' (probably from `geschlagen')

Note: bh(e)lēu- is apparent, manifest, obvious parallel formation to bheleu- `hit'.

Material: Gr. φλαῦρος, φαῦλος (both dissimil. from *φλαῦλος) `slight, evil, bad';

got. blauÞian `abolish' (eigentl. `make weak'), aisl. blauðr `timorous', ags. blēað `daft, shy', with i̯o-suffix as. blōdi `shamefaced', ahd. blōdi, mhd. blæde `frail, breakable, shy, timid', nhd. blöde;

besides idg. *bhlǝu-to- stands a d- extension in aisl. blautr `mushy, softish, delicate, mollycoddle, timorous', ags. blēat `arm, woeful, wretched, miserable', mndd. blōt, mhd. blōz `bare', nhd. bloß (ahd. bloß with strange meaning `stout, proud');

lengthened grade bhlēu- in ags. un-blēoh `fearless' (suffix -ko-), with gramm. variation; aisl. bljūgr `timid', blygð `the genitals' (*ƀleugiÞō), changing through ablaut ahd. blūgo Adv., mhd. blūc, bliuc `shy', ahd. blūgisōn, blūchisōn `doubt', ags. blycgan (*blugjan) `frighten' (trans.); compare lit. blúkštu, -šti `become limp'.

References: WP. II 208 f., Hirt Idg. Gr. II 150, Feist 99, Specht Dekl. 133.

Page(s): 159

Root / lemma: bhlē-u̯o-s

English meaning: a kind of colour (blue, gold)

German meaning: von lichten Farben `blau, gelb, blond'

Note: also bhl̥̄-u̯o-s, bhlē-ro-s, bhlō-ro-s, derivatives from the root bhel-1, bhelǝ-

Material: Lat. flāvus `golden brown, red-yellow, blond', osk. Flaviies G. Sg. `of or belonging to the college of priests for the Flavian family' (from idg. *bhl̥̄-), besides fulvus `red-yellow, brown-yellow' from *bhl̥-u̯o-s; flōrus `yellow', also PN, from *bhlōros = gall. *blāros (Wartburg), mir. blār `forehead with white spot, spot, field', cymr. blawr `gray', besides *bhlē-ro- in mnd. blāre `paleness, blessige, white spotted cow'.

Maybe alb. bl̃erónj `blossom, be green' (see below Root / lemma: bhlǝido-s : `pale')

Ahd. blāo, nhd. blau (mhd. blā also `gold, yellow'), ags. *blāw or *blǣw, aisl. blār `blue' from *bhlē-u̯o-s; s. also S. 155;

air. blā `yellowishö' is late ags. Lw.ö About germ. *blīwa- `lead' see under bhlei-1.

Lit. blãvas, lett. blãvs `bluish, gold, yellow' are germ. Lw.

References: WP. II 212, WH. I 513 f., different EM 367.

Page(s): 160

Root / lemma: bhlē-

English meaning: to howl, weep

German meaning: `heulen, laut weinen, blöken'

Material: Lat. fleō, flēre (*bhlēi̯ō) `to weep; to drip, trickle; transit., to weep for, lament, bewail; flendus, to be lamented';

lett. blêju, blêt `bleat';

r.-Church Slavic blěju, blějati `bleat' (besides skr. bléjīm, bléjati `bleat' etc, with ); mhd.blǣjen `bleat' (germ. *blējan = lat. fleō); ahd. blāzan, nnd. blössen, ags. blǣtan, engl. to bleat `bleat', ags. blagettan, blǣgettan `cry', ndd. blage n. `kid, child'; mhd. blēren, blerren `bleat, cry';

Maybe alb. (*blǣge-) blegërij `bleat'

nhd. plörren, plören (also `weep, cry'), ndl. blaren `bleat', engl. to blare `roar, bellow'; changing through ablaut mhd. blörjen, blöelen (*blōljan), dissimil. bröelen `roar, bellow'; zero grade mhd. bral `shriek', schwöb. brallǝ `cry'.

References: WP. II 120, WH. I 516.

See also: compare bhel-6 and the onomatopoeic words blē-.

Page(s): 154-155

Root / lemma: bhlǝido-s

English meaning: pale

German meaning: `licht, blaß'

Note: to bhlēi- `shine', from extension root form *bhlēi-d-

Material: Old Church Slavic blědъ `pallid, pale, wan' = ags. blāt `pallid, livid'; ahd. bleizza `paleness'. Perhaps lit. blaĩvas `sober' (if from *blaid-vas; or from the an extension root bhlei-, s. d.),

blaivaũs, -ýtis `become sober; clear up, from the sky'. Alb. bl̃erónj `blossom, be green' from adj. *bl̃erë from *bled-rë (e = idg. ai or oi), bl̃éhurë `pale, wan, pallid'.

In addition probably the illyr. PN Blaedarus.


Alb. is one of illyr. dialects.

Alb. also shows that Root / lemma: bhlǝido-s : `pale', derived from Root / lemma: bhlē-u̯o-s : `a kind of colour (blue, gold)'.

References: WP. II 217, Trautmann 34, Specht Dekl. 197.

Page(s): 160

Root / lemma: bhlīĝ- (: *bhlēig-)

English meaning: to hit

German meaning: `schlagen, schmeißen'

Note: also bhlīĝu̯- (gr. kelt.), to indicate from u̯o- present *bhlīĝ-u̯ō.

Material: Äol. ion. φλί̄βω `push, press, squeeze' (about θλί̄βω see under dhlas- `contuse, squeeze'); cymr. blif m. `catapult, pallista', blifaidd `quick, fast';

lat. flīgō, -ere `hit, beat or dash down' (*bhlīĝō, or at most with through flīxi, flīctum assesses u̯- loss from *fligu̯ō);

maybe alb. (*bhlēīĝ-) mbledh `squeeze (the hand into a fist)' [common alb. -ĝ > -dh shift]

lett. blaîzît `squeeze, clash, hit', bliêzt `hit'; Old Church Slavic blizь, blizъ Adv. `nigh, near' (eigentl. `adjacent').

References: WP II 217, WH. I 517, EM. 369.

See also: about russ. blizná see under bhlē̆i-1.

Page(s): 160-161

Root / lemma: bhlos-q-; -g-

English meaning: expr.

German meaning: in Schallworten

Material: Ir. blosc, Gen. bloisc `din, fuss, noise' (bhlosko-); compare also brosc ds. under *bhres-;

lit. blą́zgu, -ė́ti intr. `clatter', blą́zginti `clatter, rattle, clash'.

References: WP. II 218.

Page(s): 161

Root / lemma: bhlō̆k-

English meaning: wool, clothö

German meaning: `Woll- or Wergflocke, Gewebe'ö

Material: Lat. floccus `a flock of wool' (*flōcos) to ahd. blaha f. `coarse bed linen (esp. to covers or substratums)', nhd. Blahe, Blache, ölt. dön. blaa `oakum', now blaar (eig. Pl.), schwed. blånor, blår ds., aschwed. blan, bla ds. (germ. *blahwō-), an. blæja (*blahjōn-) `linen, sheet'.

Page(s): 161

Root / lemma: bhog-

English meaning: running water

German meaning: `fließendes Wasser, Bach'

Material: Mir. búal f. `running water' (*bhoglā), búar m. `diarrhoea' (*bhogro-); proto germ. *baki-, ahd. bah, nhd. Bach, besides *bakja- in aisl. bekkr, ags. becc m. ds.

With regard to Old Indian bhaŋgá-ḥ, lit. bangà `billow' could be related to the root bheg- `shatter, break, rupture'.

References: WP. II 149 f., 187.

Page(s): 161

Root / lemma: bhok-

English meaning: to burnö

German meaning: `flammen, brennen'ö

Material: Lat. focus `a fireplace, hearth; meton., house, family, home; sometimes altar-fire or funeral pyre'; presumably to arm. bosor `red' (`*fiery'), boc̣ `flame' (*bhok̂-s-o-).

References: WP. II 186, WH. I 521.

Page(s): 162

Root / lemma: bholo-

English meaning: smoke, steamö

German meaning: etwa `Dunst, Dampf, warm aufsteigender Geruch'öö

Material: it is associated perhaps air. bolad, nir. boladh and baladh `smell, odor' and lett. buls, bula `misty muggy air, height smoke, dryness';

it could form the basis idg. bhol- (Irish): bhel- (lett.); perhaps is with above etymology also Peterssons Etym. Miszellen 34 connection of buls with combinable arm. bal `fog, mist, darkness' (if originally `haze, mist')ö

References: WP. II 189.

Page(s): 162

Root / lemma: bhorgʷo-s

English meaning: unfriendly

German meaning: `barsch, unfreundlich'

Material: Arm. bark `violent, angry, irate; herb, bitter, sharp from taste' (*bhr̥gʷos); air. borb, borp `crazy'; mir. borb (*burbo-, idg. *bhorgʷo-) `raw, ignorant', lett. bar̂gs `stern, hard, unfriendly, pitiless'; schwed. mdartl. bark `willful, unfriendly person', barkun `rough, harsh'.

References: WP. II 188, Trautmann 27.

See also: compare also bhag-2.

Page(s): 163

Root / lemma: bhoso-s

English meaning: naked

German meaning: `nackt'


From Root / lemma: bhē- : bhō- : `to warm, fry, *bath' : Root / lemma: bhoso-s : `naked' derived from Ossetic: bægnæg [adj] `naked' of Root / lemma: nogʷ-, nogʷod(h)o-, nogʷ-no- : naked' common Indo Iranian m-/n- > bh phonetic mutation.


Avestan: LAv. maɣna- [adj] `naked' (< PIr. *magna-)

Khotanese: būnaa- [adj] `naked' (< PIr.*bagnaka-)

Sogdian: (Buddh.) β ɣn'k [adj] `naked', (Chr.) β ɣny [adj] `naked'

Middle Persian: brahnag [adj] `naked' (with secondary -r-)

Ossetic: bægnæg [adj] `naked'

Other Iranian cognates: Khwar. β ɣnn'k [adj] `naked'

Ahd. bar `naked, bare' (*baza-), nhd. bar, ags. bær, aisl. berr `naked, bare'; lit. bãsas, lett. bass, Old Church Slavic bosъ `barefoot'; arm. bok `barefoot' (*bhosoḫgo-).

Maybe alb. geg. (*bhas-) zbath- `barefoot', mbath `wear shoes' [common alb. -s > -th shift] : lett. bass `barefoot'.

As gr. ψ-ιλός probably to bhes- `abrade, scrape' (and `grind'), also originally from barren, (naked) sharp places, compare Kretschmer KZ. 31, 414.

References: WP. II 189, Meillet Esquisse 38, Trautmann 28.

Page(s): 163

Root / lemma: bhoudhi-

English meaning: victory

German meaning: `Sieg'ö

Material: Air. búaid n. `victory', abrit. FN Boudicca `the victorious', cymr. budd `profit, gain', buddig `victorious' (*bhoudhīko-) = air. búadach ds.; agerm. GN Baudi-hillia `victory fighter'.

References: WP. II 186, Gutenbrunner Germ. Göttern. 43.

Page(s): 163

Root / lemma: bhoukʷos

English meaning: a kind of buzzing insect

German meaning: `summendes Insekt'

Material: Lat. fūcus, m. `a drone bee' = ags. béaw m. `gadfly, brake', ndd. bau ds.

References: WP. II 184, WH. I 555 f.

Page(s): 163

Root / lemma: bhō̆gh- or bhā̆gh-

English meaning: lowland, swamp

German meaning: `Schlamm, Sumpf'

Material: Mnl. bagger m. `slime, mud', out of it nhd. baggern `drain the mud'; russ. bagnó `low, marshy place', čech. bahno `swamp, marsh, morass', poln. bagno ds.

References: WP. II 187, Petersson Heterokl. 123 f.

Page(s): 161

Root / lemma: bhōi- : bhǝi- : bhī- (bhii̯ǝ-)

English meaning: to fear

German meaning: `sich förchten'

Material: Old Indian bháyatē `be afraid' (from *bhǝi̯etai = slav. bojetъ), av. bayente, byente `they are in fear', mpers. bēsānd `they are in fear' (uriran. *bai-sk̂-); Old Indian bibhḗti `be afraid', sek. to initial Perf. m. Prösensbed. bibhā́ya `I am in fear' (bibhīyāt, bibhītana, abibhēt, participle bibhīvān = av. biwivā̊ `were afraid'); Old Indian bhiyāná-ḥ `were afraid'; bhī́-ḥ f., bhīti-ḥ f. (: lett. Inf. bîtiês) `fear', bhīmá-ḥ `dreadful', bhītá-ḥ `were afraid, horrified', bhīrú-ḥ `timorous, shy, coward' (if r = idg. l, changing through ablaut with lit. báilė, bailùs); npers. bāk `fear' (from *bháyaka-); with idg. simplification of āi to ā before consonant here Old Indian bhā́ma-ḥ perhaps `fierceness, fury', bhāmitá-ḥ `fierce, grim'.

Gr. πίθηκος, πίθων m. `ape' (from *πιθος `ugly', zero grade *bhidh-).

Lat. foedus (*bhoidhos) `foul, filthy, horrible, disgusting'.

Ahd. bibēn, as. bibōn, ags. beofian, aisl. bifa, -aða and bifra (these in ending directed after *titrōn `tremble') to urg. *ƀiƀai-mi; *ƀiƀōn is probably only after to the other coexistence from -ōn- and -ēn- secondary verb besides one from the Perfect form developed grade *ƀiƀēn .

Bsl. originally present *bhǝi̯̯ō-, preterit-stem *bhii̯ā-, Inf. *bhītēi; Old Prussian biātwei `fear, dread', kausat. pobaiint `punish, curse'; lit. bijaũs, bijótis (also not reflexive) `be afraid', lett. bîstuôs, bijuôs, bîtiês and bijājuôs, bijâtiês `be afraid'; lit. baijùs `dreadful, terrible, hideous'; baidaũ, -ýti `frighten', lett. baĩdu, baĩdŷt and biêdêt `daunt, scare';

Maybe alb. geg. mbajt `be afraid', nuk ma mban `I am afraid'

in addition lit. baisà `fright' (*baid-s-ā), baisùs `terrible, horrid', baisióti `smudge, besmear' (and Old Church Slavic běsъ `devil', *běd-sъ); lit. báimė `fear'; báilė ds. (bailus `timorous').

Old Church Slavic bojǫ, bojati sę `be afraid'.

Further formation *bhii̯-es-, *bhīs- in Old Indian bhyásatē `be afraid', udbhyása-ḥ `be afraidd', av. Perf. biwivā̊ŋha (i.e. biwyā̊ŋha) `stimulated fright, was dreadful'; Old Indian bhīṣayatē `frightens', bhī́ṣaṇa-ḥ `causing fright';

ahd. bīsa `north-east wind', bisōn `run around madly', bēr `boar' etc lead to a germ.*bī̆s-, *bī̆z- `storm ahead jumpily'; compare Wißmann Nom. postverb. 78.

References: WP. II 124 f., 186, WH. I 522 f., Trautmann 24, Kluge11 under Biese.

Page(s): 161-162

Root / lemma: bhrag- (better bhrǝ-g-)

English meaning: to smell, scent

German meaning: `riechen'

Material: Lat. fragrō, -āre `to emit a smell, esp. a sweet smell', denominative *bhrǝg-ro-s `smelling'; ahd. bracko (nhd. Bracke), mnd. mnl. bracke `beagle, sleuth, harrier, track hound' (out of it ital. bracco etc), in addition mlat. barm-braccus `lap dog'; compare mhd. brǣhen `smell' (*brēḫi̯ō); also anything for root bhrē, above S. 133.

It remains remote gall. brāca `trouser'; see under bhreĝ-1 `break, rupture'.

References: WP. II 192, WH. I 540, Kluge11 under Bracke.

Page(s): 163

Root / lemma: bhrā́ter-

Meaning: brother

German meaning: `Angehöriger der Großfamilie, Bruder, Blutsverwandter'

Material: Old Indian bhrā́tar-, av. Old pers. brātar- `brother'; osset. örvád `brother, kinsman, relative'; arm. eɫbair, Gen. eɫbaur ds.; (*bhrātēr, *bhrātrós);

Maybe Etruscan (*örva ́ d) ruva `brother' from osset. örvá d `brother, relative'

Illyr. bra `brother! (vocative)' > alb. bre `brother! (vocative)'

maybe Kurdish bira `brother' : turk. birader `brother'.

neuphryg. βρατερε `brother'; mys.-phryg. braterais = φράτραιςö, gr. φρήτηρ (ion.) ἀδελφός Hes., att. φρά̄τηρ, φρά̄τωρ `member of a φρατρία (family, fraternity, brotherhood)';

ven. vhraterei `brother';

maybe alb. vëlla `brother' : Estonian veli `brother' : Lithuanian: brólis `brother' [m io] 1; broterė̃lis `brother (dim.)' [m io]; Latvian: brãlis `brother' [m io]; brātarītis `brother (dim.)' [m io]; Old Prussian: brāti (Ench.) `brother'; brole (EV) `brother'; bratrīkai (Ench.) `brother (dim.)' [Nomp];

Also alb. tosk. (*vhraterei) vllazëri `member of a φρατρία (family, fraternity, brotherhood)';

lat. frāter `brother', osk. fratrúm, umbr. fratrum, fratrom `brothers' etc around spöteslat. frātruēɫis s. WH. I 542);

air. brāth(a)ir `brother, member of a big family', cymr. sg. brawd, brodyr, acorn. broder, mbret. breuzr, nbret. breur, Pl. breudeur ds.;

got. brōÞar, aisl. brōðir, ahd. bruoder, ags. brōÞor `brother';

Short forms in addition ahd. MN Buobo, mhd. buobe `boy', ags. MN Bōfa, Bōja (> engl. boy), norw. dial. boa `brother' etc; further ahd. MN Buole, mhd. buole `kinsman, relative, lover', mnd. bōle `kinsman, relative, brother' etc (see Kluge11 under Bube, Buhle); Old Prussian brāti (Vok. brote) `brother', lit. broterė̃lis, short form brožis, batis, brólis, lett. b(r)ãlis `baby brother', brātarītis `dear brother!';

Old Church Slavic bratrъ, bratъ `brother', short form serb. baća, аčеch. bát'a ds., russ. bátja, báčka `father, priest'.

Also alb. geg. bacë `father, leader' : serb. baća `father, priest'.

compare noch Old Indian bhrātrá-m `brotherhood'; gr. φρά̄τρᾱ, jon. φρήτρη ds.; Old Indian bhrātrya-m : gr. φρᾱτρία, Old Church Slavic bratrьja, bratьja ds., lat. frātria `wife, woman of brothers'.

Toch. A pracar (Dual pratri), В procer.

References: WP. II 193, WH. I 541 f., 866, Specht KZ 62, 249, Fraenkel REtIE 2, 6 f., Risch Mus. Helv. 1, 118.

Page(s): 163-164

Root / lemma: bhred(hö)-

English meaning: to wade, wander

German meaning: `waten', in Bsl. also `plantschen, die Zeit vergeuden; Unsinn schwatzen'

Material: Thrak. PN Bρέδαι; lig. VN Brodionti; compare gall. FlN Bredanna, frz. La Brenne, PN Bροδεντία (Bayern).

Alb. breth, Aor. brodha `(*wade) wander'.

Lit. bredù (ostlit. brendù), bridaũ, brìsti `wade', Iter. bradaũ, -ýti `wade', brastà, brastvà `ford (miry)', bradà `slime, mud', brãdas m. `fishing' (= slav. brodъ), with sek. ablaut brỹdis m. `wading, way in the water', Iter. braidaũ, -ýti `wade around continuously'; lett. brìenu (mdartl. brìedu = ostlit. brendù), bridu, brist, Iter. bradât `wade; tread with feet; speak foolishly', braslis m. `ford', brìdis m. `while, short time'; Old Prussian Chucunbrast `through the devil's way'; zero grade ir = *r̥ noch in lit. birdà `wet ordure', Old Prussian Birdaw, sea name.

Russ.-Church Slavic bredu, bresti `wade through a ford' (zero grade present *brьdǫ in neprěbrъdomъ `not wading through water', Aor. pribrьde, compare ačech. přěbrde `will wade', poln. brnąć `wade' from *brьdnǫti), russ. bredú, brestí `go slowly, fish with the train net', bréditь `chat nonsense, fantasize', bred, bredína `willow' (`standing there often in the water'), r.-Church Slavic, russ. (etc) brodъ `ford', iter. r.-Church Slavic broditi `wade', russ. brodítь `go slowly, slink, wander around; ferment, seethe', skr. bròditi `wade'.

References: WP. II 201 f., Trautmann 37, Möhlenbach-Endzelin 332 f.

Page(s): 164

Root / lemma: bhreĝ-1

English meaning: to break

German meaning: `brechen, krachen'

Material: Old Indian giri-bhráj- `bursting out from the mountains';

lat. frangō, -ere, frēgi (: got. *brēkum), frāctum `break in pieces, dash to pieces, shiver, shatter, fracture', fragilis `frail, breakable, easily broken, brittle, fragile' etc (*bhreg-), fragor m. `a breaking; a crashing, a noise of breaking, crack, crash, noise, din'; with ā (after frāctus etc): suffrāgium `a voting tablet, a vote, noisy applause, approval; the right to vote, franchise; in gen. judgment; approval, support'; suffrāginēs f. `the hollows of the knee (suffragines, are so called because they are broken underneath = subtus franguntur, that is, they bend downwards and not upwards like the arm)', eigentl. `bend, kink';

mir. braigid `farts', Verbaln. braimm, cymr. corn. bram m. `breaking wind, fart', mir. t-air-brech `crash, blast'; but gall. brāca `breeches' (compare βράκκαι αἴγειαι διφθέραι παρὰ Κελτοῖς Hes.) is germ. Lw., air. brōc `trouser' is ags. Lw.

Maybe alb. (*brāca) brekë `underwear';

got. brikan, as. brekan, ags. brecan, ahd. brehhan `break, rupture' (lat. frēgimus = got. *brēkum, nhd. brachen), ablaut. got. brakja `wrestling match'; lengthened grade mhd. brache f. `breaking in the ground, unbroken recumbent unsowed land after the harvest', ags. ā-brācian `press in', ahd. prahhen, brahhen, mhd. braechen, nhd. prögen (*brēkjan), Causative to brechen; zero grade got. gabruka f. `piece, fragment, gobbet' (*bhreg-) == ags. bryce m. `the break, lump', ahd. bruh `break, cracked'; ags. brocian `press', broc `woefulness'; with gemination ahd. brocco `broken', nhd. Brocken;

here perhaps norw. brake m. `juniper' (as brisk ds. to bhres- `break, crack, cracking'), mhd. brake m. f. `twig, branch', engl. brake `brushwood, thorn bushes, fern', ablaut. norw. burkne m. `fern', compare also norw. bruk n. `shrubbery, bush';

a nasal. form in norw. dial. brank n. `affliction, defect', branka `injure, break, rupture'; with the meaning `din, fuss, noise' here aisl. braka `crack, creak', brak n. `row, din, fuss, noise', mhd. ags. brach m. ds., ahd. mhd. as. braht `din, fuss, noise, clamor', with changed meaning nhd. Pracht; ags. breahtm m. `argument, quarrel', as. brahtum `din, fuss, noise, clamorous mass';

germ. *brōk- `rump', newer `trouser' in ags. brēc Pl. `buttocks', engl. breech ds., aisl. brōk, Pl. brøkr `thigh, trouser', ags. brōc, ahd. bruoh, nhd. Bruch ds., schweiz. bruech `pubic region'; geminated ags. etc braccas `britches';

here (rather to bhres-) belong lit. braškù, braškéti `crack, creak' (*bhreĝ-sk̂ō), lett. brakšk̂ēt, brakstēt ds.

A parallel root *bhre(n)gh- seeks Wood (KZ. 45, 61) in Old Indian br̥háti `wrenches, tears from', aisl. branga `damage'.

Old Indian br̥gala-m `piece, gobbet, lump' is not idg. (Kuiper Proto-Munda 49).

References: WP. II 200, WH. I 113 f, 539 f., 541, Feist 104 ff., 176, Wißmann Nom. postverb. 11, 58, 123, 181.

Page(s): 165

Root / lemma: bhreĝ-2

English meaning: to stick (ö)

German meaning: `steif emporstehen'

Note: extension from bher- `stand up, edge, bristle' etc, seeks Persson Beitr. 22 f. A. 2 in:

Material: Old Indian bhraj- `stiffness (of the member), rigor(ö)'; isl. norw. brok `stiff grass, grass bristles'; quite dubious also in aisl. bǫrkr (*bhorĝu-s), mnd. borke,

nhd. (eig. ndd.) Borke `rough, outer bark' (from the rough angularityö Similar is gr. φορί̄νη `hard, rough skin, esp. pig's skin' to un extension to place root bher-).

An analoge g-extension from of a i-basis bhrei- could at most exist in norw. brikja `stick up high, to show off, shine', brik `a tall woman keeping her head high', briken `fresh, agile, lively; showy, gleaming, pleasant', brikna `glory, magnificence, lustre, shine, pleasure, joy' (Wood KZ. 45, 66), if not perhaps `shine, shine out' is the basis of this meaning.

Brikena illyr. PN

A bhrēi-k- presumably in gr. φρί̄ξ, -κός `shuddering, quiver, stare', φρί̄σσω, -ττω, πέφρῑκα `stare up; shiver (*flickerö)' common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation; cymr. bret. brig `acme, apex' (*bhrīko-).

Maybe alb. (*φρί ̄ ξ, φρίκός) frikë `shuddering, fear', older (*φρίκός) frikësoj `make shiver, scare'.

References: WP. II 201.

Page(s): 166

Root / lemma: bhrendh-

English meaning: to swell, sprout

German meaning: `aufschwellen; schwanger, Fruchtkern ansetzend'

Note: Only for Kelt. to cover Toch. and Balt.-Slav.

Material: Air. probably in brenn- (*bhrendh-uā-) `spring up, bubble, effervesce', e.g. bebarnatar 3 Pl. preterit, with to-ess- : do-n-eprinn `gushes forth', mir. to-oss- : toiprinnit `interior flow, flow into', Kaus. mir. bruinnid `allows to gush forth, streams out' etc; compare also Thurneysen Grammar 461;

Maybe alb. brenda, përbrenda `inside, inward, (*inward inflow)', brendësi `inside, entrails' : Old Prussian pobrendints `weighted'

lit. brę́stu, bréndau, brę́sti `swell, ripen', participle bréndęs `ripening', brįstu, brìndau, brį́sti `gush, well up (e.g. from peas)', brandà `ripeness, rich harvest', brandùs `grainy'; lett. briêstu, briêžu, briêst `gush, well up, to swell, ripen', bruôžs `thick, strong'; Old Prussian pobrendints `weighted', sen brendekermnen `pregnant', i.e. `with body fruit';

slav. *brędъ in ačech. ja-břadek, apoln. ja-brząd `twig, branch of grapevine' (besides one verschied. slav. *brědъ in kašub. břod `fruit-tree'); relationship to bher- (bhren-) `overhang, protrude' is absolutely agreeable;

toch. A pratsak, B pratsāk- `breast'.

References: WP. II 205, Trautmann 35 f., Van Windekens Lexique 99.

Page(s): 167-168

Root / lemma: bhrenk-, bhronk-

English meaning: to bring

German meaning: `bringen'

Material: Cymr. he-brwng `bring, glide, slide, guide, lead' (*semḫbronk-), hebryngiad `guide, leader', acorn. hebrenchiat `leader', mcorn. hem-bronk `will guide, lead', hem-brynkys, hom-bronkys `guided', mbret. ham-brouc, nbr. am-brouk `guide, lead';

got. briggan, brāhta, ahd. bringan, brāhta, also as. (wo also brengian), ags. bringan and breng(e)an preterit brōhte (from *branhta) `bring';

toch. B praṅk-, AB prönk- `depart'.

Angebl. contaminated from den root bher- and enek̂-; finally E. Fraenkel KZ. 58, 2861 f.; 63, 198.

Maybe alb. geg me pru, aor. prura `to bring'

References: WP. II 204, Lewis-Pedersen 40, Feist 105, Van Windekens Lexique 99.

Page(s): 168

Root / lemma: bhre(n)k̂-

English meaning: to err

German meaning: `to Falle kommen'ö

Material: Old Indian bhráṁśate, bhraśyate `falls, overthrows', participle bhraṣṭá-ḥ, bhraṁśa-ḥ `fall, loss', but in RV. only from nasal basis bhrāśáyan (Kaus.), mā́ bhraśat (Aor.), áni-bhr̥ṣṭa-ḥ `not succumbing'; also bhraṁśa- with originally bare present, then further grown exuberantly nasalizationö or old double formsö Air. brēc `lie, falsity' (*bhrenkā) is the half meaning not so certain with Old Indianbhraṁsá-ḥ to compare, that chosen in the latter sense.

Kuiper (Nasalpras. 141 f.) builds *bhrek̂-mi next to *bhre-n-k̂ō; nevertheless, his etymological comparisons are not persuasive.

References: WP. II 204.

See also: To bhreĝ-1ö

Page(s): 168

Root / lemma: bhren-to-s

English meaning: herdsman, *wanderer, horn

German meaning: `Geweihtröger, Hirt'


Messap. βρένδον (from *βρέντον) `ἔλαφον' Hes., βρέντιον `deer head' Hes., brunda ds., short form (besides Brenda) to PN Brundisium,

older Βρεντέσιον `Brindisi', illyr. VN Βρέντιοι; ven. FlN Brinta `Brenta'; still today in ital. mountain names and plant names (Bertoldi IF. 52, 206 f.);

compare in addition alb. brî, brîni `horn, antler' (*bhr̥-no-), Plur. geg. brîena; raetorom. brenta `pannier';

maybe alb. brinja `rib, bone'


Clearly alb. is an illyr. Dialect; alb. bredh `wander' suggests that there is a link between Root / lemma: bhred(h)- : `to wade, wander' and Root / lemma: bhren-to-s : `herdsman, *wanderer'.

nschwed. dial. brind(e), norw. (with g from d) bringe `male elk' (*bhrentós), ablaut. norw. brund `baby male reindeer' (*bhrn̥tós);

lett. briêdis `deer, deer stag', whether from of a idg. additional form *bhrendis, must be the origin of lit. bríedis, Old Prussian braydis m. `elk'; if germ. Lw.ö


Baltic lang. were created before Slavic lang. hence the vocabulary shared by Baltic and alb. is of illyr. origin.

Perhaps to bhren- `overhang, edge'; different Specht Dekl. 120.

References: WP. II 205, WH. I 116 f., 551, 852, A. Mayer KZ 66, 79 ff., Krahe Festgabe Bulle 191 f.

Page(s): 168-169

Root / lemma: bhren-

English meaning: to stick out; edge

German meaning: `hervorstehen; Kante under likewise'

Note: as bher- ds.

Material: Ir. braine `front part of the ship; guide, leader; edge, border', corn. brenniat ds.

With formants t: lat. frōns, -tis m., new f. `the forehead, brow, front'; aisl. brandr `sword' (*bhron-tó-); in wider meaning `stick, board; sword' against it probably from *bhrondho- to bherdh- `cut, clip'.

With formants d: ags. brant, aisl. brattr `high, sharp' (*bhrondos), lett. bruôdin̨š `ridge of the roof'.

bhren-q-: germ. *branha- in aschwed. brā-, nschwed. brå- `sharp' in PN; aisl. bringa `breast, thorax, breastbone of birds', nisl. bringr `small hill';

maybe alb. (*bhren) brinjë `rib, chest bone, hillside'


Alb. proves that from Root / lemma: bhren-to-s : `herdsman, *wanderer, *horn' derived from an extended Root / lemma: bhren- : `to stick out; edge'.

lit. brankà `the swelling', brankšóti, branksó́ti `jut out stiffly (of bones, laths)'; ablaut. brìnkstu, brìnkti `to swell'; slav. *bręknǫ, *bręknǫti in russ. nabrjáknutь `to bloat, bulge, swell' etc.

bhren-g- perhaps in aisl. brekka (*brinkōn) `steep hill', older dön. brink, brank `upright', mengl. nengl. brink `edge, border, bank, shore', mnd. brink `edge of a field, field margin, meadow', mndl. brinc, nndl. brink `edge, grass strip, border of grass, grass field'.

References: WP. II 203 f., WH. I 551, Trautmann 36.

Page(s): 167

Root / lemma: bhres-

English meaning: to break

German meaning: `bersten, brechen' and `krachen, prasseln' (as beim Brechen)

Material: Mir. brosc, broscar m. `din, fuss, noise'; compare also blosc under bhlosḫq-;

ahd. brestan `break, crack, break, rupture', unpers. `lack, defect', ags. berstan ds., aisl. bersta `break, crack, creak'; ahd. brest(o) `disability, defect',

nhd. Gebresten; ahd. brust `break, defect', ags. byrst m. `damage'; ahd. brastōn `crackle', aisl. brasta `rant, roister, brag, boast'; without -t- norw. bras n. `clatter, brushwood';

with -k-: norw. brisk `juniper'; mhd. braschen `crack, creak, cry, brag, boast';

lit. braškéti etc, see under bhreĝ-1.

References: WP. I 206.

Page(s): 169

Root / lemma: bhreu-k̂- (-k-)

English meaning: to strike; to throw

German meaning: `streichen, streifen'

Note: only balto-slav., probably extension from bhrē̆u-1. For -k- compare above S. 18 Anm.

Material: Lit. braukiù braukiaũ braũkti `whisk, stroke; move slowly'; lett. bràucu brā̀uču bràukt `move';

ablaut. lit. brukù brukaũ brùkti `wave flax, wedge', lett. brukt `crumble', brucinât `abrade, stroke the scythe';

Iterat. lit. braukýti, lett. braũcût `stroke' (with unoriginal intonation) and lit. brũkis m. `stripe, line', lett. brùce f. `scratch, scar', in addition lit. brùknė, bruknìs f., lett. brùklene f. `cranberry';

slav. *brušǫ *brusiti (originally iterative) in bulg. brúsja (brusich) `shake off, get rid of, beat off, chop, cut, reject', skr. brûsim brúsiti `whet', čech. brousiti ds., in addition Old Church Slavic ubrusъ `veronica (the impression of the face of Jesus believed by some to be miraculously made on a head - cloth with which St Veronica wiped his face as he went to his crucifixion; the cloth used for this)', skr. brûs (Gen. brûsa), russ. brus (Gen. brúsa; mostly brusók) `grindstone, whetstone'; russ. etc brusníka `cranberry' (`lightly strippable'); ablaut. r.-Church Slavic brъsnuti `scrape, shave', russ. brosátь (dial. brokátь), brósitь `throw', brósnutь `peel flax', bros `offal' etc in ablaut to bulg. brъ́šъ `rub off'. With ū the iterative grade: Old Church Slavic sъ-brysati `scrape', brysalo `a painter's brush or pencil; style'.

Perhaps here skr.-Church Slavic brutъ `nail', bulg. brut ds. as *bruktъ, compare to meaning lit. brùkti `put by force', to form lett. braukts `knife for cleaning the flax'.

Maybe alb. (*breuks) pres `cut, peel', mpreh `whet, sharpen', mbreh `harness, yoke, put by force' [common alb. p- > mp-, b- > mb- shift], mbres `bruise, beat'.

Perhaps here the illyr. VN Breuci, PN Breucus and the gall. PN Bρευκό-μαγος, today Brumath (Alsace); in addition places Krahe (Gl. 17, 159) illyr. VN Βρεῦνοι: Breones (from *Breu̯ones).


Illyr. VN Βρεῦνοι : Breones (from *Breu̯ones) evolved according to alb. phonetic laws -t > -nt > -n hence *Breu̯ones < *Breu̯ontes. But only alb. displays the common -k > -th, -t shift found in illyr. VN Breuci : illyr. VN Βρεῦνοι (from *Breu̯ones), hence alb. is a dialect of illyr. Both alb. and older illyr. display centum and satem characteristics.

Finally gall. PN B ρευκό - μαγος, today Brumath (Alsace); has evolved according to illyr. alb. phonetic laws -g > -th as alb. (mag-) math `big'.

About russ. brykátь `kick, reject' etc s. Berneker 93.

References: WP. II 197, Trautmann 36 f., Pokorny Urillyrier 119.

Page(s): 170

Root / lemma: bhreu-s-1

English meaning: to swell

German meaning: `schwellen; sprießen'

Note: (compare above bhreu-)

Material: Air. brū f., Gen. bronn `belly, body' (*bhrusḫō[n]: -nḫos), brūach `big-bellied' (*brusākos), cymr. bru m. `venter, uterus' (*bhreuso-);

Maybe alb. bark, barku (*bhrauk) `belly' : air. brūach `big-bellied'

air. bruinne `breast' (*bhrusni̯o-), acymr. ncymr. bronn f. `breast', bret. bronn, bron ds. (*bhrusnā) in place names also `round hill', mcymr. brynn, ncymr. bryn m. (*bhrusni̯o-) `hill' (from Kelt. derives got. brunjō f. `(breast)-armor', ahd. brunja, brunna `coat of mail');

Maybe alb. brinjë `rib, side, hillside' : got. brunjō f. `(breast)-armor'

Alb. proves that Root / lemma: bhreu-s-1 : `to swell' derived from Root / lemma: bhreu-k̂- (-k-) : `to strike; to throw'. Hence centum languages predate satem language because of the -k > -h > -s phonetic mutations.

air. brollach `bosom' (*bhrus-lo- with formants-āko-); mir. brūasach `with large, wide breast' (from bhreus-to- = as. briost).

Mhd. briustern `swell up', aisl. ā-brystur f. Pl. `beestings' (also broddr ds. from *bruz-da-z), schweiz. briescht ds. (besides briesch ds. from *bhreus-ko-); as. briost N. Pl., ags. brēost, aisl. briōst `breast', zero grade got. brusts f. Pl., ahd. brust, nhd. Brust; as. brustian `bud' (slav. *brъstъ `bud'), nhd. Brös-chen (from md.) `mammary gland of cows', schwöb. Bröste, bair. Brösel, Briesel, Bries ds., dön. brissel, schwed. kalfbröss, with k-suffix dön. bryske, engl. brisket `breast of the animals'.

Aisl. briōsk `gristle', mhd. brūsche, nhd. Brausche `swelling, blister', nhd. dial. brausche, brauschig `swollen; of style, turgid, bombastic, torose', brauschen `swell up'.

Maybe alb. (*brausch) bark `belly'

Russ. brjúcho `lower abdomen, belly, paunch', dial. brjúchnutь `yield, gush, well up, to bloat, bulge, swell', čech. alt. břuch, břucho, nowadays břich, břicho `belly' etc (*bhreuso-s, -m);

here also klr. brost `f. dial. brost m. `bud', bulg. brъs(t) m. `young sprouts', skr. br̂st m. ds., br̀stina `foliage, leaves'.

Maybe alb. bisht(n)ajë `legume, pod', bisht `tail (shootö)'

here klr. brost `f. dial. brost m. `bud', bulg. Brъs (t) m. `younger shoots', skr. br ̂ ^ st m. ds., br̀stina `foliage'.

References: WP. II 197 f., Feist 107 f., 108 f.

Page(s): 170-171

Root / lemma: bhreu-s-2

English meaning: to break

German meaning: `zerbrechen, zerschlagen, zerkrömeln under likewise'

Note: extension from bhrē̆u-1.

Material: Alb. breshën, breshër `hail', if eig. `granule, mica' (e = idg. eu); lat. frustum `a bit, piece, morsel, gobbet' (from *bhrusḫto-);

air. brūu `shatter, smash' (*bhrū̆si̯ō, gall. brus-, frz. bruiser), mir. brūire, brūile `piece, fragment', bruan ds., bruar `fragment, broken piece', brosna (*brus-toni̯o-) `faggot, brushwood bundle', gall. *bruski̯ā `undergrowth, brushwood', afrz. broce ds., mir. brusc `tiny bit' etc; air. bronnaim `damage' (*bhrusnāmi) (subjunctive robria from *bris- `break, rupture' borrows, see under bhrēi-);

mcymr. breu, ncymr. brau `frail, easily broken', mcorn. brew `broken' (*bhrōuso-); mbret. brusun `tiny bit' (*brousḫt-);

ags. briesan (*brausjan), brȳsan (*brūsjan) `break, rupture trans., shatter', engl. bruise `injure', probably also ahd. brōsma, mhd. brōsem, brōseme, brōsme `bit, flake, crumb'; ags. brosnian `molder'.

References: WP. II 198 f., WH. I 553.

Page(s): 171

Root / lemma: bhreus-3, bhrū̆s-

English meaning: to boil; to sound, etc.

German meaning: `brausen, wallen, rauschen, hervorquellen or -sprießen, sich bauschen, Böschel, Geströpp under likewise'

Note: esp. in germ. words; perhaps to bhreu-s-1; also a new onomatopoeic word could have helped (similarly akr. brújīm, brújiti `buzz, hum from an swarm of bees', Berneker 89).

Material: Mhd. brūsen `boom, blaster, roar', brūs `the boom', ndd. brūsen `boom, blaster, simmer, seethe, boil; be hasty (from people); spread out, grow new shoot (from plants); sprinkle, besprinkle' (compare nhd. Brause) (out of it dön. bruse ds.), ndl. bruisen, previous bruischen `foam, froth, bubble, roar, boom, blaster', ndd. brūsken ds., mhd. brūsche `douche, shower, spray, sprinkler', aschwed. brūsa `storm ahead', norw. mdartl. brŏsa `storm gust', aisl. brusi `he-goat, billy goat', isl. bruskr `tussock, besom', engl. brush `bristle brush, paintbrush, brush, tail (of foxes)', brushwood `shrubbery, bush, shrubbery', mengl. bruschen, engl. to brush `comb with a brush', norw. dial. brauska, bruska and brausta, brusta `make room, rush out forcefully'; schwed. bruska `rustle, rant, roister'.

With germ. *bruska-z `brushwood', *bruskan `crackle, rustle' (-sk- could be idg. zg) one compares the baltoslav. groups lit. brũzgai Pl. `brushwood', briauzgà `babbler', bruzgù, -ė́ti `rustle', russ. brjuzgáju, -átь `mumble, murmur', brjužžátь `drone, grumble, murmur, growl' etc; yet are the verb perhaps are only baltoslav. onomatopoeic word formation. Because of the germ. meaning `spray' is perhaps on the other hand to be compared with russ. brýzgaju, -atь `spray, sprinkle, bubble' etc.

References: WP. II 199 f., Trautmann 38.

Page(s): 171-172

Root / lemma: bhreu-, bhreu-d-

English meaning: to swell, sprout

German meaning: `sprießen, schwellen'

Material: Lat. frutex, -icis m. `a shrub, bush; as a term of reproach, blockhead' based on probably on a participle *bhrūtós `sprouted out'; air. broth `awn, hair'; here d-present: mhd. briezen, brōz `bud, swell', ahd. mhd. broz `bud, sprout'.

References: WP. II 195, WH. I 554.

See also: compare bhreu-s-1 `to swell', bhrughno- `twig, branch'.

Page(s): 169

Root / lemma: bhrēi-, bhrī̆-

English meaning: to pierce, cut with smth. sharp

German meaning: `with scharfem Werkzeug schneiden, etc'

Note: extension from bher-.

Material: Old Indian bhrīṇánti `be hurt' (Pf. bibhrāya Dhātup.), av. pairibrīnǝnti `be cut all around', brōiϑrō-taēža- `dashing sharply', mpers. brīn `determined, fixed'.

Maybe alb. geg. pre- `pierce, cut'

Thrak. (ö) βριλών `barber'.

Lat. friō, -āre `rub, grind, crumb, spall, crumble', fricō, -āre `to rub, rub down, rub off' (from *fri-co-s `rubbing, scraping'), refrīva faba `ground bean', frīvolus (from *frī-vo-s `triturated'), `breakable, trifling, worthless; n. pl. as subst. sticks of furniture'.

Maybe alb. (**frico-) fërkonj `rub' possible lat. loanword.

With frīvolus to be compared cymr. briw `broke; wound'; briwo `break, rupture, injure';

with s-extension here gall.-lat. brīsāre `break, shatter', frz. briser etc gallorom. *briscāre `curdle, coagulate, harden', schweiz. bretschi ds. (Wartburg), air. brissid `breaks' (from participle Pert. *bristo-), mir. bress f. `din, fuss, noise, fight, struggle', breissem ds., air. PN Bres-(u)al (*bristo-u̯alos), corn. mbret. bresel `fight', bret. bresa `quarrel', mir. brise `frail, breakable', br. bresk ds.; compare the parallel formation under bhreus-2.

Hereupon probably also cymr. brwydr `fight, struggle', air. briathar `word, *argument' as *bhrei-trā `quarrel, argument' (to cymr. brwyd `torn, perforates'), compare lit. bárti `scold, chide', refl. `be quarrelsome', Old Church Slavic brati `fight', s. bher-2.

Maybe alb. geg. brit, tosk. bërtas `to scold, chide, quarrel, yell' : lit. bárti `scold, chide'.

Here presumably mndl. brīne, nndl. brijn, mengl. brīne, nengl. brine `salted water, salt brine' (from the sharp taste like partly slav. bridъ).

Old Church Slavic britva `razor', russ.-Church Slavic briju, briti `shave, shear', bričь `razor'; Old Church Slavic bridъ `δριμύς', russ.-mdartl. bridkój `sharp, cold', skr. bridak `sharp, sour'; Old Church Slavicbrъselije `shards', russ.-Church Slavic brъselije, brъselъ `shard' (proto slav.. also probably*brъselъ) as *bhri-d-selo-.

Maybe alb. brisk `razor'

ĝ-extension bhrei-ĝ- presumably in lit. brė́žiu, brė́šti `scratch, scrape', Iter. braiž-, -ýti ds., and aisl. brīk f. `board, low wooden wall, low bar'; compare with *bhrei-ĝ- parallel ĝ-extension the einf. root bher- in lett. beriu, berzu, berẑt `rub, scour, clean' and gr. φοργάνη ἡἀραιότης Неs. and auf a k-extension *bhrei-k- traceable gr. φρίκες χάρακες Неs.; brė́šti not better with idg. b- to ags. prica `point', mnd. pricken, mhd. pfrecken `prick' etc, besides that with other root auslaut norw. mdartl. prisa `prick, stir, tease, irritate', preima, preina `banter, stir, tease, irritate' etc (about age and origin germ. words nothing is certain).

References: WP. II 194 f., WH. 116, 549, Vendryes RC 29, 206.

Page(s): 166-167

Root / lemma: bhrē̆u-1, bhrū̆-

English meaning: to pierce, break

German meaning: `with scharfem Werkzeug schneiden, abschaben etc', especially germ. `zerschlagen, brechen'

Note: extension from bher-

Material: Old Indian bhrūṇá-m `embryo' (named after the burst caul);

mhd. briune, brūne `lower abdomen, vulva'; ahd. brōdi `frail, breakable' (*bhrou-ti̯o-), aisl. broma `piece, fragment' (*bhrumōn); a t-present in ags. breoðan `break, rupture'; probably d- present based on germ. family of ags. brēotan `break, rupture', aisl. briōta `break, rupture', broti m. `heap of felled trees, barrier', braut f. `way, alley' (compare nhd. Bahn brechen, frz. route from rupta), breyta (*brautjan) `alter, change, modify', breyskr `frail, breakable, brittle'; ahd. bruzī, bruzzī `fragileness'; aisl. brytia = ags. bryttian `divide, share, allot, distribute'; aisl. bryti m. `colter, plough coulter, pre-pruner, i.e. the most distinguished of the farmhands; kind of estate manager, land agent' = agsl. brytta m. `dispenser, distributer'.

To germ. *ƀreutan perhaps also air. fris-brudi `reject'.

Lett. braũna, braũṅa `scurf, dandruff, flake, scale, abandoned skin or shell, caul, entrails' (basic meaning `scrapings', vgl slav. brъsnǫti `scrape, stripe' under bhreu-k̂-);

čech. br-n-ka (*bhrun-) `placenta, afterbirth'.

References: WP. II 195 f., W. Schulze KZ. 50, 259 = Kl. Schr. 216.

See also: S. the extension bhreu-k̂-, bhreu-s-2.

Page(s): 169

Root / lemma: bhrēu-2, bhrū-

English meaning: edge

German meaning: `Kante, scharfer Rand'

Note: The group is extended from bher- `stand up; edge'.

Material: Air. brū `edge, bank, border, shore', bruach ds. (*brū-āko-);

aisl. brūn `edge', whereof brȳna `whet', brȳni `whetstone'; ags. mhd. brūn `sharp' (from weapons).

Lit. briaunà `edge, border, cornice' (*bhrēunā), ablaut. with aisl. brūn.

References: WP. II 196 f., W. Schulze KZ. 50, 259 = Kl. Schr. 216.

Page(s): 170

Root / lemma: bhroisqo-, bhrisqo-

English meaning: bitter

German meaning: `herb von Geschmack'

Material: Russ.-Church Slavic obrězgnuti, obrьzgnuti `become sauer', čech. břesk `sharp taste', poln. brzazg `unpleasant, sharp taste; bad mood',

russ. brezgátь (old brězgati) `nauseate, feel disgust';

Maybe alb. geg. (prezi-) përzi `to nauseate, feel disgust'

at first to norw. brisk `bitter taste', brisken `bitter, sharp'; probably to bhrēi- `cut, clip' (as mndl. brīne `salt water, brine').

Maybe alb. brisk, brisqe Pl. `sharp, bitter; razor', brisqe Pl. `razors'

References: WP. II 206.

Page(s): 172

Root / lemma: bhrugh-no-

English meaning: twig

German meaning: `Zweig, Stengel'

Note: perhaps in relationship to bhreu- `sprout'

Material: Cymr. brwyn-en f. `bulrush', acorn. brunnen gl. `juncus, bulrush', bret. broenn-enn ds. (from urk.*brugno-); ags. brogn(e) f. `twig, branch, bush', norw. dial. brogn(e) `tree branch, clover stalk, raspberry bush'.

References: WP. II 208.

Page(s): 174

Root / lemma: bhrūg-

English meaning: fruit

German meaning: `Frucht; genießen, gebrauchen'

Note: perhaps oldest `to cut off or peel off fruit for eating' and then to *bhreu- `cut, clip' (compare there to meaning Old Indian bhárvati `chews, consumes', also bsl. *bhreu-q-, -k̂- `graze over, chip')

Material: Lat. frūx, -gis f. `fruit' = umbr. Akk Pl. frif, fri `fruits', lat. frūgī (Dat. *`useful, honest, discreet, moderate' =) `fruitful', fruor, -i, frūctus and fruitus sum `relish' (from *frūgʷor, which has entered for *frūgor ö), frūniscor `relish' (*frūg-nīscor), frūmentum `corn, grain', osk. fruktatiuf (*frūgetātiōns) `frūctus'.

Maybe alb. (*frūg-) fruth `measles, breaking of the skin (disease of fruit and humansö)', frut `fruit' [common alb. -k, -g > -th, -dh shift]

Got. brūkjan, ahd. brūhhan, as. brūkan, ags. brūcan `need, lack', got. brūks, ahd. brūhhi, ags. brȳce `usable'.

References: WP. II 208, WH. I 552 f.

Page(s): 173

Root / lemma: bhrū-1

English meaning: brow

German meaning: `Augenbraue'

Note: partly with initial vowel, idg. o- or a- (full root formö); after Persson Beitr. 17 lies a dark composition part *okʷ- `eye' (with. consonant-Assimilation) before.

Material: Old Indian bhrū́-ḥ f., Akk. bhrúvḫam `brow', av. brvat- f. (Du.) `brows', npers. ebrū, brū ds.(Höbschmann IA. 10, 24);

gr. ὀφρῦς, -ύος f. `brow', figurative `raised edge, hill edge' (after Meillet BSL 27, 129 f. with gr. vocal prosthesisö); maked. ἀβροῦτες `ὀφρύες' (changed from Kretschmer Einl. 287 in ἀβρούFες; held on from Meillet, s.Boisacq 733 Anm. 3, because of the otherwise stated form ἀβροτες and because of av. brvat-);


According to gr. phonetic mutations -kʷ > -p, -gʷ > -b; hence Root / lemma: okʷ- : to see; eye > gr. ὀφθ - αλ - μός `eye'. From there derived maked. ἀβροῦτες, gr. ὀφρῦς, - ύος f. `brow'; common gr. l > r phonetic shift.

Maybe zero grade alb. (*ἀβροῦτες : *vrenkula > vetulla f. `brow' : vrenjt (*vrenk-) `frown' common alb. -kh > t phonetic mutation. : Khotanese: brrauka-lö `brow' : Sogdian: (Buddh.) β r'wkh `eyebrow' (*brū-kā-) : Other Iranian cognates: Khwar. (')β rwc [pl.tantum] `eyebrow'; San. vrīc `eyebrow'.

mir. brūad Gen. Du., brāi, brōi Nom. Du. f. `brows' (to diphthong s. Thurneysen Grammar 199), air. forbru Akk. Pl. (*bhrūns : Akk. ὀφρῦς), forbrú Gen. Pl. `eyebrows'; unclear are mir. Pl. abrait (*abrant-es or *abrantī) `eyelids, brows', likewise mbr. abrant `brow', cymr. amrant `eyelid', Specht (Dekl. 83, 162) would like to put to lat. frōns `the forehead, brow, front'; but vocalism and meaning deviate;

ags. brū, aisl. brūn, Pl. brynn `brow' (conservative stem, from *ƀruwūn-).

lit. bruvìs m. `brow', žem. also brū̆nės Pl., Old Prussian wubri f. `eyelash' (seems a transposition from *bruwi);

abg. brъvь (originally Nom. *bry, as kry : krъvъ), skr.-Church Slavic obrъvъ, skr. ȍbrva etc `brow'.

An e- Abl. bhru̯ē- with syllabic become r regards Trautmann KZ. 44, 223 in lit. birwe = bruvìs.

Toch. A pörwān-, В pörwāne (Dual) `eyebrows'.

References: WP. II 206 f., Trautmann 38.

Page(s): 172-173

Root / lemma: bhrū-2, bhrēu-

English meaning: beam, bridge

German meaning: `Balken, Prögel'; also as Übergang about ein Gewösser: `Bröcke'

Material: Aisl. brū f. `bridge'; aisl. bryggia `wharf, pier' ndd. brögge ds., ahd. brucca, as. -bruggia, ags. brycg `bridge', bair. Bruck `Bretterbank am Ofen', ags. brycgian `pave' (originally with thrashed wood), schweiz. brögi (ahd. *brugī) `wood scaffolding', brögel `wooden log', mhd. brögel `cudgel, club', nhd. Prögel (`bridge' is also `balk, rod; track made of beams');

gall. brīva `bridge' (*bhrēua);

abg. brъvъno `balk, beam', skr. br̂v f. `balk, beam, bridge made of beams' (etc, s. about slav. forms Berneker 92).

Unclear is the guttural in the germ. forms: *brugī- from *bruu̯ī-, or k- suffixö S. Kluge11 under `Bröcke = bridge' and Specht Dekl. 2113 f., accepts the connection with bhrū-1.

References: WP. II 207.

Page(s): 173

Root / lemma: bhudh-m(e)n

English meaning: bottom

German meaning: `Boden'

Note: single-linguistic in part to *bhudh-mo-, partly to *bhudh-no-, besides with already idg. metathesis *bhundho- > *bhundo- ö

Material: Old Indian budhná-ḥ `ground, bottom'; av. bū̆nō ds. (*bhundhno-), out of it borrows arm. bun ds., during arm. an-dund-k` `abyss' from *bhundh- seems assimilated. From proto iran. *bundhas derives tscherem. pundaš `bottom, ground'.

Gr. πυθμήν (*φυθ-) m. `bottom, sole, base of a vessel', πύνδαξ m. ds. (for φύνδαξ after πυθμήν Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 71, 333).

Maked. PN Πύδνα (*bhudhnā), dissimil. Κύδναö

Lat. fundus, -ī m. `ground; the bottom or base of anything; a farm, estate' (*bhundhos), profundus `deep' = mir. bond, bonn m. `sole, foundation, groundwork, basis, pad, prop'.

maybe alb. (*fundus), fund `bottom, end', fundos `sink (to the bottom)'

Ahd. bodam, nhd. Boden, as. bodom, ags. *boðm > mengl. bothem m. besides ags. botm m. > engl.bottom and ags. bodan `bottom, ground',

Maybe alb. (bod-) botë `bottom, ground, earth, world'

an. botn `bottom', ags. byðme `bilge, floor, bottom' besides bytme, bytne ds., aisl. bytna `to come to the bottom', with unclear dental change; it seems to lie a basic proto germ. *buÞma-, probably is to be explained analogically; compare Petersson Heterokl. 18, Sievers-Brunner 167, Kluge11 under siedeln. About nhd. Böhne, originally `wooden floor (made from floorboards)', angebl. from germ. *bunī, idg. *budhniā, s. Kluge11 under Böhne.

References: WP. II 190, WH. I 564 f., 867, Porzig WuS. 15, 112 ff. (against it Kretschmer Gl. 22, 116); compare also Vendryes MSL. 18, 305 ff.

Page(s): 174

Root / lemma: bhū̆ĝo-s, nickname bhukko-s

English meaning: goat

German meaning: `Bock'

Grammatical information: (fem. In `goat, nanny goat')

Material: Zigeun. buzni `goat'; av. būza m. `he-goat', npers. buz `goat, he-goat; billy goat';

arm. buz `lamb';

mir. bocc, pocc, nir. boc, poc, cymr. bwch, corn. boch, bret. bouc'h `he-goat; billy goat', in addition mir. boccānach `ghost, bogeyman';

germ. *bukka- (after Pedersen Litteris 7, 23 f. borrowed from Kelt.ö) in aisl. bukkr, bokkr, bokki, ags. bucca, nengl. buck, ahd. mhd. boc, -ekes, nhd. Bock.

The aberrant consonant in Old Indian bukka-ḥ `he-goat' (uncovered) is probably from bukkati `barks' (see under beu-1, bu-) influenced hypocoristic reshuffling *bhūja- = av. būza-. Also npers. dial. boča `young goat', pām. buč, böč seem to be a result of similar reorganization.

References: WP. II 189 f., Pedersen Litteris 7, 23 f., Martinet Gémination 182.

Page(s): 174

Root / lemma: bherug-, bhrug-, bhorg-

English meaning: throat

German meaning: `Schlund, Luftröhre'

Material: Arm. erbuc `breast, brisket of killed animals' (*bhrugo-); gr. φάρυξ, -υγος, later (after λάρυγξ) φάρυγξ, -υγγος `windpipe, gullet'; lat. frūmen n. `(a gruel or porridge made of corn, and used in sacrifices) larynx, gullet' (*frū̆g-smen); without u aisl. barki `neck' (bhor-g-, formally closer to φάραγξ `cleft, gap, abyss')

Similar to lit. burnà, arm. beran `mouth' (eigentl. `orifice') to bher- `cut, clip' under conception `cleft, gap = gullet'.

References: WP. II 171, WH. I 482, 551 f., 866, Lidén Mél. Pedersen 92, Specht Dekl. 162.

Page(s): 145

Root / lemma: bis-(t)li-

English meaning: gall

German meaning: `Galle'ö

Material: Lat. bīlis (*bislis, older *bistlis) f. `gall, bile'; cymr. bustl m., acorn. bistel, bret. bestl (*bis-tlo-, -tli-) `gall'; gallo-rom. *bistlos (Wartburg).

References: WP. II 111, WH. I 105 f.

Page(s): 102

Root / lemma: blat-

English meaning: to chat

German meaning: `plappern under likewise Schallbedeutungen' as well as öhnliche Schallworte schwer bestimmbaren Alters

Material: Lat. blaterō, -āre `chatter, babble, empty gossip; also from shout of the camel, ram, frog', blatiō, -īre `babble, prattle';

mndd. plad(d)eren `chat, prate', nndd. pladdern `splash, besprinkle', schwed. pladder `loose gossip', dön. bladre `spread lose gossip', older also `splash', lacking of consonant shift in onomatopoeic word.

Similar to onomatopoeic words are ndd. plapperen (nhd. plappern), mhd. plappen and blappen, ahd.blabizōn `babble' and mndd. plūderen `babble' (mhd. plūdern, nhd. plaudern).

compare with partly similar meaning bhlē̆d- `to bubble up, chat', bhel- `sound' and bal-, balḫbal- under baba- (e.g. lit. blebénti with nhd. plappern similar formation).

References: WP. II 120, WH. I 109.

Page(s): 102

Root / lemma: blē-

English meaning: to bleat

German meaning: `blöken'

Note: imitation of the sheep sound with different guttural extensions; in the Germ. with consonant shift omitted as a result of continual new imitation.

Material: Gr. βληχάομαι `bleat', βληχή `the bleating'; russ. (etc) blekati (old), blekotátь `bleat'; mndd. bleken, blöken `bleat, bark, bay' (out of it nhd. blöken), norw. mdartl. blækta (*blēkatjan) `bleat'; alb. bl'egërás ds.


Common alb. n > r rhotacism. Alb. shows that from Root / lemma: bhlē- : `to howl, weep' derived Root / lemma: blē- : `to bleat'; hence the support for the glottal theory bh- > b-.

References: WP. II 120 f., WH. I 95.

See also: compare also bhlē- `howl' etc

Page(s): 102

Root / lemma: blou- (bhlou-ö), plou-

English meaning: flea

German meaning: `Floh'

Note: With k- and s-suffixes and taboo transposition and anlaut alteration.

Material: With p: Old Indian plúši-, arm. lu (*plus-), alb. plesht, lat. pūlex (*pusl-ex), idg.*plouk- in ahd. flôh, ags. fléah.


Common arm. (often alb.) initial pl- > l- phonetic mutation also common lat. plou- > pule- phonetic mutation since lat. prefers initial consonant + vowel order. Lat. phonetic shift can be explainedt only through glottal theory phlou- > pule [ ph > pu]

With b (or bhö): afgh. vraža, gr. ψύλλα (*blusi̯ā), balto-slav. *blusā in lit. blusà, lett. blusa, pr. PN Blus-kaym, russ.-Church Slavic blъcha, skr. bùha, russ. bɫochá.

References: Meillet MSL. 22, 142, 539 f., Trautmann 35, Specht Dekl. 42 f., 203, 235.

Page(s): 102

Root / lemma: bol-

English meaning: tuber

German meaning: `Knolle, runde Schwellung'

Material: Arm. boɫk `radish', gr. βολβός `onion, bulb' (also βόλβιτος, dissimilated att. βόλιτος `crap, muck, dung',, if possibly originally from nanny goats or horsesö),

βῶλος, βῶλαξ `clod of earth'; Old Indian bálba-ja-ḥ `Eleusine indica, a type of grass', if `nodules coming out from the root'ö, lat. bulbus `onion, bulb, tuber' is borrowed from βολβός.

Redukt.-grade or with Assimil. in Vok. the 2. syllable arm. palar `pustule, bubble'.

References: WP. II 111 f., WH. I 122.

Page(s): 103

Root / lemma: brangh-, brongh-ö

English meaning: hoarseö

German meaning: `heiser'ö

Material: Gr. βράγχος `hoarseness', βραγχάω `be hoarse', air. brong(a)ide `hoarse'; but gr. Aor. ἔβραχε `cracks' probably stays away.

References: WP. I 683 f., II 119.

Page(s): 103

Root / lemma: breuq-

English meaning: to jump, *throw, thrust, poke, touch, run

German meaning: `springen, schnellen'

Material: Perhaps combined so gr. βροῦκος, βρεῦκος (βραῦκος), βρύκος `locust, grasshopper'(βροῦχος probably after βρύ̄χω `crunches with the teeth', and sloven. br̂knem, bŕkniti, br̂kam, bŕkati, bŕcati `bump with the feet, kick, shoot the way up with the fingers, touch';

Maybe Illyr. TN Breuci : so gr. βρεῦκος `locust, grasshopper (mythological monsterö)';

alb. (*breuk) prek `touch, frisk, violate', pres `crunches with the teeth, cut' [taboo word] : Slovene: bŕsati `lead, touch' : Lithuanian: brùkti `poke, thrust, press, scutch (flax)' [verb]; Russian: brosát' `throw, (dial.) scutch flax' [verb]; brokát' (dial.) `throw' [verb]; Serbo-Croatian: bŕcati `throw' [verb];

russ.brykátь `kick with the back leg', klr. brykáty `frisk mischievously, run' etc


Maybe the original cognate was of Baltic - Illyrian origin: Lithuanian: braũktas `wooden knife for cleaning flax' [m o], braũkti `erase, scutch (flax)', brùkti `poke, thrust, press, scutch (flax)' [verb]

References: WP. II 119, Specht Idg. Dekl. 251 f.

Page(s): 103

Root / lemma: bronk-

English meaning: to lock

German meaning: `einschließen, einengen'

Material: Got. anapraggan `press' to *pranga- `restriction, constriction' in aschwed. prang `narrow alley', mengl. prange `narrowness', engl. dial. proug `menu fork',

Maybe alb. pranga `restriction, fetter, chain, handcuff' : germ Pranger `pillory'

mndd. prangen `press', pranger `pole', mhd. pfrengen `wedge', ahd. pfragina `bar, gate, barrier', to lit. brañktas m. `pole for hanging (*gallows)', lett. brankti (lit. Lw.) `fitting tightly'.

References: WP. II 119, 677 f.. Feist 43, Kluge11 under Pranger.

Page(s): 103

Root / lemma: bu-

English meaning: lip, kiss

German meaning: `Lippe, Kuß'

Note: as an imitation of the kiss sound, bursting of the sucking lip fastener from inside, thus actually differently from bu-, bhu- `inflate' with normal spraying after outside.

Root / lemma: bu- : `lip, kiss' derived from Root / lemma: ku-, kus- (*kʷukʷh-): `to kiss' common Celtic - Greek kʷ- > p- phonetic mutation.

Material: Npers. bōsīdan `kiss'; alb. buzë `lip';

Maybe alb. (*pus) puth `kiss' [common alb. -s > -th shift] : schwed. puss `kiss'.

mir. bus, pus `lip', busóc, pusóc `kiss' (in addition presumably gall. PN Bussumāros and buđđutton `mouth, kiss');

nhd. Buss `kiss', bussen `kiss', Busserl `kiss', engl. buss, schwed. (with regular consonant shift) puss `kiss'; lit. bučiúoti `kiss', buč the onomatopoeic word, sound of the kiss dental interjection. poln. buzia `mouth, face; kiss'.


The same phonetic construction for poln. buzia `mouth, face; kiss' : alb. buzë, buza `lip' : rum. buză `lip' : ital. bacio `mouth, face; kiss', older lat. basiatio -onis f. `kissing, a kiss'.

References: WP. I 113 f., WH. II 98.

Page(s): 103

Root / lemma: dak̂ru-

English meaning: tears

German meaning: `Tröne'

Grammatical information: n.


Gr. δάκρυ, δάκρυον, δάκρυμα `tears'; out of it borrows altlat. dacruma, lat. lacruma, lacrima ds. (with sabin. lö);


Common lat. dh- > ll-, d- > l- phonetic mutation.

Maybe alb. (*lac-) lag `to moist, damp, wet' [taboo word as in alb. lagen sytë `cry silently'] : abret. dacr-(lon) `moist, damp, wet'

Also alb. (*lok-) lot `tear' [common alb. -k > -th, -t phonetic mutation similar to alb. (*mag-) math `big'.

air. dēr n., cymr. deigr (could go back to Pl. *dakrī the o-Dekl.), Pl. dagrau, abret. dacr-(lon) `moist, damp, wet', corn. dagr `tears' (Island-Celtic *dakrom `see, look' Thurneysen KZ. 48, 66 f); germ. *táhr- and tagr- : got. tagr n. `tears', anord. tār n. (from*tahr-), ags. tæhher, tear, teagor m., ahd. zahar m. (nhd. Zöhre from dem Pl.; whether in Germ. still from old u-stem or it has changed out of itö o-stem has gone out, is doubtful).

Idg. *dak̂ru is probably from *drak̂ru dissimilated because of ahd. trahan, as. Pl. trahni `tears', mnd. trān ds. and `(from fat of squeezed out drops through cooking:) fish oil', mhd. traher ds. (-er probably after zaher has changed) and arm. artasuk `tears', Sg. artausr from *drak̂ur.

On the other hand one searches connection with Old Indian áśru, aśra-m `tears', av. asrūazan- `pouring tears', lit. ašarà, ãšara `tears', lett. asara ds.; probably sheer rhyme word, so *ak̂ro- `acer, sharp, bitter' as epithet of the tears (`bitter tears') partially used in place of dak̂ru, whereby it took over its u-inflectionö compare also Möhlenbach-Endzelin I 142 f.


From early Italic, Illyrian people the cognate for tears passed to Altaic languages:

Protoform: *lī́gà (˜ *ĺ-)

Meaning: to weep, cry

Turkic protoform: *jɨ̄g-(la-)

Tungus protoform: *ligi-

References: WP. I 769, WH. I 746 f.

See also: see above S. 23 under ak̂ru.

Page(s): 179

Root / lemma: dāiu̯ēr, Gen. daiu̯rés

English meaning: brother-in-law

German meaning: `the Bruder of Gatten, Schwager'

Material: Old Indian dēvár-, arm. taigr, gr. δᾱήρ (*δαιFηρ), lat. lēvir (in ending reshaped after vir; the l for d probably Sabine), ahd. zeihhur, ags. tācor (presumably through hybridization with an equivalent from lit. láigonas `brother of wife'), lit. dieverìs (for *dievė̃ = Old Indian dēvár-; older conservative Gen. diever̃s), lett. diẽveris, Old Church Slavic děverь (i-, i̯o- and conservative stem).


The Baltic cognate lit. láigonas `brother of the wife' proves the Balkan origin of Baltic languages inheriting lat. d- > l- phonetic mutation.

References: WP. I 767, WH. I 787, Specht KZ 62, 249 f., Trautmann 43.

Page(s): 179

Root / lemma: dāu-, dǝu-, dū̆-

English meaning: to burn

German meaning: 1. `brennen', 2. `verletzen, quölen, vernichten, feindselig'

Note: uncertainly, whether in both meaning originally identical (possibly partly as `burning pain', partly `destroy by fire, burn down hostile settlements'ö)

Material: Old Indian dunṓti `burns (trans), afflicts', dūná- `burnt, afflicted', Pass. dūyatē `burns' (intr.), kaus. dāvayati `burns' (trans), dāvá-ḥ (with ablaut change davāḫḥ) `blaze', f. `affliction, pain', doman- `blaze, agony' (-ǝu- as in δεδαυμένος);


Old Indian and alb. prove that Root / lemma: dāu-, dǝu-, dū̆- : `to burn' derived from Root / lemma: dheu-4, dheu̯ǝ- (presumably: dhu̯ē-, compare the extension dhu̯ē-k-, dhu̯ē̆-s-) : `to reel, dissipate, blow, *smoke etc. `.

arm. erkn (to δύη) `throes of childbirth';

Note: common balt.-illyr. d- > zero phonetic mutation reflected in arm.

gr. δαίω (*δᾰF-ι̯ω) `set on fire, inflame', Perf. δέδηε `be in flames, be on fire' (: Old Indian dudāva), participle δεδαυμένος (δαῦσαι ἐκκαῦσαι Hes., ἐκδαβῇ ἐκκαυθῇ Λάκωνες Hes.), δάος n., δαΐς, -ίδος f. `torch' (to ᾳ: von att. δᾱͅς, δᾱͅδός s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 266), δᾱνός `easily ignitable = to dry' (*δαεινός from *δαFεσ-νός), δᾱλός `burning piece of wood' (*δαFελός = lakon. δαβελός); δήιος `hostile', dor. (Trag.) δᾱΐος, δᾳος `afflicted, woeful, wretched, miserable'; hom. δηΐοω `slay, kill, murder' (att. δῃόω `ds., devastate'), δηιοτής, -τῆτος `tumult of war, fight, struggle', hom. δᾰΐ Lok. `in the battle' (to Nom. *δαῦς, idg. *dāus Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 578), δαι-κτάμενος `killed in the fight'; probably δύη `affliction', δυόωσι `fall in the misfortune' (ἀνθρώπους, Od.), δυερός `unlucky'.

About ὀδύνη (mostly Pl.), öol. ἐδύνας Akk. Pl. `pain', ὀδυνᾶν `cause pain, afflict, sadden' see under ed- `eat'; perhaps here δαῦκος ὁ θρασύς (`stormy, hot tempered') Hes.

Alb. dhunë (*dusḫn-) `affliction, pain, force, violence, horrible action; disgrace, insult' (dhunon `revile, violate'; dhun `bitter', originally `unpleasant'ö or as sl. gorьkъ `bitter': gorěti `burn'ö) with *du-s- (presumably as zero grade of -es- stem = or as gr. δά(F)ος); tosk. derë `bitter' (*deu-no-);

lat. presumably duellum, bellum `war, fight' (WH. I 100 f.), with unclear suffix.

Note: common lat. dw- > b- phonetic mutation

air. dōīm `singe, burn' (about air. dōīm `get, exert' see under deu̯(ǝ)-), Verbalnom. dōud = Old Indian davathu-ḥ `blaze, fire'; atūd `kindle, inflame' from *ad-douth, cymr. cynneu `kindle, inflame' under likewise, also bret. devi, cymr. deifio `burn' (with v from w before ) here (Thurneysen KZ. 61, 253, Loth RC. 42, 58); air. Gen. condid, mir. connad, condud `firewood', cymr. cynnud `firing', corn. kunys, bret. keuneud `firewood' (Pedersen KG. I 108, II 39, basic form perhaps*kom-dauto-); cymr. etewyn `firebrand' (*ate-dau̯-ino-), bret. collective eteo ds.

ahd. zuscen `burn'; after φρύ̄νη : braun here also ags. tosca `frog', schwed. mdartl. tosk ds.; perhaps (with *eu, see under) anord. tjōn n. `damage, wrong; injustice, derision, ridicule', ags. tēona m., tēone f. `damage', as. tiono `evil, harm, wrong; injustice, enmity', whereof anord. tȳna `destroy, lose', ags. tīenan `plague, anger, slander', as. gitiunean `act wrong against somebody'.*


*) In spite of Osthoff IA. 1, 82 has kept away the family of nhd. zönden, got. tundnan `is ignited', tandjan `ignite, set on fire', mhd. zinden, because of that i and a would not be probably first ablaut neologism in u; after Thurneysen IA. 83, 32 as t-andjan to air. ad-and- `kindle, inflame'.


Berneker IF. 10, 158 places here also lit. džiáuti `place down in order to dry', lett. žaut `dry, burn incense, smoke' as *dēu-ti, as also alb. and germ. eu- forms can contain idg. ēu; the relationship of this *dēu- to *dāu- is unclear; or to di̯eu- `sky, heaven'ö

References: WP. I 767 ff., WH. I 100 f.

Page(s): 179-181

Root / lemma: dā-

English meaning: to flow; river

German meaning: `flössig, fließen'

Material: Old Indian dā-na- n. `liquid flowing from the temples of the elephant for the rutting', dā́-nu- n. f. `every dripping liquid, drop, dew', av. dāḫnu- f. `river, stream', osset. don `water, river'; russ. FlN Don, (Greek) skyth. FlN Τάναις;

Also typical intensive reduplication illyr. (*don-don) Dodona Epirus

russ. FlN Dniepr and Dniestr, old Danapris and Danastius from skyth. *Dānu apara `back river' and *Dānu nazdya- `front river';

av. VN Dānavō Pl. `river inhabitant' (become in R̥gveda water demons, fem. GN Dānu-), skyth. nomadic people, also in Greece, hence (ö) gr. VN Δαναοί, ögypt. Danuna; with formants -mo- arm. tamuk `humid, wet, moist', tamkanam `wet, mositen; of water, collect in pools, and of solids, to be liquefied; wet, moistened, soaked' and presumably gr. δημός (proto gr.ᾱ or ηö) `fat of animals and people', wherewith alb. dhjamë `fat, bacon, tallow, suet' is not connected in a cleared way yet; the fat can be named as with the roast liquidly growing ones (compare Old Church Slavic loj `soft fat, lard, grease' : lijati `pour'). Here also kelt. Dānuvius `Danube river',

gall. ON Condāte `the confluence of two rivers; as a place-name Confluentes'; six engl. Fl Don (*dānu-), cymr. FlN Donwy (*dānuu̯iā).

Benveniste places to arm. tam-uk yet hett. dame(n)k- `fall like rain' (BSL 33, 143).

References: WP. I 763, M. Förster Themse 145 f., Kretschmer Gl. 24, 1 ff., 15 ff., Mél. Pedersen 76 ff., Benveniste BSL 33, 143.

Page(s): 175

Root / lemma: : dǝ- and dāi- : dǝi- : dī̆-

English meaning: to share, divide

German meaning: `teilen, zerschneiden, zerreißen'

Grammatical information: originally athemat. Wurzelprösens.

Material: Old Indian dā́ti, dyáti `clips, cuts, mows, separates, divides', participle diná-ḥ, ditá-ḥ, composes ava-ttaḥ `cropped, truncated, cut off', dítiḫḥ `the distributing',

dā́nam `the abscission, trimming', dānám n. `distribution, deal, portion', dā́tu n. `deal, portion', dātár- m. (= δαιτρός) `reaper, mower', dātrám `allotted share', dā́tram n. `sickle', npers. dāra `remuneration', dās `sickle'; Old Indian dayā́ `communion, concern, commiseration' = dáyate (*dǝi-etai) `divides, possess lot, has pity; destructs'.

Maybe nasalized form in alb. (*dáyate) ndanj `cut, separate, allot, share'.

gr. δαίομαι med. `divide, allot, share' with probably after Fut. δαίσω and and the following words preserved ι (phonetic laws δάηται Konj. Ф 375 `is destroyed'); δαίς, -τος, δαίτη,

hom. also δαιτύς, -ύος `share, meal, sacrifice, oblation' (: Old Indian dā́tu); δαιτυμών `guest' (as `serving the meal'), δαιτρός `colter, plough coulter, pre-pruner. `(: Old Indian dātár-), δαιτρόν `share' (: Old Indian dātrám; this αι of these gr. words is partly according to phonetic laws - āi, ǝi - partly analogical, as in kret. Perf. δέδαισμαι to δατέομαι, compare also kret. δαῖσις `division', καρποδαισταί `distributor of fruit'), δαίνῡμι `host', probably also δαίμων m. `god, goddess; fate, destiny, person’s lot in life' (actually `prorating; or `god of the dead as a corpse eater', Porzig IF. 41, 169 ff., Kretschmer Gl. 14, 228 f.; about of Archilochos δαίμων `δαήμων' see below *dens- `high mental power'); δαί̈ζω, Fut. -ξω, Aor. -ξα `divide, carve, slit, destroy' (due to *δᾰFό-ς `sliced, destructed'), ἄ-δατος ἀδιαίρετος Hes., δάνος n. `interest, usury' (due to a participle *dǝ-nó-s = Old Indian diná-ḥ, compare δάνας μερίδας);

gall. arcanto-danos `minting' as `distributing silver'.

With formants -mo- : dāmos f. `people': gr. δῆμος, dor. δᾶμος m. `(people's division) people, area; the single region in Athens', air. dām f. `retinue, troop, multitude, crowd', acymr. dauu `boy, serf, servant', ncymr. daw, dawf `son-in-law'; apparently older fem. o-stem; in addition hett. da-ma-a-iš (damaīšö) `an other, foreigner, stranger', from `*foreign people', originally `*people', Pedersen Hitt. 51 ff.

With formants -lo- perhaps Old Church Slavic dělъ `deal, portion' (*dǝi-lo-) (see under *del- `split'); about air. fo-dālim etc s. just there. Here belongs probably also got. dails `deal, portion', runeninschr. da[i]liÞun `divide', aisl. deill, ags. dǣl, ahd. teil m. `deal, portion';

Maybe alb. dallonj `separate, distinguish'

aisl. deila f. `division, disunion', ahd. teila f. `division'; aisl. deila, ags. dǣlan, ahd. teilan `divide' etc It could hardly derive from Slav., probably it derives from Ven.-Illyr., because the root form *dǝi- is attested in södillyr. PN Dae-tor. An additional form idg. dhǝi- besides dǝi- would be unplausible.

With zero grade dī- : arm. ti, Gen. tioy `age, years, days, time' (*< dī-t(i)- or *dī-to-, *dī-tā), ahd. zīt f. (n. Isidor), as. ags. tīd, anord. tīð f. `time, hour' (*tīÞ-, idg.*dī-t-, ursprgl `period of time'), in addition anord. tīðr `usual, ordinary, frequent, often', ags. tīdan `occur', anord. tīða `aspire, strive'; anord. tī-na `to pick to pieces, take apart, weed, take out, remove, clean';

About got. til `fitting' etc see under ad-2, but got. dails under del-3; here against it ahd. zila `sequence, row, line', westföl. tīle `sheaf row', nhd. Zeile, probably from *tīð-lá-.

p- extension dāp-, dǝp-; dǝp-no-, -ni- `sacrificial meal':

Old Indian dāpayati `divides'; arm. taun (*dap-ni-) `festival'; gr. δάπτω (*δαπι̯ω) `tear, rend, mangle, lacerate, disassemble', with intensive reduplication δαρδάπτω `tear, rend, (κτήματα) squander, dissipate in luxury', δαπάνη f. `expenditure, esp. arising from hospitality (: daps)',

δάπανος `lavish, wasteful', δαπανάω `consume' (out of it lat. dapinō `serve up (as food), provide for'), δαψιλός (Empedokles), δαψιλής `(*wasteful) exuberant, rich, generous'; lat. daps `(*share) a sacrificial feast, religious banquet; in gen., meal, feast, banquet', damnum `loss, damage, defect, fine', damnōsus `ruinous' (*dap-no- : δαπάνη, different Pedersen Hitt 42);

maybe illyr. Epidamnos (Eppi-'*horse' + *dap-no '*sacrifice'), also alb. geg. dam (*dap-no) `damage': lat. damnum.

anord. tafn (*dap-no-) `sacrificial animal, sacrificial meal', compare den germ. GN Tanfana (Tacit.), if from *tafnana, Marstrander NTS. 1, 159.

From Germ. one still adds a lot, what was a meaning-development from `split up, cut up, divide' to `tear, pluck, shortly touch, make short clumsy movement' under likewise would assume; in following the meaning from δαπανᾶν, damnum derives aschw. tappa and tapa `put an end to, lose', aisl. tapa ds.; afries. tapia `pluck', ags. tæppe f. `cloth stripes', mengl. tappen (engl. tap) `hit lightly', mnd. tappen, tāpen (lengthening in open syllableö) `pick, pluck'; anord. tǣpr `barely touching', isl. tǣpta (*tāpatjan) `just touch', norw. mdartl. tæpla `touch lightly, tread quietly'; but norw. mdartl. taap(e) m., dön. taabe `fool, rogue, awkward; clumsy person', norw. taapen `weak, feeble, ineligible', tæpe n. `insignificant; unimportant thing', anord. tǣpiligr `concise', with other labial grades schwed. mdartl. tabb, tabbe `gawk', tabbet `oafish', are probably onomatopoeic words, also as ndd. tappe, schweiz. tāpe, nhd. Tappe `paw', as well as tappen, töppisch etc; s. also under dhabh-1.

Likewise are to be kept away ahd. zabalōn, nhd. zappeln, as well as ahd. zapfo, nhd. Zapfen, ags.tæppa ds. (germ. *tappon-); also only germ. words with i and u (compare Specht Dekl. 152 f.):mengl. tippen, engl. tip `touch quietly, bump quietly', nhd. tippen, mhd. zipfen `(in swift movement) trip, scurry', anord. tifask `walk on tiptoe; trip', mhd. zipf `tip, cusp, peak', nasalized mnd.timpe f. `tip, end', ags. āḫtimplian `hold with nails'; on the other hand norw. mdartl. tuppa, nhd. zupfen, anord. toppr `tuft of hair, summit, acme, apex', ags. topp m. `cusp, peak, crest, summit, tip', toppa m. `filament', ahd. zopf `pigtail, braid, plait, end of a thing'; mnd. tubbe, tobbe `spigot', tobben `pluck, rend', söddt. zöfeln `waver' (as zapfeln); perhaps here also ahd. zumpo `penis', mhd. zumpf(e), nhd. Zumpt, whereat under dumb-.

Here toch. A tāp `ate', Van Windekens Lexique 187.

t-extension dǝ-t- (compare but das participle dǝ-tó-s):

gr. δατέομαι `divide, tear, rend, consume' (Fut. δάσσεσθαι, Aor. hom. δάσσασθαι, att. δάσασθαι), wherefore δασμός `division', δάσμα `lot', common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation

δατήριος `dividing, splitting' (this certainly from *δᾰ-τήρ: Old Indian dā-tár- `reaper, mower'), ἄδαστος `undivided'; δατέομαι is gr. neologism (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 676) and not idg. *dǝ-t-;

got. ungatass `disarrayed, disorderly' (compare ἄ-δαστος), mndl. getes `be submitting, suitable'; ahd. zetten `(distributing) strew, outspread', nhd. verzette(l)n, probably also anord. teðja `outspread dung', tað n. `(*outstretched) dung'; ahd. zota, zata f. `tuft of wool, hair hanging down together, filament or wool' (therefrom zaturra `a harlot, prostitute'), ags. tættec (expressives tt) `scrap, shred, tatter, rag', an. tǫturr `scrap, shred'; altdön. tothae, older dön. and dön. mdartl. tøde, taade `, retard, delay, hinder'.

Besides with u-Vok. anord. toddi `small piece', holl. todde `scrap, shred', ahd. zota, zotta `topknot', nhd. Zotte, Zote; mhd. zoten `go slowly', nhd. zotteln, ostfries. todden `pull, tear, drag' under likewise; about nhd. zaudern s. Kluge11 704.

toch. A töt-k `divide, carve, slit'.

s-extension d-es-:

Old Indian dásyati `suffers lack, swelters, languishes', upadásyati `goes out, is exhausted';

norw. dial. tasa `wear out', schwed. dial. tasa `pluck wool, outspread hay', ndd. tasen `pluck', nhd. Zaser, older Zasel `fibre, filament', norw. dial. tase m. `weak person', tasma `languish', tasa `become feeble'; ablaut. dön. mdartl. tæse `work slowly', ndd.tösen `work heavily', identical with norw. dön. tæse `disentangle, wear out, pull out'; compare in similar meaning norw. tasse `go quietly', taspa `go slowly and sluggishly', mhd. zaspen `scratch, go sluggishly', ahd. zascōn `seize, snatch, tear away' (actually `drag') = nhd. dial. zaschen, zöschen `drag, pull, tear, work slowly', zöschen f. `a train in the dress'; about ahd. tasca `pouch, pocket' s. Kluge11 612.

Maybe truncated alb. geg. (*zascōn) me zanë `to seize, snatch, tear away'

hitt. tešḫā- `keep oneself away from' (3. Sg. preterit ti-eš-ḫa-aš).

Maybe alb. geg. (*tešḫā) tesha Pl. `clothes, belongings, rags', teshë `speck of dust, little splinter, torn piece'

Besides with i-vocalism (idg. *di-s as extension to dī̆-ö Or only germ. neologismö):

schwed. dial. teisa, tesa `pull to pieces', dön. dial. tese `pluck (e.g. wool)', ags. tǣsan `pull to pieces', ahd. zeisan, zias `ruffle; tousle, pluck wool'; ostfries. holl. teisteren `rend', ags. tǣsel, ahd. zeisala `teasel', norw. mdartl. test `willow fibre, ringlet, hair lock', with ī norw.tīst `fibre, filament', tīsl `shrubbery', with mhd. zispen `go sluggishly' (as zaspen), probably also (ö) ags. teoswian `plague, disparage', teoso `insult, deceit, malice'.

Finally with u-vocalism: norw. dial. tosa `rub, wear out, pluck', also `flub, work slowly', tose `frail person', tos `fibers, ragged rigging', tossa `strew, distribute, outspread', mengl. tōtūsen `tousle, ruffle', mnd. tōsen `rend, pull', ahd. zirzūsōn `tousle, ruffle', mhd. zūsach `brushwood', zūse f. `brushwood, hair lock' under likewise; perhaps to lat. dūmus `a thorn bush, bramble brushwood, shrub' (*dū̆s-mo-s) and air. doss `bush'.

From PIE this root passed to Altaic:

Protoform: *dàma

Meaning: ill, sick, bad

Turkic protoform: *jAman

Tungus protoform: *dam-

Japanese protoform: *dàm-

Note: Despite SKE 75 there is no reason at all to suppose a Chinese origin of the Turkic form (MC ja-mạn'savage, barbarian' is too distant semantically; the usage of PT *jaman for a bad disease, sickness is very close to Japanese and may suggest that the original meaning of the root was'ill(ness), sick(ness)').

References: WP. I 763 ff., WH. I 322, 323 f., 859; Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 676.

See also: out at least basically as extensions from dā- `cut, split' agreeable root del- `split', del- `whereupon it is split apart', der- `split, flay' see under see under its own headwords.

Page(s): 175-179

Root / lemma: deiĝh-

English meaning: to prick; tick

German meaning: `prickeln, kitzeln'ö `zwickelndes Insekt'

Material: Arm. ti `tick';

mir. dega, Akk. degaid (*digāt-) `Hirschköfer';

germ. *tīkan-, with intensive sharpening *tikkan-, in ags. ticia m. (lies tiica or ticca), engl. tike and tick `wood tick, sheep louse', mnd. Zecke m. f. `wood tick', nhd. Zecke; besides a mediation form *tīkan- in mnd. teke, mhd. Zeche, engl. teke ds.;

norw. dial. tikka, ndd. ticken `stumble lightly', mhd. zicken ds.; ahd. zechon `pulsate, banter, skirmish'; engl. tickle `titillate'; nasalized ags. tindian ds.

A connection with dhēig- `prick' is not provable.

References: WP. I 777.

Page(s): 187-188

Root / lemma: deik̂-

English meaning: to show

German meaning: `zeigen'

Note: from which lat. and germ. partly `point to something with words, say', developed plural also `show the right, point to the culprit, accuse'

Material: Old Indian dídeṣṭi, diśáti, dēśayati `shows, point at', av. daēs- Aor. dōiš- `show' (daēsayeiti, disyeiti, daēdōišt) `show; assign something to somebody, adjudge', participle Old Indian diṣṭá- (= lat. dictus); diṣṭiḫḥ `instruction, regulation', av. ādišti-š `directive, doctrine' (= lat. dictiḫō, ags. tiht `accusation', ahd. in-, biḫziht ds., nhd. Verzicht), Old Indian diś- f. `instruction, direction', diśā `direction' (= δίκη `right, justice', from which probably lat. dicis causa `for form's sake, for the sake of appearances'), deśáḫḥ `(direction), region' = an. teigr see under;

gr. δείκνῡμι, secondary δεικνύω `points, shows, evinces', kret. προ-δίκνῡτι `ἐπιδείκνυσι', δεῖξις `the display' (with secondary lengthened grade), δίκη see above, δίκαιος, δικάζω, ἄδικος; the Perf. Med. δέδειγμαι, and δεῖγμα `averment, proof, example' not with idg. g, but gr. innovation;

lat. dīcere `to indicate; to appoint; most commonly, to say, speak, tell, mention; in pass. with infin., to be said to; to mention, speak of, tell of, relate; to name, call; to mean, refer to', dīcāre `announce solemnly, award, consecrate, dedicate, set apart, devote, offer', osk. deíkum `say', umbr. teitu, deitu `(Fut. Imper.) you will say, declare', changing through ablaut osk. dicust `will have said', umbr. dersicust ds., osk. da-díkatted `dēdīcavit', lat. dīciō `power, sovereignty, authority', indīcāre `indicate, display, show, offer', index `an informer; a sign, token; the forefinger; a title; a touchstone' (as also Old Indian deśinī `forefinger'), iūdex `a judge; in plur., a panel of jurors', vindex (vindicāre = vim dicere), causidicus; about urir. *Eku̯o-decas, Lugudec(c)as (Gen. Sg.) see under dek̂-1.

got. gateihan `indicate, promulgate', anord. tēa, newer tiā `show, depict, represent, explain, announce', ags. tēon `indicate, promulgate', ahd. zīhan `accuse, blame', zeihen `;

maybe alb. zihem `quarrel, argue'

wherefore anord. tīgenn `(*show, point out, reveal, advise, teach) noble', tīgn f. `rank; noble man, husband'; ahd. zeigōn `show', whereof zeiga `instruction'; inziht etc see above; further anord. teigr m. `linear part of meadow' (`*direction' = Old Indian deśáḫḥ `region, place, land'), changing through ablaut ags. tīg, tīh `meadow, pasture', mnd. tī(g) m. public collective place of a village', ahd. zīch `forum'.

Here presumably with the meaning `finger' (= `*pointer') and secondary, but already old `toe', ahd. zēha, ags. tāhe, , anord. `toe' (*dóik̂u̯ā), mnd. tēwe, nhd. and södd. zēwe ds. (*doik̂-u̯ā), and that probably from *dicitus through dissimilation against the toneless t resulted lat. digitus `finger, toe'.

Hitt. tek-kuš-ša-nu-mi `makes recognizable, points, shows, evinces' here after Sturtevant Lang. 6, 27 f., 227 ff.; doubts the formation because of E. Forrer by Feist 204.

Besides idg. doiĝ- in got. taikns f. `mark, token, sign, wonder, miracle', taikn n. ds., ahd. (etc) zeihhan n. `mark, token, sign', ags. tǣcan, engl. teach `instruct', anord. teikna `show, signify, designate', ahd. zeihhonōn `draw, depict, sign', got. taiknjan `show', ahd. zeihinen ds.

From germ. *taikna derives finn. taika- `omen, sign'.

Whether deik̂- and deiĝ- from dei- `bright shine' (also `see') are extended as `allow to see, allow to shine'ö

References: WP. I 776 f., WH. I 348 f., 351, 860, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 696 f., Feist 204, 472.

Page(s): 188-189

Root / lemma: dei-1, dei̯ǝ-, dī-, di̯ā-

English meaning: to shine; day; sun; sky god, god

German meaning: `hell glönzen, schimmern, scheinen'

Note: (older `*dart rays'ö)


The origin of the sky god was Anatolia, where the Sumerian sun god Utu was called father god: Utu + Root / lemma: pǝtḗ(r) Gen. pǝtr-és, -ós : `father' - `father Utu': Luvian DUTU-wa-az: 107 iii 8; KBo XXIX 25 ii 6*, DUTU-wa-za `sun god'.

Material: Old Indian dī́-dē-ti `seems, shines', 3. Pl. dīdyati, Impf. 3. Sg. ádīdēt, Imper. 2. Sg. didīhí, su-dī-tí-ḥ) `having nice brilliance', Kaus. dīpáyati `ignites, illuminates', dī́pyate `blazes, shines, seems' (about dīvyati see under), dīdi- `shining, seeming' (due to from dī́-de-ti); similar *doi-d-o- (broken Redupl.) in anord. teitr `cheerful, blithe, glad' (eigentl. `radiating'), ags. tǣtán `caress', tāt- (in names) `blithe, glad', ahd. zeiz `tender, graceful' (compare heiter and `clear, bright' as `blithe, glad'; Uhlenbeck Old Indian Wb. 126); perhaps here also lit. dìdis `big, large' as `handsome, considerable';

gr. hom. δέατο (Imperfect) `he saw, discerned, perceived', δεάμην ἐδοκίμαζον, ἐδόξαζον Hes., arkad. Konj. δεά̄τοι, hom. Aor. δοάσσατο `to appear', Konj. δοάσσεται, compared with arkad. Aor. δεά[σε]τοι with ο after ἔδοξε, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 6816; common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation

Maybe alb. (*δέελος) diel `(*bright) sun' [common alb. -e- > -ie- shift].

hom. δέελος `visible' (*δει̯ελος; with metr. lengthening εὐδείελος), δῆλος ds. (from *δέι̯αλος, from which also Hesychs δίαλος; hom. ἀρίζηλος `very distinct, clear, bright' (from *δι̯η-λός);

*doilo- presumably in ags. sweo-tol (from *tāl) `apparent, manifest, obvious, distinct, clear, bright' and in mir. dōel `beetle, chafer' (`shining black insect') as well as in ir. river names Daol (*doilā) as `the shining'. Here probably also lit. dailùs `dainty, pretty', dáilinti `smooth, adorn'.

With formants -tlo- presumably here being found only in the compound germ. *tīÞla- : zīdal-, nhd. Zeidel-, nd. tīl- `honey'(' clearness, shine - clear honey').

Against Pedersens raising from hett. te-eš-ḫa- `dream' (Muršilis 69) s. Couvreur H̯ 53 and above S. 178.

u̯-extension: dei̯eu- (: di̯éu-, diu̯-, di̯u-) `bright, divine revered sky and bright day:

Diphth. stem Nom. di̯ēus (dii̯ēus), Akk. di̯ēum, Vok. di̯ĕu, Lok. di̯éu̯i and di̯ēu, Dat. diu̯éi, Gen. diu̯-és, -ós; di̯ēus-pǝtēr `sky father, heavenly father'.

Old Indian dyā́uḥ (diyā́uḥ) `sky, heaven', Akk. dyā́m, Lok. dyáví, diví, Dat. divḗ, Gen. diváḥ (and dyōḥ), Instr. Pl. dyú-bhiḥ;

gr. Ζεύς (= dyāú-ḥ), Akk. Zῆν (= dyā́m), Vok. Ζεῦ (*di̯ĕu), Gen. Δι(F)ός, Dat. (Lok.) Δι(F)ί (Ζῆν lengthened Ζῆνα, Ζηνός, Zηνί; about Ζάς by Pherekydes of Syros s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 5774); the Gen. *diu̯es in thess. Διες-κουριάδεω, prien. Διες-κουρίδου (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 547);

Maybe rum. zeu `god' : alb. zot `god' : rum. zeiţă, zeitate, zână `goddess' : alb. zana f. `nymph, goddess', zota f. m. `gods' : gr. Ζῆνα [common alb. n > nt > t phonetic mutation].

in Lat. the old paradigm has split in two which designate the name of the uppermost God and the `day'; similarly in the Osk. and Umbr.:

Note: common lat. illyr. d- > l- phonetic mutation:

lat. Iuppiter from Iū-piter, umbr. Jupater Vok. = Ζεῦ πάτερ, to Nom. Old Indian dyā́ušpitā́ `father of the sky, heavenly father', Ζεὺς πατήρ, Dat. umbr. Iuvepatre, illyr. (Hes.) Δει-πάτυρος; lat. Gen. Iouis (altlat. also Diovis, also as Nom.), osk. Diúveí `Jove', íuvilam, older diuvilam `*iovilam', iúvilas `*iovilae' etc, compare GentilN lat. Iūlius (*Iovilios);

Maybe [from illyr. (Hes.) Δει - πάτυρος ] the compound alb. (*Δει - ἠέλιος) diel `sun god, sun', older dielë `Sunday (day of the sun)', where alb. follows lat. paradigm which designates the name of the uppermost God and the `day'.

Also alb. (*Jove-di, *jeudi) enjte `Thursday' similar to fr. jeudi `Thursday', ital. jovedi `Thursday'.

lat. Diēspiter (whereof Diālis `relating to Jupiter;'(flamen) dialis', the priest of Jupiter') with Akk. d()i̯ēm has changed after Nom. diēs, otherwise would prevail in the meaning `day', while to the name of `sky God' the ablaut grade *di̯ou̯- from *di̯eu- would be accomplished under the pressure of Vok. *di̯eu- (up to Diēspiter, also umbr. Di, Dei `[masc acc. sing.] god, [neut voc. sing.] god', contracted from diē-, so that Di(m) = *diēm); the old Nom. *diūs from *di̯ēus still standing in addition toVēdiovis, Vēiovis, Vē-diū̆s `old-röm. Underworld God';

in the meaning `day' lat. diēs see above (m.; as f. in the meaning `date, day month year (according to the calendar), period, time' presumably after nox), yet besides the older Nom. di̯ēus still in nu-diū̆s tertius `now is the 3. day', further diū `by day' (Lok. *di̯ēu̯ or *di̯ōu), `for a long time', `a long time ago' out of it `long'.

diminutive lat. diēcula `a little day, a short time', osk. [d]iíkúlús `days', zicolo m. `day';

Maybe alb. diel `sun', dielë `Sunday, (day of the sun)' are diminutive illyr. forms.

air. dīe, proclitic dīa `day' (from after the Akk. *dii̯ēm has changed *dii̯ēs), cymr. dydd, corn. deth, dyth, bret. deiz `day' (also); air. in-dīu `today', cymr. etc he-ddyw `today' (at first from *-dii̯ū, probably = lat. diū).

From the ablaut grade diu̯- in the meaning `day';

Old Indian dívā `during the day', divḗdivē `day by day' (divám Nom. otherwise `sky, heaven'), naktáṁdivam `night and day', sudivám `a nice day', sudivá-ḥ `having a nice day', arm. tiv `day', gr. ἔνδῑος `in the middle of the day (appearing)' (due to *ἐν διFί, compare ἐννύχιος); lat. dius, interdius `of the day, in the daytime, by day' (with lat. syncope from Gen. *diu̯ós); bi-, tri-duum (*diu̯om) `period of two, three days';

es-stem diu̯es- presumed from Old Indian divasáḫḥ `day', formal to dak. διεσεμα `common mullein, high taper', probably from *diu̯ese `luminous plant' (Detschev, Dak. Pflanzenn. 14 ff.); but gr. εὔδῐος (*εὔ-διFος) `clear, cheerful', older εὐδία `clear weather', to Old Indian su-divám (above); compare Sommer Nominalkomp. 73 ff.

*diu̯ios in Old Indian divyá-, diviá- `celestial', divyā́ni `the heavenly space', gr. δῖος (from *διFιος, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 472a) `divine, heavenly', lat. dīus `divine, god-like; hence fine, noble; also (apparently) out of doors, in the open air' (different from dīvus!), dīum `open space of heaven', sub dīo; Diāna deriving from *Diviāna, `the virgin goddess of the moon and hunting' *Diviā (ö); compare etr. Tiv `moon', tives `months', after Kretschmer Gl. 13, 111 f. from ital. *diviā, and orph. Πανδῖα `Selene (goddess of the moon)' from *παν-διFιᾰ `all kinds of illuminators'.

ablaut grade di̯u- in Old Indian dyu-mnám `splendor of the sky', dyu-mánt- `bright, light', verbal dyut- `gleam, shine' in dyṓtatē, Aor. ved. ádyaut `shines' (with t probably after śvit- `be bright'); compare also Old Church Slavic dъždь `rain', russ. dožd', ačech. dešč, etc, from *dusḫdi̯u- `bad weather', Trubetzkoj Z. sl. Ph. 4, 62 ff.


Probably from a fusion of Root / lemma: dheu̯es-, dhu̯ē̆s-, dheus-, dhū̆s- `to dissipate, blow, etc. *scatter, dust, rain, breathe, perish, die' + Root / lemma: dei-1, dei̯ǝ-, dī-, di̯ā- : `to shine; day; sun; sky god, god' derived slav. (*dus-diu-): Old Church Slavic: dъ žd ь `rain' [m jo] (see below).

o-stem déiu̯o-s `god, the divine':

Old Indian dēváḫḥ `god' (dēvī́ `goddess'), av. daēva- `demon';

lat. deus and dīvus, by of from the paradigm *deiu̯os (> deos), Gen. *deiu̯ī (> dīvī); osk.deívaí `goddess' (osk. deivinais = lat. dīvīnis; umbr. deueia `[fem. Acc. sing.] of a deity, goddess';

maybe alb. dif `giant'

osk. deiuatud `to swear an oath' = lett. dievâtiês `swear, vow'; lat. dīves `rich, wealthy; with abl. or genit., rich in', eigentl. `standing under the protection of the Gods', as slav. bogatъ, s. Schulze KZ. 45, 190);

gall. GN Dēvona, PN Dēvo-gnāta, air. dia, Gen. `god', acymr. duiu-(tit) `goddess, deity', mcymr. ncymr. duw, acorn. duy, bret. doué `god';

anord. tīvar Pl. `gods' (*deiu̯ōs) as well as anord. Tȳr (agerm. teiwaz) `the god of war', ags. Tīg, Gen. Tīwes `Mars', ahd. Zīo, Zio;

apreuß. deiw(a)s, lit. diẽvas `god' (deivė̃ `goddess, ghost' from *deiu̯i̯ā, diẽvo sūnẽliai `sons of the sky', finn. Lw. taiwas `sky, heaven'), lett. dìevs (verbal derivative lies before in lit. deivótis `say farewell', lett. dievâtiês see above), compare Trautmann 50, Möhlenbach-Endzelin I 484, 485 f. Against it are Old Church Slavic divъ m. `wonder, miracle', divo, -ese n. ds. (-es-stem probably previously after čudo, -ese ds), divьnъ `wonderful', didn't derive from concept `god, deity', but (as θαῦμα from θεάομαι) position itself to klr. dyvl'ú, dyvýty sja `see, look, show', čech. dívam se `look, see, observe', which behaves to Old Indian dī́-de-ti `shines' in the meaning as e.g. mhd. blick `lustre, shine, lightning' and `look of the eyes', nhd. glönzen : slav. ględati `see, show'.

en-stem *deien- (thematic deino-, dino-) only in the meaning `day':


The extension en-stem *deien- (thematic deino-, dino-) is of Illyrian origin. The attribute nouns that derived from adjectives in illyr. alb. take -ta, -nta suffix which was then reduced to common alb. n > nt > t phonetic mutation. (see alb. numbers)

originally conservative still in Old Church Slavic dьnь, Gen. dьne `day'; Old Indian dína-m (esp. in compounds `day', lat. nundinae `the market-day held during every ninth day',

maybe alb. (*dína) dita `day' : Old Indian dína-m (esp. in compounds `day' [common alb. n > nt > t phonetic mutation]

air. denus `a period of time', trēdenus `three days' time, three days'; alb. gdhinj `make day' from *-diḫnḫi̯ō;

maybe alb. gëdhinj `the day breaks' is a compound of zero grade *ego `I' + dína `I make the day'.

zero grade lit. dienà, lett. dìena, Old Prussian Akk. f. deinan `day' (Möhlenbach-Endzelin I 432 f., Būga Kalba ir. S. 227 f.); got. sinteins `daily, perpetual, everlasting'; perhaps here ahd. len(gi)zin `springtime' from *langat-tin as `having long days'.

Kretschmer leads back to gr. Tιν-δαρίδαι `sons of Zeus', etr. Tin, Tinia `Juppiter' of a pre-Greek Tin- `Diespiter (Zeus father)', respectively ital. *Dinus (idg. *din- `day, sky, heaven') (Gl. 13, 111; 14, 303 ff., 19, 207; s. also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 65); but the older form is Τυνδαρίδαι!

r-extension dēi-ro-, dī-ro- in:

germ. *tēra- (*dēi-ro-) and *tīra- (*dīro-) in ahd. zēri, ziari `precious, lovely, delightful, nice, superb, pretty, splendid, beautiful', ziarī `beauty, ornament, adornment', ziarōn `adorn, embellish', mnd. tēr `lustre, shine, fame, prospering; flourishing, good constitution', tēre and tīre `habit, kind and way', ags. as. tīr `honour, fame', anord. tīrr ds.; norw. dial. tīr `alertness, lookout, peering, light, lustre, shine', tīra `peek, sparkle, glitter';

in addition lit. dyrė́ti, dýroti `gawk, lurk', dairýtis, lett. daīrîtiês `stare about', Old Prussian endyrītwei (under likewise, see Būga Kalba ir. s. 227 f., Möhlenbach-Endzelin I 432 f.) `watch, see' (but bulg. díŕъ `search, seek' absents, s. Berneker 201);

toch. A tiri `kind and way'.

About hitt. šiwat- `day', šiwanni- `god' (from *di̯ēu-ö), hierogl.-hitt. tina- `god', šijāri `appears' (*di̯ā-ö) s. Pedersen Hitt. 57, 175 f.

To Old Indian dī́vyati `plays, shows, throws dice' (supposedly `throws the eye') compare with other ablaut dyūtám `dice game', further dēvanam `the game, dice game', and above dyṓtate `shines', dyutiḥ `lustre, shine', dyumánt- `bright, light'. Whether here also av. ā-dīvyeinti `bestir oneself, strive for' as `whereupon it is split apart'ö compare Wackernagel, Berl. Sbb. 1918, 396 f.

The fact that our root as `vibrating light' originally one has been from deiǝ- `hurry, whirl', seems conceivable.


Alb. cognate (*tiwali) diel `sun' corresponds to Luvian: tiwali(ya)- `of the Sun-(god)' and Hitt. dšiuš `(sun)god'.

Hitt. dšiuš `(sun)god', Luvian DŠiwata- `Sun-god' Attestations: [VSg] DŠi-wa-ta: KBo XXII 137 iii 8.

Commentary: Hittitized version of Luvian DTiwat-; tiwali(ya)- `of the Sun-(god)' Attestations: [VSg] ti-wa-a-li-ya: 45 ii 18, ti-wa-li-ya: 48 ii 11; XV 35 i 21; KBo VIII 69,5.

Commentary: As per Starke, StBoT 31.147, iyo-adj. to Tiwat- with -l- for -d-. See also tiwari(ya)-.

Luvian: tiwari(ya)- `of the Sun-(god)' Attestations: [N-APlNt] ti-wa-ri-ya: KBo II 3 iii 40.

Commentary: As per Popko, KZ 97.228f, and Starke, StBoT 31.147, iyo-adj. to Tiwat- with -r- for -d-.

Luvian DTiwat- `Sun-god' Attestations: [N/VSg] (D)Ti-wa-az: 68,16; 91,8, DUTU-wa-az: 107 iii 8; KBo XXIX 25 ii 6*, DUTU-wa-za: 78,9; 48 ii 19; 107 ii 12, DUTU-az: 127,9(ö); 133 ii 13; IX 31 ii 30; KBo XXIX 40,6; HT 1 ii 6, DUTU-za: 45 ii 25.26; 74,9, [VSg] ti-wa-ta(ö): 19,12(bis); XXXII 70,6(ö), ti-u-wa-ta(ö): KBo VII 68 iii 3, [ASg] DUTU-an: KBo IX 143 iii(!) 10, [DSg] DUTU-ti-i: 107 iii 10, DUTU-ti: 36,6; KBo XXII 254 Vo 7, [GenAdj] [NSgC] DTi-wa-d[a-aš-ši-iš]: 108,5, [DSg] DUTU-ša-an-za-a[n]: 90,7 (sic!).

Commentary: On the last example see Melchert, Gs Carter. Cf. also 107 iii 11 and XXXII 13,11*. The assignment of the tiwata forms here is tentative. Cf. the solution of Starke, StBoT 31.149!


The sky god originated in Anatolia where he had three eyes which signified the sun, the moon and Jupiter. Ancient people didn't make a clear distinction between the brightest planets and the sun. Actually the moon was a sun goddess. Her gender was determined by moon cycles identical with women's menstrual cycles. The oldest cognates for the sky god are found in Anatolian languages and Albanian. Those tongues make no distinction between Jupiter and the sun. Ancient Indo Europeans believed that there were several suns not just one. As the brightest celestial body at night sky, Jupiter was identified as the aspect of the sun at night - or just another sun. Because of their extreme luster Jupiter and often Mars were all considered minor sun gods. This is the reason why the brightest planet became known in illyr. Δει - πάτυρος `father god'. Probably Anatolian languages borrowed the sun god cognate from Sumerian Utu `sun god'.

References: WP. I 772 f., WH. I 345 f., 347, 349 f., 355, 357 f., 727, 732, 860, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 576 f.

Page(s): 183-187

Root / lemma: dei̯ǝ-2 (di̯ā-, di̯ǝ-, dī-)

English meaning: to swing, move

German meaning: `sich schwingen, herumwirbeln (balt. and partly griech.); eilen, nacheilen, streben'

Material: Old Indian dī́yati `flies, hovers'; gr. δῖνος m. `whirl, whirlpool; round vessel, round threshing floor', δί̄νη (Hom.), öol. δίννα (compare Διννομένης, Hoffmann Gr. D. II 484) `whirl, whirlpool',

δινέω, δῑνεύω, öol. δίννημι `spin in whirl or circle, swing, brandish'; intr. `turn me by dancing in circles'; pass. `roam around, reel around, roll (the eyes) whirl (from river), spin dancing around', δί̄νω öol. δίννω `thresh'; hom. δίω `flee', δίομαι `chase away' (with ostentatious distribution the intr. and tr. meaning in active and Medium), hom. δίενται `to hurry', δίεσθαι `flee', ἐνδίεσαν `rush', διερός (πούς) `fleeting' (after ἵετε, ἵεται: ἵενται to thematic δίεται analogical δίενται instead of *δίονται neologismö),

διώκω `pursue' (contaminated from Fιώκω and δίεμαι, Meillet MSL. 23, 50 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 702); hom. δίζημαι (Fut. hom. διζήσομαι) `strive for, be troubled about, search, seek', nachhom. also `investigate' (*δι-δι̯ᾱ-μαι), next to which due to *διᾱ-το- att. ζητέω `strive for, let me be concerned with'; here with originally *di̯ǝ- : ζάλη `storm, violent movement, particularly of the sea', ζάλος `whirlpool, violent movement of water'ö

compare about gr. words containing the ζ Schwyzer Gr. Or. I 330, 833.

Air. dīan `quick, fast', dēne `quickness'; lett. deju, diêt `dance', dìedelêt `go idly'. About lit. dainà `folk song' (to dejà `lamentationö') compare Möhlenbach-Endzelin I 432 with Lit.

Quite doubtful cymr. dig `mad, wicked, evil', russ. díkij `wild', lit. dỹkas `minxish, wanton, bratty, unengaged, leisured, unemployed, idle, lazy', lett. dīks `free of work', Old Church Slavic divьjь `wild' (Berneker 203 f., Möhlenbach-Endzelin I 478, Trautmann 54).

Not here gr. δόναξ `reed' (new ion. δοῦναξ and occasional dor. δῶναξ metr. lengtheningö Schulze Qunder ep. 205, Boisacq 196), δονέω `shake', ἁλίδονος `rove about in the sea' and lett. duonis, duõńi `reed, bulrushes'.

References: WP. I 774 ff.

Page(s): 187

Root / lemma: dek̂-1

English meaning: to take, *offer a sacrifice, observe a custom

German meaning: `nehmen, aufnehmen', daher `begrößen, Ehre erweisen'. Aus the meaning `annehmen, gern aufnehmen' fließt die meaning `gut passend, geeignet, sich schicken, ziemen, es jemandem recht machen; as unannehmbar darstellen, etwas einem gut shining, seeming machen, lehren, lernen'

Material: Old Indian daśasyáti `proves honour, venerates a god, is gracious' (Denomin. of *daśas- = lat. decus), daśā́ f. `state, status, fate, destiny'; av. dasǝm n. `property, belongings piece'; Old Indian Desiderat. dīkšatē `is consecrated', dīkšā́ `consecration' (*di-dk̂-s- with secondary ī), dákšati `is proficient, makes it right, is compliant', dákša-ḥ `proficient, skilful' (but av. daxš- `instruct, teach, instruct', npers. daxš `business, toil' stay away because of the Gutturals), lengthened grade Old Indian dāśnṓti, dā́šṭi, dā́śati `offer a sacrifice, give, proves honour, grants', dāśvás- `honoring the Gods, godly, pious'; av. dāšta- `receive, obtains, attains' (participle);

after Frisk Etyma Armen. 25 f. here arm. ǝncay `gift' from *ǝnd-tisāti- (urarm. -tis- from *dēk̂-); whether tesanem `I behold'ö (compare under δοκεύω); different Meillet Esquisse 135;

gr. (ion. öol. kret.) δέκομαι `take in, accept', att. δέχομαι, athemat. hom. 3. Pl. δέχαται (χ after *δέχθω, Infin. δέχθαι), Aor. δέκτο, participle δέγμενος, compare προτίδεγμαι προσδέχομαι Hes. (γμ instead of κμ); κ is preserved in δοκός `[absorption] beam', δοκάν θήκην Hes. (out of it lat. doga `a sort of vessel (perhaps a measure)'), δοκάναι αἱ στάλικες Hes., δεζάζω `to captivate, fascinate, be impressive', δωρο-δόκος `the take of presents', δεξαμενή (participle Aor.) `water container, water carrier', ἀρι-δείκετος `distinguished' (ει metr. lengthening); nasal present *δεικνvμαι (: Old Indian dāśnṓti) in participle δεικνύμενος `rendering homage, honoring, greeting', to δεικανόωντο `to greet'; intensive δειδέχαται ds., δει-δίσκομαι `greet' (for *δη-δέ(κ)-σκομαι after the present auf -ίσκω); δει- could be read δη- (idg. ē), δεικν- also δεκν-, and δεικα- could be metr. lengthening for δεκα- (Schwyzer Gr Gr. I 648, 697); causative δοκέω (= lat. doceō `to teach, instruct (with acc. of person or thing); with clause, to inform that or how;'docere fabulam', to teach a play to the actors, to bring out, exhibit', δοκεῖ μοι `it seems to me' (`is suitable to me'); δόξα f. `opinion, fame' (*δοκ-σα), δόγμα n. `decision', δόκιμος `respectable, approved'; δοκεύω `to see, discern, perceive, observe; to think, suppose, imagine, expect', προσ-δοκάω `anticipate, expect'; about διδάσκω see under dens-1.

Maybe alb. geg. doke `custom, ritual, tradition (observed)', (*deuk-) dukem `appear, seem'.

Alb. shows that from Root / lemma: dek̂-1 : `to take' derived the nasalized Root / lemma: tong-1 (*teng-) : `to think, feel'.

alb. ndieh `to feel' (*dek̂-skō-ö); ndesh `find, encounter' probably slav. Lw.ö S. under dēs-;

lat. decet, -ēre `it is proper, it is fitting (physically or morally)', decus, -oris n. `distinction, honor, glory, grace; moral dignity, virtue; of persons, pride, glory', dignus `worthy, deserving; esp. of persons, usually with abl. or genit. of things, worth having, deserved, suitable, fitting' (from *dec-nos, eigentl. `adorned with'); umbr. tic̨it decet `(see in addition EM. 257); causative doceō, -ēre `instruct' (`lets accept something'); discō, -ere, didīci `to learn, get to know;'discere fidibus', to learn to play on the lyre; in gen., to receive information, find out; to become acquainted with, learn to recognize' (from *di-elk̂-skō);

air. dech `the best' (= lat. decus); also in PN Echuid (*ek̂voḫdek̂ḫs), Gen. Echdach, Luguid, Gen. Luigdech (urir. Lugu-deccas with cc = k), whether does not stand for e for older i; then to deik̂- `point', in the meaning `order'.

Perhaps here germ. *tehḫu̯ōn in ags. teohhian, tiohhian `mean, decide, define, ordain, determine', teohh, tiohh `troop, multitude, crowd, group of people', tēon (*tehōn) `decide, define, ordain, determine', ahd. gizehōn `bring in order', mhd. zeche `alignment, guild, brotherhood, colliery, association', nhd. Zeche, mhd. zesem (*teksma-) `uninterrupted row', wherefore perhaps with lengthened grade (*tēʒ-u̯ō) got. tēwa `order', gatēwjan `dispose'; s. above also under deu̯ā- `move spatially forward'.

Doubtful Old Church Slavic dešǫ, desiti `find', skr. dȅsîm dèsiti `meet', refl. `meet somebody', čech. po-desiti and u-desiti `catch up, catch'; changing through ablaut russ.-Church Slavic dositi `find, meet'; s. also under dēs-.

Toch. A tök- `adjudicate, decide, determine'; dubious A tāskmāṃ (*tākskḫmāṃ) `similar', Van Windekens Lexique 137; Pisani Rč. R. 1st. Lomb. 76, 2, 30.

For es-stem Old Indian daśas(yáti), lat. decus the words stand for `right' (Specht KZ. 62, 218).

dek̂s- with variant suffixes:

common Old Indian ĝh- > kṣ- phonetic mutation

Old Indian dákṣiṇa-, dakṣiṇá- `on the right, to the south, skilful', av. dašina- `right', lit. dẽšinas ds., dešinė̃ `the right hand', Old Church Slavic desnъ `right'; gr. δεξιτερός = lat. dexter, -tra, -trum (compounds dexterior, Superl. dextimus), osk. destrst (abbreviated from *destrust) `it is on the right', umbr. destrame `on the right side'; gr. δεξιός `right, heralding luck, skilful, adroit' (from δεξι- with formants -Fo-, compare gall. Dexsiva dea); (the suffix -u̯o- probably after *laiḫu̯os, skaiḫu̯os `links') air. dess `on the right, to the south', cymr. deheu (*deksovo-) ds., got. taíhswa, ahd. zeso `right', got. taíhswō- ahd. zes(a)wa `the right hand'; alb. djathtë `right' (that from G. Meyer identical with it Church Slavic destъ is probably corruption for desnъ, s. Berneker 187).


The etymology of G. Meyer seems erroneous because of the common alb. -k̂- > -th- phonetic mutation similar as lat. dexter, -tra, -trum is a suffixed form of old PIE Root / lemma: dek̂-1 : `to take'. The -ter,-tra suffix has been attested in av. illyr. alb. and lat. Hence before -tra, -ter suffix the -k- becomes usually -ks- in all the above mentioned languages. Hence alb. (*dek̂-) djath-të `right' evolved from the common alb. -k- > -th- phonetic mutation like in alb. (mag-) math `big' while -të is the common alb. suffix as in alb. maj-të `left' from lat. male `badly, ill, wrongly, wickedly, unfortunately, extremely'.

References: WP. I 782 f., WH. I 330 f., 346 f,, Trautmann 53, 54, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 648, 678, 684, 697, Wistrand Instrumentalis 14 ff.

Page(s): 189-191

Root / lemma: dek̂-2 (: dok̂-, dēk̂-)

English meaning: to tear

German meaning: `reißen, zerreißen, zerfassern'

Material: Old Indian daśā `protruding sheet filaments at the end of fabric, fringes'; ir. dūal `lock, curl of hair'(*dok̂lo-); got. tagl n. `single hair', anord. tagl n. `the hair in the horse's tail', ags. tægl (engl. tail) m. `tail', ahd. zagel `tail, sting, prick, male member, rod';

got. tahjan `rend, pull, tear, tug', distahjan `scatter', isl. tæeja, tāa `teasels', norw. dial. tæja (*tahjan) and taa (*tahōn) `fray, tear';

anord. tāg, Pl. tǣger and tāgar f. `fibre, filament', mhd. zāch, zāhe f. `wick, slow match (wick)'; in other meaning (`tugging - lugging, pulling out') norw. mdartl. taag `slow and enduring',

maybe alb. tegel `sewing'

mnd. tēge, ostfries. tāge `stringy, tenacious' and ahd. zag `hesitating, undecided, shy, timid' wherefore zagēn `be desperate and undecided';

perhaps here as `from which one tears himself' or `ragged, rimose piece', mhd. zacke m. f., nhd. Zacke, mengl. takke `fibula, clasp, a large nail', engl. tack `peg, small nail', with other final sound tagg, tagge m. `jutting cusp, peak, prong, spike'; or belongs Zacke to lett. dęgums `nose, shoe point'ö

Maybe alb. takë `shoe heel (spikeö)'

perhaps here as `in which one tears himself' or `ragged, cracked piece', mhd. zacke m. f., nhd. Zacke, mengl. takke `fibula', engl. tack `pencil, small nail', with other final sound tagg, tagge m. `excellent point, point'; or Zacke to lett. dęgums hear `nose, shoe point'ö

References: WP. I 785.

See also: see also under denk̂-.

Page(s): 191

Root / lemma: dek̂m̥, dek̂m̥-t, dek̂u- (*du̯e-k̂m̥-t)

English meaning: ten

German meaning: `zehn'


Root / lemma: dek̂m̥, dek̂m̥-t, dek̂u- (*du̯e-k̂m̥-t): `ten' is an extended Root / lemma: du̯ō(u) (*du̯ei-): `two'. The subsequent roots *u̯ī-k̂m̥t-ī : `twenty' and k̂m̥tóm `hundred' are mutated forms of the root *du̯e-k̂m̥-t : `ten'. They both reflect the common illyr.- balt d- > zero phonetic mutation.

Material: Old Indian dáśa, av. dasa; arm. tasn (after Meillet Esquisse 42 from *dek̂-, as russ. (tri)dcatь `30' from (tri-)dьseti), gr. δέκα, lat. decem (dēnī `per ten' from *dekḫnoi; PN Decius = osk. Dekis, Gen. Dekkieis), osk. deketasiúí, Nom. Pl. degetasiús `manager of the tithes' (*deken-tāsio-),

umbr. desen-(duf) `twelve', air. deich, cymr. deg, corn. bret. dek, got. taíhun (-n as in sibun, niun), an. tiu, ags. tien, tyn, as. tehan, ahd. zehan (a probably from den compounds, Brugmann II 2, 18),

toch. A śök, B śak; finn. deksan `10' is after Jokl Pr. ling. Baudouin de Courtenay 104 borrows from Idg.).

In the substantive number dek̂m̥-t(i), eigentl. `decade', go back:

Old Indian daśat-, daśati- f. `decade', alb. djetë, gr. δεκάς, -άδος (to α s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 498, 597), got. táihun-tēhund `hundred' (actually `ten decades'), anord. tiund f. ds., apreuß. dessīmpts `ten', lit. dẽšimt, old dẽšimtis, lett. old desimt, metath. desmit, old desmits (compare desmite m. f. `ten'); Old Church Slavic desętь (conservative stem in -t, Meillet Slave comm.2 428);

dek̂u- probably in lat. decuria `a body of ten men; a class, division, esp. of jurors; a party, club' (out of it borrows nhd. Decher ö.. `ten pieces'; late lat. *teguria is assumed through schweiz. Ziger `ten pounds of milk'; probably identical with mhd. ziger `curd') = umbr. dequrier, tekuries `decuries, feast of decuries'; compare osk.-umbr. dekvia- in osk. (vía) Dekkviarim `(a way) appropriate to a decury', umbr. tekvias `a way to a decury'; in addition probably germ. *tigu- `decade' in got. fidwor-tigjus `40', aisl. fjōrer-tiger, ags. fēower-tig, ahd. fiorḫzug ds. Older explanations by WH. I 327 f. and Feist 150. see also under under centuria under Kluge11 under Decher.

Maybe alb. tek `odd number'

Changing through ablaut (d)k̂m̥t- (Dual), (d)k̂ō̆mt- (Plur.) in figures of ten (only formations up to 50 are provable as idg.), e.g. Old Indian triṃśát `30', av. ϑrisąs, arm. ere-sun, gr. τριά̄κοντα (from *-κωντα; further details by Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 592), lat. tri-gintā (with unexplained g), gallo-lat. Abl. Pl. TRICONTIS, air. trīcho (with ī after trī `3'), bret. tregont (*triḫk̂omtḫes), acymr. trimuceint (in the ending after uceint `20'); s. also under u̯ī̆-k̂m̥tī̆ `20'.

ordinals dek̂emo-s and dek̂m̥-to-s:

dek̂emo-s in Old Indian daśamá-ḥ, av. dasǝma-, osset. dösöm; lat. decimus, therefrom decumānus `of the tenth.(1) relating to the provincial tax of a tenth; m. as subst. the farmer of such a tax. (2) belonging to the tenth legion; m. pl. as subst. its members. (3) belonging to the tenth cohort', later `considerable', osk. Dekm-anniúís `*Decumaniis `, compare also EN Decumius, out of it entl. etr. tecumnal, latinized back Decumenus; gall. decametos, air. dechmad, mcymr. decvet, corn. degves.

dek̂m̥-to-s in gr. δέκατος (see also Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 595); got. taíhunda, anord. tīunda, ahd. zehanto, zehendo, ags. teogeða; apreuß. dessīmts, lit. dešim̃tas, lett. desmitais, older desimtaiš; Old Church Slavic desętь; toch. A śkönt, B śkante, śkañce (linguistic singles arm. tasn-erord, alb. i-dhjetë);


Anatolian languages show a pattern similar to alb. So Lycian aitãta (*ok̂tō(u)ta) `eight' : alb. teta `eight'; Lycian ñuñtãta `nine' : alb. nanda `nine'. Therefore alb. shtata `seven' derived from a truncated *sa(p)tata `seven' later Old Indian saptáthaḥ, av. haptaϑ a-, as. sivotho, ags. seofoða, lit. septiñtas; also Old Indian saptatí-, av. haptāiti- 70; in alb. -ta, -të are attribute endings that were solidified in Anatolian and Indic cognates. The attribute ta (used in the genitive and adjectives) is unique to alb. language alone.

Therefore alb. teta `eight' is a zero grade of Lycian aitãta (*ok̂tō(u)ta) `eight'. It was initially an ordinal number used as an attribute [compare lat. octuāgintā `80'].

Alb. tosk. nanta, geg. nanda `nine' derived from Lycian ñuñtãta `nine'.

Alb. gjashta (sek̂s-ta) `six' [common alb. s- > gj- phonetic mutation] : Old Indian ṣáṭ `six', ṣaṣṭhá- `sixth' was initially an ordinal number.

Hence alb. die-ta `ten' derived from a proto Romance cognate *die + common alb. -ta suffix used in attribute nouns; similarly in: Portuguese dez, Galician dez, Spanish diez, Ladino dies, Asturian diez, Aragonese diez, Auvergnat dié, Limosin die, Rumantsch Grischun diesch, Sursilvan diesch, Vallader desch, Ladin díesc, Italian dieci, Venetian diese etc.

Here k̂m̥tóm `hundred' from *(d)km̥tóm `(ten) dekades':

Old Indian śatám, av. satǝm (out of it finn. sata, krimgot. sada);

gr. ἑκατόν, ark. ἑκοτόν (from dissimil. *sém k̂m̥tom `a hundred'ö compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 592 f.), abbreviated *κατον in *τετρά-κατον etc (in τετρακάτιοι τετρακόσιοι, 400', `four hundred');


Gr. ἑκατόν (*hekaton) < *(d)km̥tóm `(ten) dekades' is crucial to crucial for tracing the cause of old laryngeal appearance in IE. Hence laryngeals were created after the loss of initlal d- in IE. Gr. and Anatolian tongues reflect the common illyr.- balt d- > zero phonetic mutation.

lat. centum (in addition ducentum, ducentī `200', compare Old Indian dvi-śatam from *du̯i-k̂mtóm; trecentī `300', quadringentī `400', etc; centēsimus `the hundredth' after vīcēsimus, trīcēsimus from*u̯ei-, *trī-k̂m̥t-temo-s);

air. cēt, cymr. cant, bret. kant, corn. cans;

got. as. ags. hund, ahd. hund `100' (in compounds from 200), but an. hund-rað (to got. raÞian `count') `120 pieces (10 dozens)' (`120'), out of it ags. hundred; mhd. nhd. hundert from as. hunderod;

lit. šim̃tas, lett. sìmts;

Old Church Slavic etc sъto is barely iran. Lw. (Meillet Slave commun.2 63);

toch. A könt, B könte.

Alb. geg. , tosk. di `two' hence alb. (*hönt) alb. një-qind `one- hundred' [common alb. ö > i phonetic mutation], hence alb. displays centum characteristics while rum. sută `a hundred' displays the satem nature of rum.

In addition a r-derivative in lat. centuria f. `a division of 100; a company of soldiers; a century, a part of the Roman people, as divided by Servius Tullius' (as decuria), an. hundari, ahd. huntari n. `a division of 100, administrative district', abg. sъtorica ds., lit. šimteriópas `characterized by a hundred', šimtér-gis `hundred-year-old'.

References: WP. I 785 f., WH. I 200 f., 327 ff., 859, Feist 150, 471 f., Trautmann 53, 305.

Page(s): 191-192

Root / lemma: del-1

English meaning: to put by; to count, tell

German meaning: `zielen, berechnen, nachstellen', also `listig schödigen' and `zöhlen, erzöhlen'

Material: Perhaps arm. toɫ `line, row', toɫem `line up';

gr. δόλος `artifice, bait', δολόω `outwit, circumvent', δόλων `small dagger of the assassinator' (about δόλων `sprit' see under del-3);

from Gr. have been borrowed lat. dolus `a device, artifice; fraud, deceit, guile; a trap artifice, deception', dolō `a pike, sword-stick, a small foresail', osk. Akk. dolom, Abl. dolud `a device, artifice; fraud, deceit, guile; a trap';

maybe alb. (*tāl) tall `tease, trick': anord. tāl f. `deceit, guilefulness'.

anord. tal n. `bill, account, invoice, calculus, reckoning, calculation, number, speech' (ags. tǣl n. `calculation, row', gital `number'), therefrom an. telja `recount, narrate, relate', ags. tellan, ahd. zellen (Fem. anord. tola `speech, number, bill, account, invoice, calculus, reckoning, calculation'), ags. talu `narration, row', ahd. zala `number, report, account' (therefrom an. tala `talk', ags. talian `reckon, consider, think, tell', ahd. zalōn `calculate, count, pay'); g-extension in engl. talk `talk'; from s-stem *talaz- n.: got. talzian `instruct', unḫtals `indocile, disobedient', in addition ags. getǣl `rash, hasty, quick, fast', as. gital ahd. gizal `quick, fast'; with the in dolus `a device, artifice; fraud, deceit, guile; a trap' present coloring of meaning lengthened grade anord. tāl f. `deceit, guilefulness', ags. tǣl f. `reprimand, slander, derision', ahd. zāla `pestering, temptation; snare, danger', zālōn `tear away, rob'; zero grade ags. tyllan `allure, entice' (*dl̥n-).

Original resemblance with del- `split' is doubtful; perhaps from the hatchet being aimed at the wood to be split or from the technique of runes (number marks as incision)ö

About *dil- in got. ga-tils `fitting', etc, see under ad-2; probably barely from of an additional form *daiḫl- here. An association with *del- Persson attempted root extension 115, Pedersen KZ. 39, 372, while they, deriving from -, dāi- `divide', *deḫl- and *daiḫl-, dī̆-l- grasped as parallel extensions.

References: WP. I 808 f.

Page(s): 193

Root / lemma: del-2

English meaning: to shake

German meaning: `wackeln, schwanken'

Material: Old Indian dulā́ f. `the wavering', with secondary lengthened grade ō: dōlayatē `swings, sways', -ti `swings, whirls up', dōlita- `fluctuating, moves by oscillating'; lit. del̃sti `tarry, hesitate', dulinė́ti `amble, bum';

with d-extension doubtful (ö) Old Indian duḍi- f. `a small turtle, tortoise' (`waddling'), rather ags.tealt `doubtful, uncertain, wavering', tealt(r)ian `waver, wobble, sway, be doubtful, uncertain', engl. tilt `incline', mndl. touteren `waver, wobble, sway, swing', norw. mdartl. tylta `tread quietly, like on toes', schwed. tulta `walk with small, insecure steps, like children';

with t-extension ahd. zeltāri, mhd. zelter, md. zelder `pacesetter, going on a trot, trotting', nhd. Zelter, anord. tjaldari ds. (influence of lat. tolūtārius `pacesetter, going on a trot, trotting'; compare isl. tölta `march in step, match in tempo' from *talutōn; the relationship to that mentioned by Plinius span. words thieldones `pacesetter, going on a trot, trotting' is unclear), anord. tjaldr `Haematopus ostralegus, Eurasian oystercatcher' (`the trudger'); but rather with -ll- from -ln- anord. tolla `hang loose', tyllast `toddle, walk on tiptoe; trip'. compare Falk-Torp under kjeld, tulle.

Maybe alb. tul `boneless meat, pulp, leg meat (also meat hanging lose)'

References: WP. I. 809.

Page(s): 193-194

Root / lemma: del-3 (dol-), delǝ-

English meaning: to split, divide

German meaning: `spalten, schnitzen, kunstvoll behauen'

Material: Old Indian dā̆láyati `splits, makes break, crack', dálati `cracks' (meaning influenced by phálati `broken in two', Göntert Reimw. 48), dalitá-ḥ `split, pull apart, blossomed, flourished',

dalaḫm n. `deal, portion, piece, half, leaf', dalíḫḥ f. `clod of earth'; but Prakr. ḍālā, `bough', probably also daṇḍá-ḥ, -m `stick, bludgeon, beating, punishment' are after Kuiper Proto-Munda 65, 75 not idg.;

arm. probably taɫ `imprinting, impression, mark, token, sign, stave', taɫem `stamps, brands' (Scheftelowitz BB. 29, 27; *del-);

gr. δαίδαλος, δαιδάλεος `wrought artificially', Intens. δαι-δάλλω `work skillfully, decorate' (dissimil. from *δαλ-δαλ-, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 647); δέλτος (changing through ablaut kypr. δάλτος) `(*writing board) a writing-tablet' (`wood fissure, smoothly slammed wood board', s. Boisacq 174 m. Lit. and to meaning esp. Schulze KZ. 45, 235; compare to the form under nhd. tent); perhaps here δόλων `sprit, small sail' (out of it lat. dolō m. `a pike, sword-stick; a small foresail'); quite doubtful whereas δαν-δαλ-ίς, δενδαλίς `cakes of the flour of roasted barley' δεν-δαλ-ίδες ἱεραὶ κριθαί as `crushed, coarsely ground' (= `*split'öö Prellwitz2 104 between); lengthened grade δηλέομαι `destroy, smash, damage' (not to lat. dēleō `to blot out, efface; in gen., to destroy, annihilate'); reduced grade ion. πανδάλητος `annihilated', φρενο-δαλής `disturbed senses' Aisch.; el. κα-δαλήμενοι with el. ᾱ from η (see Boisacq 182; against it Wackernagel Gl. 14, 51); with the meaning change `(the heartö) tear, maltreat, cause pain' gr. δάλλει κακουργεῖ Hes. (*deli̯ō), δαλῇ κακουργῇ (δαλήσασθαι λυμήνασθαι. ἀδικῆσαι, δάλαν λύμην); compare also lett. dēlīt `torment, smite, agonize' and lat. doleō `to suffer pain, physical or mental, to be pained, to grieve; of things, to cause pain', dolor `pain, physical or mental; esp. disappointment, resentment. Transf., cause of sorrow; rhet., pathos';

alb. dalloj `separate, distinguish, divide', djal `kid, child, offspring (*offshoot)' (*delno-; compare mir. del `rod');

lat. dolō, -āre `to hew with an axe, to work roughly', dolābra `a pick-axe, mattock, hoe', lengthened grade dōlium `a wine-jar, cask, barrel, vat' (as proto slav.*dьly `barrel, vat, cask' see under); doleō, dolor see above (but dēleō is because of Perf. dēlēvi probably new formation from dēḫlēvi `has erased, effaced, obliterated, blotted out');

air. delb f. `shape, form', acymr. delu, ncymr. delw `image, figure, effigy', corn. del, as with causative ablaut air. dolb(a)id `shaped', doilbthid `a worker in clay, potter' (to kelt. *delu̯ā, *dolu̯-, compare ū-stem slav. dьly); perhaps air. fo-dālim `discern, separate, exclude' (etc, s. Pedersen KG.II 502 f.), acorn. didaul `having no part in, not sharing in; wanting in, destitute of' (compare Old Indian and balt.-slav, words for `deal, portion'), perhaps air. fo-dālim `discerno, sejungo' (etc., see Pedersen KG.II 502 f.), acorn. didaul `expers' (compare Old Indian and balt.-slav, words for `part'), cymr. gwa-ddol `a portion or dowry' as o-forms besides δηλέομαι (just as well but as *dāḫl- correlate to *dā(i)- `divide'); probably mir. del `staff, rod' (as `split piece wood'), corn. dele `antenna' (or to θάλλω idg. *dhā̆l-, whose certain attachments indeed point only a-vocalismö; with meaning- transfer alb. djalë `kid, child, youth, youngling' ö see below dhā̆l-);

mnd. tol, tolle `point of twig, branch', holl. tol `spinning top' (`*peg, plug'), mhd. zol(l) m., zolle f. `cylindric bit of wood, clot, chunk, block, toggle', zol as measurement of length `inch', īs-zolle `icicle', anorw. horntylla `yoke, wood piece connecting the horns of two oxen going in the bottom plate' (*dl̥-n-); but mhd. zulle, zölle, nhd. Zölle `riverboat, barge' is probably in spite of Persson Beitr. 174 not genuine germ., but Lw. from dem Slav., s. Kluge11 under Zölle `riverboat, barge'; other formations holl. tolk `stick, rod, chopstick', schwed. tolk `wedge', mhd. zolch `clot, chunk, block, (*blockhead), lubber' (whether anord. tālkn n. `gill of fish' as `the split'ö Falk-Torp under tōkn); with -d ndd. talter `rag, scrap, shred' (Holthausen Afneuere Spr. 121, 292);

with t-suffix germ. *telda- `*stretched tent pole' (: gr. δέλτος) in anord. tiald `curtain, cover, rug, tent', ags. teld n. `tent', ahd. nhd. zelt, actually `stretched cover'; in addition ahd. zelto, nhd. Zelten, Zeltkuchen; or better as `shredded, ground' (see above δενδαλίς) to toch. B tselt-, tsālt- `chew'; from Germ. Lidén aaO. still ranks aschwed. tialdra, tiældra `cairn' in (*telḫÞrōn- or -ðrōn `*shaft, pole, peg, plug as as a boundary marker'ö);

lit. dylù, dìlti (delù, dil̃ti), lett. dęlu, dilstu, dil̃t `wear out, polish' (from `*to plane'), dèlît `wear out, torment, smite'; lit. pùs-dylis (mė́nuo) `moon in the last quarter', delčià `decreasing moon', causative lett. dèldêt `wear out, liquidate, rub off, destroy', diluot `skive, abrade, polish';

out of it derived the concept of smoothness justified probably the transference there of lit. délna (by Juszkiewicz also dáɫna), lett. del̃na `inner flat hand', Old Church Slavic dlanь `palm', russ. old dolonь, nowadays reconverted ladónь `palm; flat place on the threshing floor, threshing floor' (Berneker 208, Trautmann 51, different Möhlenbach-Endzelin I 454);

lit. dalìs, ostlit. dalià `deal, portion, inheritance; alms' (= Old Indian dalí-ḥ `clod of earth'), dalijù, dalýti `divide', lett. dal `a `deal, portion, lot', dalît `divide', Old Prussian dellieis `divide, share!', dellīks `deal, portion' (e from a, Trautmann Old Prussian 100), russ. (etc) dólja `deal, portion, lot' (in addition Old Church Slavic odolěti `defeat, conquer' = `*have, obtain the best part', Berneker 206). compare Möhlenbach-Endzelin I 435.

Doubtful Old Church Slavic dělъ `deal, portion': either as *dēlo-s here, or rather with idg. ai as *dai-lo- to root dā(i)- `divide'; about got. dails, nhd. Teil see above under dā-, dāi-.

Proto slav. ū-stem *dьly, Gen. *dъlъve (: air. delb from *delu̯ā) in russ.-Church Slavic delvi (*dъlъvi) Lok. Sg., N. Pl. `barrel, vat, cask', mbulg. dьli (*dьly), Lok. Sg. dьlьvi `barrel, vat, cask', nbulg. delva (*dьlъva) `big clay vessel with two handles';

toch. A tālo, B tallāwo `unlucky', Van Windekens Lexique 136 (ö); rather B tsalt-, tsālt- `chew', Pedersen Toch. Sprachg. 18 f.

extension del-gh-, dl-egh-; dolgho- etc `sickle, blade'.

Indo-iran. *dargha- (dolgho-) is assumed through mordvin. Lw. tarvas `sickle'; compare pamirdial. lǝrégūś ds.;

air. dlongid `he splits', dluige (*dlogi̯o-) `the fissured', mir. dluigim `split';

anord. telgja `hew, cut out', talga `the cutting, carving', talgo-knīfr `slice knife', also anord. tjalga `thin twig, branch, long arm', ags. telga m. `twig, branch, bough', telgor m. f., telgra m. `twig, branch, scion', mhd. zelge, zelch `bough, twig, branch', ahd. zuelga `twig, branch' (whose zw- probably previously is taken over from zwig);

about lit. dal̃gis, Gen. -io m., lett. dalgs, Old Prussian doalgis `scythe' see under dhelg-;

dolghā in serb. dlaga `board for the splint of broken bones', poln. mdartl. dɫožka `flooring from planks', čech. dláha (dlaha) `board, splint, base of the ground', dlážiti (dlažiti), dlážditi `pave, hit the screed' (Berneker 207).

As for *del- `whereupon it is split apart' is also for that with it perhaps originally resemble*del- `split' given the possibility, that dḫel- is an extension from [i]- `divide, share'.

References: WP. I 809 ff., WH. 364 ff., Lidén KZ. 56, 216 ff., Pedersen Toch. Sprachg. 18 f.

Page(s): 194-196

Root / lemma: del-4

English meaning: to rain

German meaning: `tröpfeln'

Material: Arm. teɫ `heavy rain', teɫam, -em, -um `to rain, shower, sprinkle, irrigate', tiɫm (*teɫimö), Gen. tɫmoi;

mir. delt m. `dew'; also FlN; bret. delt `humid, wet, moist';

germ. *dol-kó- or *dol-gho- in dan. schwed. norw. talg `tallow, suet', ags. *tealg, mengl. talgh, engl. tallow, nnl. talk, nhd. Talg (from Ndd.); ablaut. anord. tolgr (*tl̥-kó-) ds.


mir. delt m. `dew'; bret. delt `humid, wet, moist' display alb.-illyr -k > -th, -t subsequent phonetic mutations.

References: Petersson Heterokl. 198 f., different Kluge11 under `tallow, suet'.

Page(s): 196

Root / lemma: del-5

English meaning: long

German meaning: `lang', verbal `in die Lönge ziehen'

Note: to put away more confidently only for Slav., but probably the basis for the widespread extension delēgh- and (d)longho- (see finally Persson Beitr. 889, 903 Anm. 1)

Material: Perhaps here anord. talma `hinder', mnd. talmen `loiter, be slow in talking and at work, stupid talk', norw. mdartl. tøla `hesitate, wait, hold on', tøle `rogue, fool' (Persson Beitr. 889);

Old Church Slavic pro-dьliti `μηκῦναι', russ. dlitь `protract, hesitate', dliná f. `length', čech. dle f. `length', dlíti `hesitate', etc (Berneker 252); perhaps vъ dalję `far, aloof' (Meillet MSL.14, 373; Berneker 177 besides other supplements).

delēgh-, dḹghó-:

zero grade Old Indian dīrghá- = av. darǝga-, darǝɣa-, Old pers. darga- `long', zero grade compounds Superl. drā́ghīyas-, drā́ghiṣṭha- `longer, for a long time', av. drājyō Adv. `further', drājištǝm Adv. `longest', npers. dirāz (actually comparative) `long', Old Indian drāghimán-, drāghmán- m. `length, duration', av. drājō n. `stretch, length';

gr. ἐνδελεχής `continuous, persistent, enduring' (`*drag out'), ἐνδελεχέω `continue', δολιχός `long' (to i s. Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 278, different Specht Dekl. 126), δόλιχος `the long racecourse';

about alb. glatë etc see under;


Clearly alb. (*da-lu-ga-aš-ti) glatë `long' derived from hitt. da-lu-ga-aš-ti (dalugasti) n. `length': Old Church Slavic dlъ gota `length' (= Old Indian dīrghatā): proto slav.. *dlgostь, poln. dɫugość etc ds.

Alb. and balt. forms agree in dropping the initial d- > zero, which means that balt. cognates originated from proto illyr.:

Alb. (*da-lu-ga-aš-ti) glatë `long, tall, high': lit. ìlgas, f. ilgà, lett. il̃gs, Old Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long'; alb. is the only IE lang. where (*da-lu-ga-aš-ti) glatë `long' means also `tall, high' hence the name Alba Longa capital of Etruscan settlers is an alb. concept of building fortresses on hilltops of future Rome.

lat. presumably indulgeō `to be forbearing, patient, indulgent; to give oneself up to, indulge in; grant, allow, concede' (: ἐνδελεχής, basic meaning then `be patient to somebody compared with, hold on patiently') from *en-dolgh-ei̯ō.

cymr. dal, dala, daly `hold, stop', bret. dalc'h `possession', derc'hel `hold, stop' (r diss. from l, compare participle dalc'het) presumably with ders. meaning-development as nhd. `after which last' to `long' (basic form*del(ǝ)gh-; Zupitza BB. 25, 90 f., Pedersen KG. I 52, 106);

maybe nasalized alb. ndal `hold, stop'.

got. tulgus `tight, firm, steadfast' (`*long, persistent, enduring'), as. tulgo Adv. `very', ags. tulge, compounds tylg `better, rather', Superl. tylgest `best';

balt. with unexplained d-loss (see under): lit. ìlgas, f. ilgà, lett. il̃gs, Old Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long';

Old Church Slavic dlъgъ, serb. dȕg, ačech. dlúhý, russ. dóɫgij `long' (= Old Indian dīrghá-), in addition serb. dûž f. `length'; Old Church Slavic dlъgota `length' (= Old Indian dīrghatā); proto slav.. *dlgostь, poln. dɫugość etc ds.;

hitt. Nom. Pl. da-lu-ga-e-eš (dalugaes) `long', da-lu-ga-aš-ti (dalugasti) n. `length'.


a) mpers. drang, npers. dirang `long' (but alb. glatë, gjatë, gjat `long' at first from *dlaghḫt-);

b) lat. longus `long;'navis', a man-of-war; poet., spacious; of time, long, of long duration; esp. too long, tedious; of persons, prolix, tedious', got. laggs, ags. ahd. nhd. lang (ahd. langēn `become long, seem long, long, want', etc); but air. etc long `ship' seems to be borrowed from lat. (navis) longa; nevertheless, because of second meaning `vessel' and mir. coblach `fleet' (*kom-u̯o-log- or *-lug-) though Loth (RC. 43, 133 f.) holds that word for genuine Celtic; compare also abrit. FlN Λόγγος (Ptol.) and gall. VN ΛΟΓΓΟ-ΣΤΑΛΗΤΕΣ (Aude); anlaut. dl- remains preserved otherwise Celtic. In the group b) would display an already common westidg. simplification, might be connected with the d-loss of balt. ilgas . compare also Specht Dekl. 126.

Maybe Alba Longa (Rome) capital of illyr. - Etrus. : illyr. Albanoi TN

References: WP. I 812 f., WH. I 694 f., 820 f., Trautmann 55, Pedersen Hitt. 34 f.

Page(s): 196-197

Root / lemma: demel-

English meaning: worm

German meaning: `Wurmö'

Material: Epidaur. δεμελέας f. Akk. Pl., δεμβλεῖς βδέλλαι Hes.;

perhaps alb. dhemjë `caterpillar, inchworm' (could stand for *dhemli̯ë), dhëmíze, dhimízë `meat maggot'.


In alb. dhëmíze, dhimízë `meat maggot' -zë is alb. diminutive suffix.

References: WP. I 790.

Page(s): 201

Root / lemma: (demǝ-), domǝ-, domǝ-

English meaning: to tame

German meaning: `zöhmen, böndigen'

Material: Old Indian dāmyáti `is tamed; tamed' (*dm̥̄-i̯eti), dāṁtá- `tamed' (*dm̥̄-tós); Kaus. damáyati `tames, overmasters' (*domei̯ō), participle damita-; damitár- `tamer'; damitvā `taming', damāyáti `tames' (*domāḫi̯o = lat. domo); damá-ḥ `domesticating', dáma-ḥ `taming';

osset. domun `tame', npers. dam `domesticated animal'; after Pisani Crest. Indeur.2 113 here (as *dm̥̄-so-s) dāsá-ḥ `fiend, non-Aryan', eigentl. `slave', but because of the incredible stem formation;

gr. δάμνᾱμι, ion. -ημι, Aor. ἐ-δάμα(σ)σα (for *ε-δέμασα) `tame', various secondary reshaped, as δαμνάω etc, πανδαμάτωρ `the all-subduer, all-tamer', dor. δμᾱτός `tamed' (*dm̥̄-tós), hom. ἄδμητος and ἀδμής, -ῆτος `untamed, unrestrained, unwed, unmarried', ion. Perf. δέδμημαι, δμητήρ `tamer', δμῆσις `taming, domestication';

forms with root vowel o are missing in Gr.;

lat. domō (*domāḫi̯ō = damāyáti), domās (*domāḫsi = ahd. zamōs) `to domesticate, tame, break, subdue, master', Perf. domuī (from *domǝ-u̯ai), participle domitus (reshaped after domuī and domitor from *dmātos, idg. *dm̥̄-to-s), domitor `tamer' (= Old Indian damitár-); domitus, -ūs m. `taming' (compare Old Indian damitvā);

air. damnaim `bind (tight, firm), tame (horses)', Verbalnom. damnad and domnad (probably = gr.δάμνημι); phonetic mixture with damnaim from lat. damnō, also the unruled m has probably arisen from participle dammainti; air. dam- `acquiesce, endure, grant' (e.g. daimid `admitted to' probably = Old Indian dāmyáti, composes niḫdaim `not enduring, not suffering'; Perf. dāmair from lengthened grade *dōm-), with ad- `admit' (e.g. 3. PL ataimet), with fo- `endure' (e.g. 1. Sg. fo-daimim), cymr. addef, bret. añsav `admit', acymr. ni cein guodeimisauch Gl. `have not endured well', ncymr. goḫddef `suffer, endure, allow', corn. gothaf `bear, endure', bret. gouzañv, gouzav us. (but cymr. dofi `tame', acymr. dometic `domesticated', ar-domaul `docile', cymr. dōf, bret. doff `tame, domesticated' stems from lat. domāre, so that native forms with o were absent in Kelt.);

got. ga-tamjan, anord. temja, ags. temian, mnd. temmen, ahd. zemmen `tame' (Kaus. *doméi̯ō = Old Indian damáyati); ahd. zamōn ds. (= lat. domā-re), anord. tamr, ags. tam, ahd. zam `domesticated, tamed, subdued, mastered' (unclear, whether back-formation from verb, or if the pass. meaning has arisen from `domestication = the tamed', so that in historic connection with Old Indian dáma-ḥ `taming').

Because of Old Indian damya- `to tame' and `young bull, which still should be tamed' and because of gr. δαμάλης on the one hand `overmastering, taming' (῎Ερως, Anakreon), on the other hand `young (still to be tamed) bull', wherefore δαμάλη `young cow', δάμαλις `ds. `; also `young girl', δάμαλος `calf', is probably alb. dëntë, dhëntë, geg. dhë̂nt `small cattle, sheep and goats, sheep' (*demḫtā or *demḫtoḫs, respectively *domḫtā, -toḫs), dem `bovine animal, cattle, young bull' (= Old Indian damya-), as well as also gall. GN Damona f. and air. dam `ox' (*damos), dam allaid `deer' (`*wild ox'), as well as cymr. dafad, acorn. dauat, bret. dañvat `sheep (then = gr. ἀ-δάματος) to add (originally appellation of domesticated bovine animal); lat. damma or dāma is probably borrowed from Kelt. or from elsewhere; unclear is ags. f. `roe deer' (out of it acorn. da `a fallow-deer, chamois, antelope'), engl. doe, alem. ds., compare Holthausen Altengl. etym. Wb. 68; from afrz. daim `fallow-deer' derives bret. dem ds.; germ. additional forms s. by Falk-Torp under daadyr m. Lit.; corresponding to niederösterr. zamer, zamerl `young ox' (Much ZfdA.42, 167; proto germ. *a or *oö).

Hitt. da-ma-aš-zi `thronged', preterit 3. Pl. ta-ma-aš-šir, Pedersen Hitt. 95 f.

Maybe those cognates derived from Tumuzi the shepherd in Sumerian.

References: WP. 1 788 f., WH I 367 f., 861, Meillet BSL. 33, 110.

Page(s): 199-200

Root / lemma: dem-, demǝ-

English meaning: to build; house

German meaning: `bauen', originally probably `zusammenfögen'

Material: Gr. δέμω `build', from the heavy basis participle Perf. Pass. δεδμημένος, dor. (Pindar) νεόδμᾱτος `newly built',

δέμας n. `physique, shape' (μεσόδμη, att. inschr. -μνη `spanning crossbeams in the middle of the building', yet η [ᾱ] could also be suffix).

The meaning `settle, fit' in got. ga-timan, as. teman, ahd. zeman `suit, fit', wherefore lengthened grade got. ga-tēmiÞa Adv. `befitting', mnd. be-tāme `fitting', ahd. gi-zāmi `proper' and abstract zero grades ahd. zumft, mhd. zumft, zunft `propriety, rule, association, guild' (*dṃḫti-) = mir. dēt `disposition, temperament' (air. dētlae `bold, daring'), mcymr. dant `temperament, character' (mostly Plur. deint), basic form *dṃ-to-, Loth RC 46, 252 f. compare mcymr. cynnefin `trustful' (*kom-dam-īno-).

ro-stem aisl. timbr `timber', as. timbar, ags. timber `timber, edifice, building, building', ahd. zimbar `timber, building, dwelling, chamber', whereof got. timrjan `build', anord. timbra, ahd. zimberen and zimbaron `build, do carpentry, do woodwork'.

root nouns dē̆m-, dō̆m-, dm-, dṃ- `house'.

Old Indian pátir dán `householder', av. dǝ̄ng patoiš `master of (*lord of the house)' with Gen. *dem-s, as also gr. δεσ-πότης `master, mister' (see Risch IF. 59, 12, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 547 f.), Old Indian dámḫpatiḫḥ `lord, master' (new shifting together from *dán pati- [= av. dǝ̄ng pati-], less probably with Lok. ar. *dam as `master in the house');

av. Lok. dąm, dąmi `in the house', Lok. Pl. dāhvḫā, Nom. -dā̊ from proto ar. *-dās in uši-δā̊ name of a mountain range (`having one's house by the aurora'), wherefore probably av. ha-dǝmōi Lok. `in the same house';

arm. tun Nom. Akk. `house' (*dōm), Instr. tamb (*dṃḫbhi), whereupon Gen. Dat. tan;

gr. ἔν-δον Lok., originally `inside in house' (also reshaped to ἔνδο-θι, -θεν, ἔνδοι), perhaps also δῶ (*dō[m]) as Nom. Akk. Sg. n. or Lok.; δῶμα, δώματος originally Akk. Sg.mask. *dōm-ṃ with structure in Neutr. after στρῶμα under likewise; derivative Δμία, Μνία, Δαμία (`mistress of the house');

as 1. composition part in δάμ-αρ `wife' (*dǝm-r̥t `governing of the house'), δάπεδον `floor (originally of the house)' from *dṃḫpedom (ζάπεδον out of it after the concurrent of δα- and ζα- as intensive prefix; so perhaps also ion. ζάκορος `temple male servant, temple female servant' for *δά-κορος) = schwed. tomt, aisl. topt `place for edifice, building' in norw. Mdarten `loam' (germ. *tumḫfetiz, idg. *dṃḫped-), compare also lit. dimḫstis `courtyard, property; courtyard' (2. part *sto-s to *stā- `stand').

o-stem domo-s: Old Indian dáma-ḥ `house, dwelling', gr. δόμος `house' (δομή `τεῖχος etcö Hes), οἰκο-δόμος (*-δομός) `builder', lat. Lok. domī `to a house' (= Old Indian dámē `in a house, to a house'), dominus `master, mister' from *domo-no-s.

u-stem domu-s (Brugmann Grdr. II2 1, 180 presumes an adv. Lok. *domū as originator): lat. domus, -ūs f. `a house, dwelling-house, building, mansion, palace' (out of it is mir. dom-, dam-liacc `stone house', aur-dam `pronaos (the space in front of the body of a temple, enclosed by a portico and projecting side- walls)' undertaken with the thing together);

Old Church Slavic domъ m. `house', russ. dóma `at house' (*domō[u]); *domovь: aruss. domovь `after the house'; presumedly also through Old Indian dámū-nas- `housemate' and arm. tanu-tēr `householder';

Maybe alb. dhoma `room' : Old Indian dáma-ḥ `house'.

a stem *dmōu- in ion. δμώς, Gen. δμωός `prisoner of war, farm laborer', δμῳή `bondmaid', kret. μνῴᾱ f. `people in slavery, population in serfdom';

ar. *dmḫā̆na- in av. dǝmā̆na-, nmāna- n. `house', also Old Indian mā́na-ḥ `edifice, building, dwelling';

lit. nãmas, Pl. namaĩ `house, dwelling' is dissimilated from *damas, in compounds as namũ-darỹs `homemaker', s. WH. I 861.


It is a common trait of alb. and lit. to drop the initial da- as in Root / lemma: del-5 : `long': balt. with unexplained d loss (see below): lit. ìlgas, f. ilgà, lett. il̃gs, Old Prussian ilga and ilgi Adv. `long'; alb. glatë `long' Baltic and Albanian languages often drop the initial da- > zero. This is a common balt.-alb. phonetic mutation. Hence lit. nãmas derived from a nasalized form *ndãmas.

Air. damnae `material', cymr. defnydd, mbret. daffnez could have originally signified `timber'.

Toch. B tem-, A tam-, AB töm- `create, beget, be born' and B tsam-, AB tsöm-, A śam-, śöm-, perhaps after Pedersen Toch. Sprachg. 217 here;

in addition also B c(o)mel, A cmol (*cmelu) `birth', Van Windekens Lexique 51.

An old branching of the root is demā- `tame', originally probably `tie up in the house, domesticate'.


Root / lemma: dem-, demǝ- : `to build; house' derived from Root / lemma: ĝhei-2 : ĝhi- : ĝhei-men-, *ĝheimn- : `winter; snow'. But the ĝh > d phonetic mutation has been recorded in illyr. alb. alone. This makes proto illyr. the oldest IE branch.

References: WP. I 786 ff.; WH. I 367, 369 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 480, 524, 547 f., 625, Trautmann 44.

Page(s): 198-199

Root / lemma: denk̂-

English meaning: to bite

German meaning: `beißen'


Root / lemma: denk̂- : `to bite' derived from illyr. derivative of Root / lemma: ĝembh-, ĝm̥bh- : `to bite; tooth' common illyr. ĝ- > d- phonetic mutation.

Material: Old Indian dáśati `bites' (*dn̥kéti), Perf. dadáṃśa (thereafter also a present dáṃśati), Kaus. daṃśáyate `makes bite', dáṃśa-ḥ `bite, gadfly, brake',

daṃśana-m `the bitting', daṃṣ̌ṭra-ḥ, dáṃstrā `sharp tooth, fang' = av. tiži-dąstra- `with sharp teeth, toothed' (for -dąštra- s. Bartholomae Airan. Wb. 653);

gr. δάκνω `bite' (*dn̥k̂ḫnṓ), Aor. ἔδακον (= Impf. Old Indian ádaśam), wherefore Fut. δήξομαι (aberion. δάξεται), Perf. δέδηγμαι, δεδηχώς (as well as δῆγμα `bite') with ablaut neologism (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 770); δακετόν, τὸ δάκος `biting animal'; in addition probably ὀδάξ `with biting teeth', perhaps originally `tooth' or `bite' (Liddell-Scott, different Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 620, 723), probably hybridization of *δάξ `biting' with ὀδούς, therefrom derived όδάξω (ἀδάξω with Assimil. of o in α), ἀδαχέω etc `scratch, itch', ἀδαγμός `the scratch';

alb. geg. danë (*donk̂ḫnā), tosk. darë `pliers';

ahd. zangar `biting, sharp', mnd. tanger `ds., vicious, strong, fresh'; anord. tǫng (Gen. tengr and tangar), ags. tang, tange, ahd. zanga `pliers' (*donk̂ā́), i.e. `the clenching of the teeth'; with further shifting to `to press (lips) together', probably as. bitengi `moving close to, oppressive', ags. getang ds., getenge `near to, close to, oppressive, thronging, pressing', ahd. gizengi `passing by, moving nearby', Adv. gizango, wherefore anord. tengja (*tangjan) `join', ags. tengan `assail, urge, press, push, aspire to move forward', getengan `make adhere, be obedient' (ags. intinga m. `weary, weak', sam-tinges `at once', getingan, st. V., `press in' after Fick III4 152 neologismö);

besides in gramm. variation germ. *tanhu- `adjoining tightly, appendant, tough' in ags. tōh `tough'; mnd. `abiding, tough', ahd. zāhi, nhd. zöh; anord. n. `stamped place before the house' (finn. Lw. tanhua `corral, pen, fold');

perhaps originally different from the root *dē̆k- `tear', although *denk̂- perhaps as nasalized form to *dē̆k and `bite' could be understood as `tear with the teeth'.

References: WP. I 790 f.

Page(s): 201

Root / lemma: dens-1

English meaning: talent, force of mind; to learn

German meaning: `hohe Geisteskraft, weiser Ratschluß'; verbal: `lehren, lernen'

Material: densos n.: Old Indian dáṁsas- n. `powerful wonder, wise feat' = av. daŋhah- `dexterity, adroitness' (in addition Old Indian daṁsu- `powerful wonder', daṁ- `very powerful wonder' = av. dąhišta- `very wise, the wisest'); Old Indian purudā́ṁsas- `rich in miracles' (= gr. πολυδήνεα πολύβουλον `much-counselling' Hes), dáṁsana-m, daṁsánā `magic power, witchcraft'; in gr. after zero grade forms with*δα[σ]- = *dṇs- to *δάνσος unvocalized: hom. δήνεα N. Pl. `pieces of advice', Sg. δῆνος by Hesych, (dor.) ἀδανές (-ᾱ) ἀπρονόητον Hes. = (ion.) ἀδηνής ἄκακος, Adv. ἀδηνέως Chios.

dṇs-ró́-s `sensible, very wise': Old Indian dasrá- `miraculous' = av. daŋra- `skilful'; doubtful gr. δάειρα epithet of Persephone, perhaps `the knowing or the power of wonder'; δαΐφρων `having clever sense' to hold as *δα[σ]ί-φρων to Old Indian das-rá- as κῡδι-άνειρα to κῡδ-ρό-ς, if it not originally if it has not signified originally only `the sense directed on the fight' (compare δαι-κτάμενος `killed in the battle', ἐν δαί: `in the battle'; s. finally Bechtel Lexil. 92) and only, after this the meaning was forgotten, the ambiguous connection came through in δαῆναι, see under, to come into usage in sense of `wise'.

dṇs-mo-: Old Indian dasmá- `power of wonder (from Gods)' = av. dahma- `expert, inaugurated in religious questions'.

Maybe alb. dasma `wedding, ceremony (religious riteö)'

Verbal forms: partly reduplicated `handle knowledge, instruct, teach':

av. dīdaiŋhē `I am instructed' (in addition zero grade dąstvā f. `apprenticeship, doctrine, dogma');

perhaps gr. δέδαε Aor. `taught', Aor. Pass. δαῆναι, δαήμεναι `learn', participle Perf. δεδαώς `erudite, expert, skillful', δεδάασθαι π 316 `examine, question', ἀδαής (Soph.) `ignorant, wherein inexperienced'; in addition δαήμων (Hom.) `sensible, wise', ἀδαήμων `ignorant, wherein inexperienced', δαήμεναι ἔμπειροι γοναῖκες Hes. By Archilochos frg. 3, 4 is unclear δαίμων (ö) `skillful, experienced'.

Debrunner Mel. Boisacq 1, 251 ff. has shown that διδάσκω `instruct, teach' belongs to δέδαε and not to lat. discō `to learn, learn to know, acquire, become acquainted with' (see above under dek̂-). The fact that also δα- (as *dṇs-) is to be put to ours root, can be explained best of all by the fact that one accepts, from διδάσκω (*δι-δασ-σκω) has been abstracted an erroneous root *δα- (M. Scheller briefl.);

compare finally Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 307 and see under dens-2.

References: WP. I 793.

Page(s): 201-202

Root / lemma: dens-2

English meaning: dense

German meaning: `dicht'

Material: Gr. δασύς `dense' : lat. dēnsus ds.; the direct derivation from *dn̥sús does not contradict the explanation of *δάω from *dn̥sō (see above under dens-1); indeed from W. Schulze (Kl. Schr. 116 f.) the stated examples of -σ- from idg. -n̥s- are absolutely not proving. On the other hand δαυλός `cover with dense vegetation' could go back to δα-υλός (: ὕλη), but δασκόν δασύ etc would barely be formed by abstraction to δά-σκιος `(*densely) shady' (*διά-σκιος). Meillet MSL. 22, 63 will define σ in δασύς as expressive gemination σσ (ö) common gr.-illyr. -ks- > -ss- phonetic mutation. About phok. PN Δαυλίς s. WH. I 468.

About alb. dënt `make dense', etc see under dhen-3.


Alb. geg. dend (*den-) `make dense' common alb. n > nd phonetic mutation.

Lat. dēnseō, -ēre (Perf. dēnsī only by Charisius Gr.-Lat. I 262, 4) `to make thick, condense, press together', denominative of dēnsus `dense' (*densos or *dn̥sos, event. *dénsu̯os).

Hitt. dassuš (Dat. Sg. ta-aš-śu-u-i) `strong (*thick)'.

References: WP. I 793 f., WH. I 341 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 307.

Page(s): 202-203


Root / lemma: deph-

English meaning: to stamp, push

German meaning: `stampfen, stoßen, kreten'

Material: Arm. top`el (-em, -eci) `hit'; gr. δέφω `knead, drum; tumble', argiv. δεφιδασταί `fuller', with s-extension δέψω (Aor. participle δεψήσας) `knead; tan, convert hide into leather' (out of it lat. depsō `to knead'), δέψα `tanned skin'; διφθέρα `leather' (*διψτέρα); serb. dȅpîm, dȅpiti `bump, poke, hit', poln. deptać `tread'.

maybe alb. dëboj `drive away'


It seems that Root / lemma: deph- : `to stamp, push' derived from Root / lemma: dhā̆bh-1, nasalized dhamb(h)- : `to astonish, be speechless'

References: WP. I 786, WH. I 342, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 298, 351.

Page(s): 203

Root / lemma: derbh-

English meaning: to wind, put together, *scratch, scrape, rub

German meaning: `winden, zusammendrehen'

Material: Old Indian dr̥bháti `joined, patched together, winded', participle sándr̥bdha- `group of shrubs planted together', dr̥bdhí- f. `convolution, concatenation, daisy chain', av. dǝrǝwδa- n. `bundle of muscles' Pl. `flesh (of muscles)', Old Indian darbhá- m. `hassock, clump of grass, grass', darbhaṇa- n. `netting';

Maybe truncated alb. dredha `convolution', dredh `curl' : Old Indian dr̥bdhí- f. `convolution', av. dǝrǝwδ a- n. `bundle of muscles' Pl. `flesh (of muscles)'.

arm. toṙn `σχοινίον, funiculus, a noose, halter, snare, trap' (*dorbhḫn-);

gr. δάρπη `basket' is contaminated from *δάρφη and τάρπη ds. (Göntert IF. 45, 347);

ags. tearflian (*tarbalōn) `roll oneself', ahd. zerben, preterit zarpta refl. `turn, turn round'; e-grade mhd. zirben schw. V. `turn in circles, whirl', nhd. mdartl. schweiz. zirbeln ds., nhd. Zirbeldröse, Zirbelwind (probably also Zirbel `pineal', see under deru-); zero grade ags. torfian `throw, lapidate' (compare drehen : engl. throw), as anord. tyrfa `cover with turf', anord. torf n. `turf', torfa f. `peat clod', ags. turf f. `turf, lawn', ahd. zurba, zurf f. `lawn' (nhd. Torf from Ndd.); ags. ge-tyrfan `to strike, afflict';

maybe alb. diminutive (*turfel) turfulloj `snort, blow' : ags. ge-tyrfan `to strike, afflict'.

wruss. dórob `basket, carton, box', russ. old u-dorobь f. `pot, pan', dial. ú-doroba `low pot, pan'(`*wickerwork pot coated with loam'), wruss. dorób'ić `crook, bend'; zero grade *dьrba in russ. derbá `Rodeland, Neubruch', derbovátь `clean from the moss, from the lawn; uproot the growing', derbítь `pluck, tear, rend', serb. drbácati `scrape, scratch', čech. drbám and drbu, drbati `scratch, scrape, rub; thrash', with lengthened grade russ. derébitь `pluck, rend' (perhaps hat sich in latter family a bh-extension from der- `flay', slav. derǫ dьrati eingemischt). S. Berneker 211, 254 with Lit.

References: WP. I 808.

Page(s): 211-212

Root / lemma: der(ep)-

English meaning: to see, *mirror

German meaning: `sehen'ö

Material: Old Indian dárpana- m. `mirror'; gr. δρωπάζειν, δρώπτειν `see' (with lengthened grade 2. syllableöö).


The Root / lemma: der(ep)- : `to see, *mirror' could have derived from Root / lemma: derbh- : `to wind, put together, *scratch, scrape, rub, polish'

References: WP. I 803; to forms -ep- compare Kuiper Nasalpras. 60 f.

See also: compare also δράω `sehe' and derk̂-`see'.

Page(s): 212

Root / lemma: derǝ-, drā-

English meaning: to work

German meaning: `arbeiten'

Material: Gr. δράω (*δρᾱιω) `make, do', Konj. δρῶ, öol. 3. Pl. δρᾱίσι, Aor. att. ἔδρᾱσα, hom. δρηστήρ `worker, servant', δρᾶμα `action', δράνος ἔργον, πρᾶξις . . . δύναμις Hes., ἀδρανής `inactive, ineffective, weak';

Maybe alb. nasalized form nder (*der-) `hang loose';

hom. ὀλιγοδρᾰνέων `make only less powerful, fainting, unconscious'; hom. and ion. (see Bechtel Lexil. 104) δραίνω `do';

lit. dar(i)aũ, darýti, lett. darît `do, make'; in spite of Möhlenbach-Endzelin s. v. darît not to lit. derė́ti `be usable', lett. derêt `arrange, employ, engage' etc, because the meaning deviates too strongly.

References: WP. I 803, Specht KZ. 62, 110, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 6757, 694.

Page(s): 212

Root / lemma: dergh-

English meaning: to grasp

German meaning: `fassen'

Material: Arm. trc̣ak `brushwood bundle' (probably from *turc̣-ak, *turc̣- from *dorghḫso-, Petersson KZ. 47, 265);

gr. δράσσομαι, att. δράττομαι `grasp', δράγδην `griping', δράγμα `handful, fascicle, sheaf', δραγμεύω `bind sheaves', δραχμή, ark. el. δραχμά, gortyn. δαρκνά̄ (i.e. δαρχvά̄; s. also Boisacq 109) `drachma' (`*handful of metal sticks, ὀβολοί'), δράξ, -κός f. `hand', Pl. δάρκες δέσμαι Hes.;

mir. dremm, nir. dream `troop, multitude, crowd, dividing of people' (*dr̥gh-smo-), bret. dramm `bundle, fascicle, sheaf' (false back-formation to Pl. dremmen);

ahd. zarga `side edging a room, edge', anord. targa f. `shield', ags. targe f. (nord. Lw.) `small shield' (actually `shield brim'), elsöss. (see Sutterlin IF. 29, 126) (kös-)zorg m. `vessel, paten on three low feet' (= gr. δραχ-);

References: WP. I 807 f.

Page(s): 212-213

Root / lemma: derk̂-

English meaning: to look

German meaning: `blicken'

Note: punctual, wherefore in Old Indian and intrinsic in Ir. linked suppletively with a cursive present other root

Root / lemma: derk̂- : to look derived from Root / lemma: ĝher-3 und ĝherǝ-, ĝhrē- : to shine, shimmer + zero grade of Root / lemma: okʷ- : to see; eye

Material: Old Indian [present is páśyati] Perf. dadárśa `have seen', Aor. adarśat, adrākṣīt (ádrāk), participle dr̥ṣṭá-, kaus. darśáyati `make see'; av. darǝs- `behold', Perf. dādarǝsa, participle dǝrǝšta-; Old Indian dṛ́ś- f. `sight', ahardŕ̥ś- `looking day', upa-dŕ̥ś- f. `sight', dŕ̥ṣṭi- f. `sight', av. aibīdǝrǝšti- ds. (Gen. Sg. darštōiš), Old Indian darśatá- `visible, respectable', av. darǝsa- m. `sight, gaze, look';

common Old Indian ĝh- > kṣ- phonetic mutation

gr. δέρκομαι `look, keep the eyes open, be alive', δέδορκα, ἔδρακον, δέρξις `vision' (with a changed lengthened grade compared with Old Indian dr̥šṭi-), δέργμα `sight', δεργμός `look, gaze', δυσ-δέρκετος `heavy to behold' (= Old Indian darc̨ata-), ὑπόδρα Adv. `one looking up from below' (*-δρακ = Old Indian dr̥c̨-, or from *-δρακ-τ), δράκος n. `eye', δράκων, -οντος `dragon, snake' (from banishing, paralyzing look), fem. δράκαινα;

alb. dritë `light' (*dr̥kḫtā);


According to alb. phonetic laws alb. dritë `light' derived from (dr̥ikḫa) not (*dr̥kḫtā) because of the common alb. -k- > -th- phonetic mutations, -të common alb. suffix;

maybe alb. (*darc̨ata-), darkë `supper, evening meal, evening'; (*drech-), drekë `dinner meal, midday': air. an-dracht `loathsome, dark'.

after Bonfante (RIGI. 19, 174) here umbr. terkantur `seen, discerned, perceived' (d. h. `shall be seen, discerned, perceived');

air. [present ad-cīu] ad-con-darc `have seen' (etc, s. Pedersen KG. II 487 f.; present adrodarcar `can be seen'), derc `eye', air-dirc `illustrious', bret. derc'h `sight', abret. erderc `evidentis', zero grade ir. drech f. (*dr̥k̂ā) `face', cymr. drych m. (*dr̥ksos) `sight, mirror', cymr. drem, trem, bret. dremm `face' (*dr̥k̂-smā), air. an-dracht `loathsome, dark' (an- neg. + *drecht = alb. dritë);

got. ga-tarhjan `make distinct' (= Old Indian darśayati); germ. *torʒa- `sight' (== Old Indian dr̥ś-) in norw. PN Torget, Torghatten etc, idg. to- suffix in germ. *turhta- : ags. torht, as. toroht, ahd. zoraht, newer zorft `bright, distinct'.

References: WP. I 806 f.

See also: Perhaps with der(ep)- (above S. 212) remote, distant related.

Page(s): 213

Root / lemma: der-1 (: dōr-, der-) or dōr- : dǝr-

English meaning: hand span, *hands

German meaning: `Spanne der Hand'

Material: Gr. δῶρον `palm, span of the hand' (measurement of length), ὀρθόδωρον `the distance from the wrist to the fingertip', hom. ἑκκαιδεκάδωρος `16 spans long', zero grade ark. Akk. δά̄ριν σπιθαμήν Hes. (lak. δάρειρ Hes. is false spelling for δάρις, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 506);

alb. (*du̯or-) dorë `hand' from *dōrom (M. La Piana IF. 58, 98); [conservative stem of plural forms (alb. phonetic trait)]

Phonetic mutations: alb. (*du̯or-) dorë `hand' : gr. δῶρον `palm, span of the hand' : lett. (*du̯or-)dùre, dûris `fist'; proto illyr. alb. du̯o- > do-, gr. du̯o- > do-, lett. du̯o- > dù-.


Clearly Root / lemma: der-1 (: dōr-, der-) or dōr- : dǝr- : `hand span' derived through Root / lemma: ĝhesor-1, ĝhesr- : `hand'; Root / lemma: ĝhesto-2 : `hand, arm' through illyr. intermediary. The phonetic shift kh > t, ĝh > d is a unique alb. phonetic mutation. Hence alb. dorë `hand' derived from truncated ĝhesor. The source of Root / lemma: der-1 (: dōr-, der-) or dōr- : dǝr- : `hand span' is of Illyrian origin and then it spread to other languages.

That means Homeric Iliad is a translation of Illyrian Iliad. The Greek translation left many illyr. cognates of the Illyrian Iliad unchanged. There is no doubt that gr. δῶρον `hand span' is a suffixed illyr. dora `hand' consequently Iliad was brought to Balkan languages by Illyrians.

aisl. tarra `outspread', terra ds.

Only under a beginning du̯er- : dur- or du̯ōr-: du̯ǝr : dur- to justify major key-phonetical comparison with kelt. dur-no- in air. dorn `fist, hand', cymr. dwrn `hand', dyrnod (mcymr. dyrnawt) `slap in the face, box on the ear', dyrnaid (mcymr. dyrneit) `handful', bret. dorn `hand', dournek `who has big hands'; however, these words also stand off in the coloring of meaning `pursed, clenched hand, fist, fisticuff, punch' so far from gr. that they do not demand an association with them.

On the other hand for kelt. *durno- one considers relationship with lett. dùre, dûris `fist'; this is to lett. duŕu, dũru, dur̃t `prick, bump, poke' to put (compare pugnus : pungo); if so also kelt. dur-no-ö compare Möhlenbach-Endzelin I 529 and see under der-4.


From alb. geg. (*du̯ōr), dorë hand, (*du̯ǝr), duer Pl. `hands' it seems that the oldest root was alb. Pl. (*du̯ǝr), duer Pl. `hands' [conservative stem of plural forms (alb. phonetic trait)]. Hence the original of proto illyr. - gr. idea was Root / lemma: du̯ō(u) : `two' meaning two hands. That means both Root / lemma: der-1 (: dōr-, der-) or dōr- : dǝr- : `hand span, hands' and Root / lemma: du̯ō(u) : `two, *two hands' derived from older Anatolian languages Root / lemma: ĝhesor-1, ĝhesr- : `hand' because of the common alb. ĝh- > d- phonetic mutation.

References: WP. I 794 f.

Page(s): 203

Root / lemma: (der-2), redupl. der-der-, dr̥dor-, broken redupl. dor-d-, dr̥-d-

English meaning: to murmur, to chat (expr.)

German meaning: `murren, brummen, plaudern'; Schallwort

Material: Old Indian dardurá-ḥ `frog, flute'; air. deirdrethar `raged', PN Deirdriu f. (*der-der-i̯ō); bulg. dъrdóŕъ `babble; grumble', serb. drdljati `chatter', sloven. drdráti `clatter, burr';

Maybe alb. dërdëllit `chatter, prattle', derdh `pour out (*talk a lot)'

Also Dardanoi (*dardant) illyr. TN : gr. δάρδα μέλισσα Hes : lit. dardė́ti, lett. dardêt, dārdêt `creak' probably `talk indistinctly'; common illyr. alb. n > nt > t phonetic mutation.

with fractured reduplication: gr. δάρδα μέλισσα Hes., ir. dord `bass', fo-dord `growl, bass', an-dord `clear voice' (`not-bass'), cymr. dwrdd `din, fuss, noise' (cymr. twrdd `din, fuss, noise' t- has taken over from twrf ds.), air. dordaid `bellow, roar' (from deer); lit. dardė́ti, lett. dardêt, dārdêt `creak'; toch. A tsārt- `wail, weep, cry' (Pedersen Toch. Sprachg. 19), with secondary palatalization śert- (Van Windekens Lexique 145).

References: WP. I 795, Möhlenbach-Endzelin I 447.

See also: The kelt., tochar. and baltoslav. words could also belong to dher-3.

Page(s): 203-204

Root / lemma: (der-3), drā-, dreb-, drem-, dreu-

English meaning: to run

German meaning: `laufen, treten, trippeln'

Material: drā-:

Old Indian drā́ti `runs, hurries', Intens. dáridrāti `wanders around, is poor', dári-dra- `wandering, beggarly';

gr. ἀπο-διδρά̄σκω `run away', Fut. δρά̄σομαι, Aor. ἔδρᾱν; δρᾱσμός, ion. δρησμός `escape', ἄδρᾱστος `striving not to escape', δρᾱπέτης `fugitive', δρᾱπετεύω `run away, splits, separates from' (compare to -π- Old Indian Kaus. drāpayati `brings to run', Aor. adidrapat [uncovered] `runs');

ahd. zittarōm (*diḫdrāḫmi) `tremble (*ready to flee)', aisl. titra `tremble, wink' (originally perhaps `walk on tiptoe; trip, wriggle restlessly');

perhaps here slav. *dropy `bustard' (Machek ZslPh. 17, 260), poln. čech. drop, older drop(i)a etc, out of it mhd. trap(pe), trapgans.


Lit. drebù, -ė́ti `tremble, quiver';

poln. (etc) drabina `ladder';

ags. treppan (*trapjan) `tread', mnd. ndl. trappen `stomp', ndd. trippen, nhd. (nd.)trappeln, trippeln, mhd. (nd.) treppe, trappe f., nhd. Treppe, ags. træppe f. `trap', nhd.Trappel, ostfries. trappe, trap `trap, splint, staircase, stairs';

through emphatic nasalization, as in nhd. patschen - pantschen, ficken - fiencken (see W. Wissmann Nom. Postverb. 160 ff., ZdA. 76, 1 ff.) to define:

got. ana-trimpan `approach, beset', mnd. trampen `stomp', mhd. (ndd.) trampeln `appear crude', engl. tramp, trample `tread', mhd. trumpfen `run, toddle'.


Old Indian drámati `running', Intens. dandramyatē `runs to and fro';

gr. Aor. ἔδραμον, Perf. δέδρομα `run', δρόμος `run';

ags. trem, trym `Fußtapfe', an. tramr `fiend, demon' (see above), mhd. tremen `waver', dön. trimle `roll, fall, tumble', schwed. mdartl. trumla ds., mhd. trame `rung of a leader, stairs';

here probably nhd. FlN Dramme (Göttingen), Dremse (Magdeburg), from *Dromi̯ā and *Dromisā (probably nordillyr.), in addition poln. (illyr.) Drama (Silesia), bulg. Dramatica (thrak.); s. Vasmer ZslPh. 5, 367, Pokorny Urillyrier 3, 37, 127;

Maybe alb. dromcë `piece, chip (of a blow)'

insecure is Woods KZ. 45, 62 apposition of serb dȑmati `shake', dȑmnuti `upset, allow to shake', sloven. dŕmati `shake, jiggle', drámiti `jiggle from the sleep', drâmpati `ungentle jiggle';

maybe alb. dremit `sleep', dërrmonj `exhaust, tire, destroy'

Alb. proves that from Root / lemma: der-, heavy basis derǝ-, drē- : `to cut, split, skin' derived Root / lemma: (der-3), drā-, dreb-, drem-, dreu- : `to run'.

čech. drmlati `flit, stir; move the lips, as if one sucking', drmoliti `take short steps' (these in the good suitable meaning; `shake' from `stumble with the foot'ö), drmotiti `chat, prate' (probably crossing of meaning with the onomatopoeic word root der-der-2, see there).

Maybe alb. onomatopoeic (*der-der-) dër dër `stupid talk';

dreu- (partly with ū as zero grade, probably because of *dreu̯āx-), FlN (participle) dr(o)u(u̯)entī/i̯ā:

Old Indian drávati `runs, also melts', FlN Dravantī, drutá- `hurrying', av. drāvaya- `run' (being from daēvischen), draoman- n. `attack, onrush', aēšmōḫdrūt(a)- `calling from Aēsma, sends to attack' (very doubtful Old Indian dráviṇa-m, dráviṇas- n. `blessing, fortune', av. draonah- n. `bei der Besitzverteilung zufallendes Gut, Vermögensanteil' perhaps as `traveling fortune'ö);

illyr.-pannon. FlN Dravos (*drou̯oḫs), out of it serbokr. Dráva, compare apoln. Drawa (illyr. Lw.); idg. *drou̯ent- `hurrying' > illyr. *drau̯ent- (: above Old Indian Dravanti), out of it dial. *trau̯ent- in FlN Τράεντ- (Bruttium) > ital. Trionto; idg. *druu̯ent-, illyr. *druent- in poln. FlN Drwęca, nhd. Drewenz; ital. *truent- in FlN Truentus (Picenum);

maybe alb. (*druent-) Drinos river name `hurrying waterö' common alb. nt > n phonetic mutation.

gall. FlN (from dem Nordillyr.ö) Druentia (frz. la Drance, Drouance, Durance, Dranse); *Drutos, frz. le Drot; Drutā, frz. la Droude;

lit. sea name *Drùv-intas (wruss. Drywiaty); apreuß. stream, brook Drawe.

Auf dreu-, participle *dru-to- based on perhaps (see Osthoff Par. I 372 f. Anm.) got. trudan `tread', anord. troða, trað ds.; ags. tredan, ahd. tretan `tread' (by Osthoffs outlook of ablaut neologism), ahd. trata `tread, spoor, way, alley, drift, trailing', as. trada `tread, spoor', ags. trod n., trodu f. `spoor, way, alley' (engl. trade `trade' is nord. Lw.), ahd. trota, mhd. trotte f. `wine-press', Intens. ahd. trottōn `tread'; nhd. dial. trotteln `go slowly'.

Here also germ. root *truḫs- in ostfries. tröseln `lurch, stumble, go uncertainly or staggering', trösel `dizziness, giddiness', ndl. treuzelen `to be slow, dawdle, loiter', westföl. trūseln, truǝseln `roll slowly', mhd. trollen (*truzlōn) `move in short steps constantly', nhd. trollen, schwed. mdartl. trösale `fairy demon, ghost', norw. mdartl. trusal `idiot, fool', trusk `despondent and stupid person';

Maybe through metathesis alb. (*trusal) trullos, trallis `make the head dizzy', tru `brain'

as well as (as *truzlá-) anord. troll n. `fiend, demon', mhd. trol, trolle m. `fairy demon, ghost, fool, uncouth person' (compare unser Trampel in same meaning; the Wandals called the Goths Τρούλους, Loewe AfdA. 27, 107); it stands in same the way besides germ. tre-m- (see under) anord. tramr `fiend, demon'.

In Germ. furthermore with i-vocalism mnd. trīseln, westföl. triǝseln `roll, lurch', holl.trillen `tremble' (from which ital. trillare `quiver, trill hit') etc against association of Old Indian drávati with av. dvaraiti `goes' see under *dheu-, *dheu̯er- `flee'.

References: WP. I 795 ff., Krahe IF. 58, 151 f., Feist 45.

Page(s): 204-206

Root / lemma: deru-, dō̆ru-, dr(e)u-, drou-; dreu̯ǝ- : drū-

English meaning: tree

German meaning: `Baum', probably originally and actually `Eiche'

Note: see to the precise definition Osthoff Par. I 169 f., Hoops Waldb. 117 f.; in addition words for various wood tools as well as for `good as heartwood hard, fast, loyal'; Specht (KZ. 65, 198 f., 66, 58 f.) goes though from a nominalized neuter of an adjective *dṓru `das Harte', from which previously `tree' and `oak': dṓru n., Gen. dreu-s, dru-nó-s

Material: Old Indian dā́ru n. `wood' (Gen. drṓḥ, drúṇaḥ, Instr. drúṇā, Lok. dā́ruṇi; dravya- `from tree'), drú- n. m. `wood, wood tool', m. `tree, bough', av. dāuru `tree truck, bit of wood, weapon from wood, perhaps club, mace, joint' (Gen. draoš), Old Indian dāruṇá- `hard, rough, stern' (actually `hard as wood, lumpy'), dru- in compounds as dru-pāda- `klotzfößig', dru-ghnī `wood ax' (-wooden rod), su-drú-ḥ `good wood'; dhruvá- `tight, firm, remaining' (dh- through folk etymology connection in dhar- `hold, stop, prop, sustain' = av. dr(u), Old pers. duruva `fit, healthy, intact', compare Old Church Slavic sъ-dravъ); av. drvaēna- `wooden', Old Indian druváya-ḥ `wooden vessel, box made of wood, the drum', drū̆ṇa-m `bow, sword' (uncovered; with ū npers. durūna, balučī drīn `rainbow'), druṇī `bucket; pail', dróṇa-m `wooden trough, tub'; drumá-ḥ `tree' (compare under δρυμός);

Old Indian dárviḫḥ, darvī́ `(wooden) spoon';

arm. tram `tight, firm' (*drū̆rāmo, Pedersen KZ. 40, 208); probably also (Lidén Arm. stem 66) targal `spoon' from *dr̥u̯- or *deru̯-.

Gr. δόρυ `tree truck, wood, spear, javelin' (Gen. hom. δουρός, trag. δορός from *δορFός, δούρατος, att. δόρατος from *δορFn̥τος, whose is comparable with Old Indian drúṇaḥ);

kret. δορά (*δορFά) `balk, beam' (= lit. lett. darva);

sizil. ἀσχέδωρος `boar' (after Kretschmer KZ. 36, 267 f. *ἀν-σχε-δορFος or -δωρFος `standing firm to the spear'), ark. dor. Δωρι-κλῆς, dor. böot. Δωρί-μαχος under likewise, Δωριεύς `Dorian' (of Δωρίς `timberland');


Who were Dorian tribesö Dorians were Celtic tribes who worshipped trees. In Celtic they were called Druids, priests of ancient Gaul and Britain (also Greece and Illyria). The caste of Druids must have worshiped the dominant thunder god whose thunderbolt used to strike sacred trees. Druids must have planted the religion around the sacred oak at Dodona.

δρῦς, δρυός `oak, tree' (from n. *dru or *deru, *doru g.*druu̯ós become after other tree name to Fem.; as a result of the tendency of nominative gradation), ἀκρό-δρυα `fruit tree', δρυ-τόμος `woodchopper', δρύινος `from the oak, from oak tree', Δρυάς `dryad, tree nymph', γεράνδρυον `old tree truck', ἄδρυα πλοῖα μονόξυλα. Κύπριοι Hes. (*sm̥-, Lit. by Boisacq s. v.), ἔνδρυον καρδία δένδρου Hes.

Hom. δρῠμά n. Pl. `wood, forest', nachhom. δρῡμός ds. (the latter with previous changed length after δρῦς); δένδρεον `tree' (Hom.; out of it att. δένδρον), from redupl. *δeν(= δερ)-δρεFον, Demin. δενδρύφιον; compare Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 583;

δροF- in arg. δροόν ἰσχυρόν. ᾽Αργεῖοι Hes., ἔνδροια καρδία δένδρου καὶ τὸ μέσον Hes., Δροῦθος (*ΔροF-υθος), δροίτη `wooden tub, trough, coffin' (probably from *δροFίτᾱ, compare lastly Schwyzer KZ. 62, 199 ff., different Specht Dekl. 139); δοῖτρον πύελον σκάφην Hes. (diss. from *δροFιτρον), next to which *dr̥u̯io- in δραιόν μάκτραν. πύελον Hes.

PN Δρύτων: lit. Drūktenis, Old Prussian Drutenne (E. Fraenkel, Pauly-Wissowa 16, 1633);

in vocalism still not explained certainly δρίος `shrubbery, bush, thicket'; maked. δάρυλλος f. `oak' Hes. (*deru-, compare air. daur); but δρίς δύναμις Hes., lies δFίς (Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 4955);

alb. dru f. `wood, tree, shaft, pole' (*druu̯ā, compare Old Church Slavic drъva n. pl. `wood'); drush-k (es-stem) `oak'; ablaut. *drū- in driḫzë `tree', dröni `wood bar';


Alb. definite form Nom. dru-ni = alb. Gen. dru-ni `of wood': Old Indian dā́ru n. `wood' (Gen. drṓḥ, drúṇaḥ `of wood'; but a pure Slavic loanword is alb. druvar `woodcutter, woodchopper'

[conservative definitive forms versus indefinite forms (alb. phonetic trait)]

thrak. καλαμίν-δαρ `sycamore', PN Δάρανδος, Τάραντος (*darḫant-) `Eichstött a district in Bavaria', Ζίνδρουμα, Δινδρύμη `Zeus's grove', VN ᾽Ο-δρύ-σ-αι, Δρόσοι, Dru-geri (dru- `wood, forest');

Maybe VN ᾽Ο - δρύ - σ - αι : Etruria (Italy)

from Lat. perhaps dūrus `hard, harsh; tough, strong, enduring; in demeanour or tastes, rough, rude, uncouth; in character, hard, austere,sometimes brazen, shameless; of things, hard, awkward, difficult, adverse' (but about dūrāre `to make hard or hardy, to inure; intransit., to become hard or dry; to be hard or callous; to endure, hold out; to last, remain, continue' see under S. 220), if after Osthoff 111 f. as `strong, tight, firm as (oak)tree' dissimilated from *drū-ro-s (*dreu-ro-sö);

Maybe alb. duroj `endure, last', durim `patience' .

but lat. larix `larch tree', Lw. is from an idg. Alpine language, idg. *derik-s, is conceivable because of heavy l;


Common lat. d- > l- phonetic mutation hence lat. larix (*derik-s) `larch tree'.

Maybe Pelasgian Larissa (*dariksa)

air. derucc (gg), Gen. dercon `glans', cymr. derwen `oak' (Pl. derw), bret. deruenn ds., gall. place name Dervus (`oak forest'), abrit. Derventiō, place name, VN Dervāci under likewise; air. dērb `safe'; reduced grade air. daur, Gen. daro `oak' (deru-), also dair, Gen. darach ds. (*deri-), air. daurde and dairde `oaken'; derived gall. *d(a)rullia `oak' (Wartburg III 50); maked. δάρυλλος f. `oak'; zero grade *dru- in intensification particle (ö different Thurneysen ZcPh. 16, 277: `oak-': dru- in galat. δρυ-ναίμετον `holy oak grove'), e.g. gall. Dru-talos (`*with big forehead'), Druides, Druidae Pl., air. drūi `Druid' (`the high; noble', *druḫu̯id-), air. dron `tight, firm' (*drunos, compare Old Indian dru-ṇa-m, dāru-ṇá-, dró-ṇa-m), with guttural extension (compare under nhd. Trog) mir. drochta `(*wooden) barrel, vat, cask; barrel, tub', drochat `bridge'; here also gallorom. drūtos `strong, exuberant (: lit. drūtas)', gr. PN Δρύτων, air. drūth `foolish, loony' (: aisl. trūðr `juggler, buffoon'ö), cymr. drud `foolish, loony, valiant' (cymr. u derives from roman. equivalent);

deru̯- in germ. Tervingl, Matrib(us) Alatervīs, anord. tjara (*deru̯ōn-), finn. Lw. terva, ags. teoru n., tierwe f., -a m. `tar, resin' (*deru̯i̯o-), mnd. tere `tar' (nhd. Teer); anord. tyrvi, tyri `pinewood', tyrr `pine' (doubtful mhd. zirwe, zirbel `pine cone', there perhaps rather to mhd. zirbel `whirl', because of the round spigot);

dreu̯- in got. triu n. `wood, tree', anord. trē, ags. trēow (engl. tree), as. trio `tree, balk, beam'; in öbtr. meaning `tight, firm - tight, firm relying' (as gr. ἰσχῡρός `tight, firm': ἰσχυρίζομαι `show firmly, rely on whereupon, trust in'), got. triggws (*treu̯u̯az) `loyal, faithful', ahd. gi-triuwi `loyal, faithful', an: tryggr `loyal, faithful, reliable, unworried', got. triggwa `alliance, covenant', ags. trēow `faith, belief, loyalty, verity', ahd. triuwa, nhd. Treue, compare with ders. meaning, but other ablaut anord. trū f. `religious faith, belief, assurance, pledge', ags. trŭwa m., mnd. trūwe f. ds., ahd. trūwa, aisl. trū f., besides trūr `loyal, faithful'; derived anord. trūa `trust, hold for true' = got. trauan, and ags. trŭwian, as. trūōn, ahd. trū(w)ēn `trust' (compare n. Old Prussian druwis); similarly anord. traustr `strong, tight, firm', traust n. `confidence, reliance, what one can count on', ahd. trōst `reliance, consolation' (*droust-), got. trausti `pact, covenant', changing through ablaut engl. trust `reliance' (mengl. trūst), mlat. trustis `loyalty' in afrönk. `law', mhd. getröste `troop, multitude, crowd';

maybe alb. trös, trys `press, crowd'

(st- formation is old because of npers. durušt `hard, strong', durust `fit, healthy, whole'; norw. trysja `clean the ground', ags. trūs `deadwood', engl. trouse, aisl. tros `dross', got. ufar-trusnjan `disperse, scatter'.

*drou- in ags. trīg, engl. tray `flat trough, platter', aschwed. trö `a certain measure vessel' (*trauja-, compare above δροίτη), anord. treyju-sǫðull (also trȳju-sǫðoll) `a kind of trough shaped saddle';

*drū- in aisl. trūðr `jester', ags. trūð `merrymaker, trumpeter' (:gallorom. *drūto-s, etc)ö

*dru- in ags. trum `tight, firm, strong, fit, healthy' (*dru-mo-s), with k-extension, respectively forms -ko- (compare above mir. drochta, drochat), ahd. nhd. trog, ags. trog, troh (m.), anord. trog (n.) `trough' and ahd. truha `footlocker', norw. mdartl. trygje n. `a kind of pack saddle or packsaddle', trygja `a kind of creel', ahd. trucka `hutch', nd. trögge `trough' and with the original meaning `tree, wood' ahd. hart-trugil `dogwood';

maybe nasalized alb. trung (*trögge) `wood, tree'

bsl. *deru̯a- n. `tree' in Old Church Slavic drěvo (Gen. drěva, also drěvese), skr. dial. drêvo (drȉjevo), sloven. drẹvộ, ačech. dřěvo, russ. dérevo, klr. dérevo `tree'; in addition as originally collective lit. dervà, (Akk. der̃vą) f. `chip of pinewood; tar, resinous wood'; ablaut, lett. dar̃va `tar', Old Prussian in PN Derwayn; lengthened grade *dōru̯-i̯ā- in lett. dùore f. `wood vessel, beehive in tree';*su-doru̯a- `fit, healthy' in Old Church Slavic sъdravъ, čech. zdráv (zdravý), russ. zdoróv (f. zdoróva) `fit, healthy', compare av. dr(u)vō, Old pers. duruva ds.

balt. *dreu̯i̯ā- f. `wood beehive', substantiv. adj. (Old Indian dravya- `belonging to the tree') : lit. drẽvė and drevė̃ `cavity in tree', lett. dreve ds.: in ablaut lit. dravìs f., lett. drava f. `wood beehive', in addition Old Prussian drawine f. `prey, bee's load' and lit. dravė̃ `hole in tree'; furthermore in ablaut ostlit. drėvė̃ and drovė̃ f. ds., lett. drava `cavity in beehive';

proto slav.. *druu̯a- Nom. Pl. `wood' in Old Church Slavic drъva, russ. drová, poln. drwa (Gen. drew); *druu̯ina- n. `wood' in klr. drovno, slovz. drẽvnø;

slav. *drъmъ in russ. drom `virgin forest, thicket', etc (= Old Indian drumáḫḥ, gr. δρυμός, adjekt. ags. trum);

lit. su-drus `abundant, fat (from the growth of the plants)' (= Old Indian su-drú-ḥ `good wood');

balt. drūta- `strong' (== gallorom. *drūto-s, gr. PN Δρύτων) in lit. drū́tas, driū́tas `strong, thick', Old Prussian in PN Drutenne, PN Druthayn, Druthelauken; belongs to Old Prussian druwis m. `faith, belief', druwi f., druwīt `believe' (*druwēti: ahd. trūen), na-po-druwīsnan `reliance, hope'. Beside lit. drū́tas also drū́ktas; see under dher-2.

In ablaut here Old Church Slavic drevlje `fore, former, of place or time; higher in importance, at first or for the first time', ačech. dřéve, russ. drévle `ages before'; adverb of compara