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1.Indo-European Languages | 2.Indo-European Words | 3.Indo-European Nouns | 4.Indo-European Verbs | 5.Indo-European Syntax | 6.Indo-European Etymology


Vocabulary is one of the best reconstructed parts of the Proto-Indo-European language. Indo-European studies have extensively dealt with the reconstruction of common PIE words and its derivatives, and lots of modern dictionaries of IE languages as Latin, English, German, Greek, Sanskrit, etc. already give etymologies in PIE roots apart from the oldest forms in their languages.

These notes are not intended to substitute the existing reference works, and indeed not to substitute the common PIE vocabulary to be used in Modern Indo-European, but just to facilitate the comprehension of Proto-Indo-European roots in light of their derivatives (and related to the vocabulary used in this grammar), showing also IE forms based on the common English vocabulary.

Many reconstructed derivatives are then from Germanic or from international words of Graeco-Latin origin, but this doesn’t imply we recommend their use over other common PIE words: for example, Latin loans gnātionālís, national, or gnātionlitā, nationality, are not used in some Germanic and Slavic languages, and should maybe be substituted by other, ‘purer’ or ‘less biased’ Proto-Indo-European terms. Also, non-IE suffixes Lat. aiqi-, re-, Gmc. iso-, “ice”, Gk. geo-, haimn-, could be substituted by common PIE formations, as e.g. Lat. re- could be replaced by a ‘purer’ IE ati-, and suffix -ti could be used instead of secondary Ita., Arm. -tio(n), etc.

1.      Carlos Quiles, translated as Indo-European Kárlos Kūriákī:

a.     Carlos is a popular Spanish name derived from Germanic karlaz, kerlaz (cf. O.N. karl, O.E. ċeorl), maybe originally “common person, free man”, Modern Indo-European Kárlos. In Norse mythology, Karl was the name of the first free peasant, the son of Rig and Amma. Rig was the human form taken by the god Heimdall when he produced the progenitors of the three social classes (thralls, peasants and nobility) with three different women. In the Scandinavian languages, Karl retains its meaning “man”. In German, the origin of the name Karl can be traced to the word Kerl which is still used to describe somewhat rough and common men. As in the words churl and churlish in English.

b.    Quiles is a genitive, and means “(son) of quili” (cf. Spa. Quílez, Cat. Quilis, Ast. Quirós, Gal-Pt. Quiris). It comes, from mediaeval noun Quirici->Quili (shortened and with r->l), a loan word from Gk. Κυριακος (Indo-European kūriákos), from which It./Spa. Quirico, Gl.-Pt. Queirici, Cat. Quirce, Fr. Quirice, O.N. kirkja, Eng. church, Scots kirk or Ger. Kirche. PIE root kew means swell. IE kū́rios means master, lord, as Gk. κυριος, and adjective Kyriakos was used as Roman cognomen Cyriacos. Kūriákī should then be the proper genitive of the MIE loan-translated Greek term.

2.     For PIE root bhā (older *bheh2 colored into *bhah1) compare modern derivatives: zero-grade (bha) suffixed bháuknos, beacon, signal, as Gmc. bauknaz (cf. O.E. beacen, O.Fris. bacen, M.Du. bokin, O.H.G. bouhhan, O.Fr. boue, “buoy”), bhásiā, berry (“bright-coloured fruit”), as Gmc. bazjo (cf. O.E. berie, berige, O.H.G. beri, Frank. bram-besi into O.Fr. framboise, “raspberry”, MIE bhrambhásiā); bhánduos, banner, identifying sign, standard, hence “company united under a particular banner” as Gmc. bandwaz (cf. Goth. banwa, also L.Lat. bandum into Sp. banda); suffixed zero-grade bháues, light, as Gk. φς, φωτς, (MIE bháues, bhauesós), as in common borrowings bhawtogrbhíā (see gerbh), photography, shortened bháwtos, or bháuesphoros/phósphoros, bringing light, morning star, phosphorus. See bhā for more IE derivatives.

3.     Modern derivatives from IE dńghū-, language, are usually feminine (as general dńghwā), but for extended Slavic dńghwiks, which is masculine (cf. Russ. язык, Pl. język, Cz. jazik, Sr.-Cr.,Slo. jezik, Bul. език). Compare, for the noun of the English (language), modern Indo-European words:  neuter O.E. Englisc, Ger. Englisch, Du. Engels, Gk. Αγγλικά; masculine is found in Scandinavian engelsk, in Romance – where the neuter merged with the masculine –  Fr. anglais, It. inglese, Spa. inglés, Pt. inglese, as well as alternative Lat. sermō latīnus, and Slavic (following the masculine of the word “language”), Russ. английский [язык], Pol. język angielski, Bul. английски [език], Sr.-Cro. engleski [jezik] etc.); feminine (following the gender of “language”) Lat. anglica [lingua], Rom. [limba] engleză, or Slavic Cz. angličtina, Slo. angleščina, Bel. англiйская; or no gender at all, as in Arm. angleren [lezu].

4.     PIE root wéro, speak, (or *werh3), gives MIE wŕdhom, word, as Gmc. wurdam, (cf. Goth. waurd, O.N. orð, O.S., O.Fris., O.E. word, Du. woord, O.H.G., Ger. wort), and wérdhom, word, verb, as Lat. uerbum, as in adwérdhiom, adverb, or prōwérdhiom, proverb; also wério, say, speak, metathesized in Greek, as in werioneíā, as Gk. ερωνεα; also, suffixed variant form wrētr, public speaker, rhetor, as Gk. ῥήτωρ, and wrmn, rheme. Compare also Umb. uerfalem, Gk. ειρω, Skr. vrata, Av. urvāta, O.Pruss. wīrds, Lith. vardas, Ltv. vārds, O.C.S. vračĭ, Russ. врать, O.Ir. fordat; Hitt. ueria.

5.     PIE base jeug, join (probably from a root jeu), evolved as O.H.G. [untar]jauhta, Lat. jungō, Gk. ζεγνῡμι O.Ind. yunákti, yōjayati (IE jeugeieti), Av. yaoj-, yuj-, Lith. jùngiu, jùngti; gives common derivatives jugóm, joining, yoke; cf. Gmc. jukam (cf. Goth. juk, O.N. ok, O.S. juk, O.E. geoc, Dan. aag, M.Du. joc, Du. juk, O.H.G. juch, Ger. Joch), Lat. iugum, Gk. ζυγον, O.Ind. yugám, Skr. yoga, Arm. luc (with –l influenced by lucanem, “unyoke”), Toch. yokäm, O.C.S. igo, Russ. obža, Cz. jho, Welsh iau, O.Cor. ieu, Bret. ieo; Hett. yugan; jéugos, yoke, as Goth. jukuzi, M.H.G. jiuch, Lat. jūgerum (from Lat. jūgera, IE jóugesa), Gk. ζεγος, O.C.S. ižesa;

6.     PIE adjective néwos, -ā, -om, gives Germanic newjaz, (cf. Goth. niujis, O.N. nýr, O.Eng. niowe, O.Fris. nie, O.H.G. niuwi, Du. nieuw, Dan., Swed. ny), Lat. nouus, Osc. núvellum, Gk. νέος, O.Ind. návas, návyas, Skr. nava, Av. nava-, O.Pers. nau, Toch. ñu/ñuwe, Thrac. neos, Arm. նռր, O.Pruss. nauns (due to analogy with jauns), O.Lith. navas, Lith. naũjas, Ltv. nàujš, O.C.S. novŭ, O.Russ. новъ, Polish nowy, Gaul. Novio-, O.Ir. nūë, Welsh newydd, O.Bret. neuued, Kamviri nuĩ, Kashmiri nōv, O.Osset. nog; Hitt. newash, Luw. nāw.

It was probably a full grade of nu, now, as Gmc. nu (cf. Goth. nu, O.N. , O.E. , O.Fris. nu, O.Ger. nu, Du. nu, Ger. nun), Lat. nunc, Gk. νυ, νυν, O.Ind. , Av. nu, O.Pers. nūram, Toch. nu/nano, O.Pruss. teinu, Lith. , Ltv. nu, O.C.S. nune, O.Ir. nu-, Alb. tani; Hitt. nuwa, Luw. nanun.

7.     Indo-European médhjos (from PIE me, v.i.) gives Gmc. medjaz (cf. Goth. midjis, O.N. miðr, O.S. middi, O.E. midd, O.Fris. midde, O.H.G. mitti), Lat. medius, Osc. mefiaí, Gk. μέσσος, O.Ind. mádhjam, Skt. mádhja, Av. maidja-, Pers. mēān, Illyr. metu, O.Arm. j, O.Pruss. median, Lith. medis, Ltv. mežs, O.C.S.. mežda, O.Russ. межу, Polish między, Gaul. Mediolānum, O.Ir. mid, Welsh mewn, Kamviri pâmüč. West Germanic dialects have a common dimminutive medhjolós, middle, as Gmc. middilaz (cf. O.E. middel, M.L.G., Du. middel, Ger. Mittel); Latin derivatives include medhjālís, medial, medhjliā, medal, medhjā, mediate, médhjom, medium, entermedhjā, intermediate, medhjaiwālís, medieval, medhitersaniós, mediterranean, etc.

PIE me, in the middle of, gives suffixed formes médhi-, among, with, as Gmc. mid-, and méta-, between, with, beside, after, as Gk. meta.

For PIE áiw-, also ájus, vital force, life, long life, eternity,  compare Gmc. aiwi (as in O.N. ei, Eng. aye, nay), suffixed áiwom, age, eternity, in medhjáiwom, Middle Ages, medhjaiwālís, mediaeval, prwimaiwālís, primeval, dhlongháiwotā, longevity; further suffixed áiwotā, age, and aiwoternós, eternal, as Lat. aeternus, in aiwotérnitā, eternity; suffixed áiwēn, age, vital force, eon, Gk. aiōn; zero-grade compound júcjēs, “having a vigorous life”, healthy (from cei, live), as Gk. hugiēs, in jucjésinā (téksnā), “(art) of health”,  hygiene, as Gk. hugieinē (tekhnē);  o-grade ójus, life, health, as Skr. āyu, or Gk. ouk, from (ne) ojus (qid), “(not on your) life”, in ojutópiā, from Gk. ο, no, and τπος, a place that doesn’t exist. See also jeu, vital force, youthful vigor.

8.    PIE ágros, field, also pasture, land, plain, gives Gmc. akraz (cf. Goth. akrs, O.N. akr, O.E. æcer, O.Fris. ekkr, O.H.G. achar. Eng. acre), Lat. ager, Umb. ager (both from earlier Italic agros, district, property, field), Gk. αγρός, Skr. ajras, O.Arm. art.

9.     Indo-European sqálos, squalus, shark, (cf. Lat. squalus) is probably cognate with qálos, whale, as in Gmc. khwalaz (cf. O.S. hwal, O.N. hvalr, O.E. hwæl, M.Du. wal, O.H.G. wal), possibly from an original (s)qalos, with a general meaning of “big fish”, then constrained in its meaning in individual dialects. See S-Mobile  in § 2.8  for more on such related words.

10. Indo-European áqiā, “thing on the water, “watery land”, island, is the source for Gmc. aujō, island (cf. Goth. ahwa, O.N. á, O.E. īeg, O.H.G. aha, O.Is. ey, M.H.G. ouwe, Eng. is[land]), as may be seen on Skandináqiā, Scandinavia L.Latin mistaken form of Skadináqiā, Scadinavia, “south end of Sweden”, loan-translation of Gmc. skadinaujō, “danger island” (cf. O.E. Scedenig, O.N. Skaney); first element is usually reconstructed as IE skátom, as in Gmc. *skathan, meaning danger, scathe, damage (Goth. scaþjan, O.N. skaða, O.E. sceaþian, O.Fris. skethia, M.Du. scaden, O.H.G. scadon), which could be related to Greek α-σκηθης (a-skēthēs), unhurt. The source for áqiā is PIE root áqā, water, cognate with Lat. aqua, Russ. Oká (name of a river) and, within the Anatolian branch, Hitt. akwanzi, Luw. ahw-, Palaic aku-.

English writing “island” was influenced by French isle, from Lat. insula, itself from MIE énsalā (from en-salos, “in the sea”, from sálom, sea, v.i.), giving derivatives ensalarís, insular, ensalanós, islander, ensalínā, insuline, etc.

11.  IE léndhom, land, soil, country, region, gave Gmc. landom (cf. Goth.,O.N., O.E., O.Fris., Du., Ger. land), and is derived from PIE lendh, with the meaning of land, steppe; compare O.Pruss. lindan, O.C.S. ledina, Russ. ljada, Polish ląd, Gaul. landa, O.Ir. land, Welsh llan, Bret. lann.

12.  For PIE root (á)ḿbhi, around, about, compare Gmc. (um)bi (cf. O.N. um/umb, O.E. be/bi, ymbe, M.Du. bie, O.H.G. umbi, bi, Du. bij, Ger. um, bei), Lat. ambi, amb, Gk. μφι, Skr. abhi, Celt. ambi. It is probably derived from ant(i)-bhi, lit. “from both sides”, hence older IE *n̥bhi. For PIE ánti, front, forehead, compare Gmc. andja (end, originally “the opposite side”, cf. Goth. and, O.N. endr, O.E. ende, O.Fris. enda, O.H.G. endi), Lat. antiae, Osc. ant, Gk. ντι, Toch. ānt/ānte, Lith. ant, O.Ir. étan. Anatolian Hitt. anta, Luw. hantili, Lyc. xñtawata support the hypothesis of an earlier locative *h2ént-i – see ant and ambhi.

13.  Proto-Indo-European ag, drive, draw, move, do, act, compare Lat. agere, Gk. αγειν, O.Ir. Ogma, from which agtiós, weighty, as Gk. αξιος, ágrā, seizing, as Gk. αγρα, and ágtos, in ambhágtos, one who goes around, from Lat. ambactus, a loan word from Celtic. Other common derivatives include agtēiuós, active, agtuālís, actual, agtuariós, actuary, agtuā, actuate, agénts, agent, agilís, agile, agitā, agitate, ambhaguós, ambiguous, komágolom, coagulum, ekságiom, essay, eksagtós, exact, eksago, demand, ekságmn, swarm, later exam, eksagmnā, examine, eksagénts, exigent, eksaguós, exiguous, nawagā, navigate (from nus), dhūmagā, fumigate, (from dhúmos, smoke) fustagā, fustigate (from Lat. fustis, “club”), transago, compromise, transagénts, intransigent (from n-, un-, see ne), litagā, litigate (from Latin loan litágiom, litigation), prōdago, drive away, to squander, (from prō-d-es, be good), prōdagós, prodigal, redago, redact, retrōago, drive back, retrōagtēiuós, retroactive, transago, transact; Greek agogós, drawing off, in -agógos, -agogue (“leading, leader”), as in dāmagógos, “popular leader”, demagogue (from dmos, people), supnagogikós, hypnagogic (from swep, sleep), pawidagógos, pedagogue, protagonístā, protagonist (Gk πρωταγωνιστς), komagógā, synagogue; suffixed agtiós, “weighty”, as in agtiós, worth, worthy, of like value, weighing as much, as in agtiómā, axiom, Gk. ξωμα, agtiologíā, axiology; suffixed ágrā, driving, pursuing, seizing, as in Gk. agrā, in podágrā.

For PIE dhúmos, smoke, Lat. fumus, Gk. thymos, Skt. dhuma, O.Prus. dumis, Lith. dumai, O.C.S. dymu,  M.Ir. dumacha.

Indo-European swep, sleep, gives swópōs, deep sleep, as Lat. sopor, in compound swoposidhakós (from -dhak), soporific; swópnos, sleep, as Lat. somnus, swópnolénts, somnolent, or swópniom, insomnia; zero-grade suffixed súpnos, Gk. hypnos, and in supnótis, hypnosis, supnotikós, hypnotic.

For Indo-European root pau, few, little, compare derivatives pawós, Gmc. fawaz (cf. Goth. fawai, O.N. far, O.E. feawe, Dan. faa, O.Fris. fe, O.H.G. foh) or paukós, as Lat. paucus; suffixed metathesized form parwós, little, small, neuter parwom, little, rarely; compound pauparós, producing little, poor (IE parós, producing), as in depauparā, depauparate, and empauparā, impoverish; suffixed zero-grade púlā, young of an animal, as Gmc. fulōn (cf. Goth.,O.E. fula, O.N. foli, O.H.G. folo, O.Fris. fola, M.H.G. vole, Eng. foal, Ger. Fohlen); extended suffixed pútslos, young of an animal, chicken, as Lat. pullus, and diminutive putslolós, Lat pusillus, in putslolanamós, pusillanimous; also, for words meaning “boy, child”, compare suffixed púeros, as Lat. puer, pútos, as Lat. putus, and páwids, as Gk. παις (stem paid-), in pawideíā, education, Gk. παιδεα, in enq(u)qlopáwideiā, encyclopaedia, from Modern Latin, itself from Greek “γκύκλια παιδεία” “[well-]rounded education” (see IE en, q’qlos) meaning “a general knowledge”.

For IE pero, produce, procure, older *perh2 (closely related to pero, both from per), compare Latin par- (from zero-grade), in parā, try to get, prepare, equip, in adparā, prepare, adpáratos, apparatus, apparel, enparā, command, enparātr, emperor, imperator, enparatēiuós, imperative, preparā, prepare, reparā, repair, separā, separate, sever; suffixed pario, get, beget, give birth, p.part. partós, in partosiénts, parturient, pártom, birth, repario, find out, repartóriom, repertory; parallel suffixed participial form parénts, parent, as Lat. parēns; suffixed form -parós, producing.

Indo-European pero, grant, allot (reciprocally, to get in return), gives derivatives as pártis, a share, part, as Lat. pars (stem part-), in partio, divide up, share, partitós, divided, share, partítos, division, party, partíkolā, particle (with dim. partikillā, parcel), dwipartitós, bipartite, kompartio, compart, enpartio, impart, repartio, repart, pártiōn, portion, a part, Lat. portiō, in prō partioní, in proportion, according to each part, into prōpártiōn, proportion; pār, equal, as in pritā, parity, kompārā, comapare, pritā, imparity, etc.

14.  PIE mātr (also mtēr) gave Gmc. mōdar, (cf. ON móðir, O.E. mōdor, O.S. modar, O.H.G. muoter, M.Du. moeder), Lat. māter, Osc. maatreís, Umb. matrer, Gk. μήτηρ, O.Ind. mātā, Skr. mātár-, Av. mātar-, Pers. mādar, Phryg. mater, Toch. mācar/mācer, Arm. մայր (mair), Alb. motër, O.Pruss. mūti, Lith. mótė, Ltv. māte, O.C.S., O.Russ. мати, Polish matka, Gaul. mātir, O.Ir. máthir, Welsh modryb, Kamviri motr, Osset. madæ.

IE ending -ter usually indicates kinship (see also pa-ter, bhrā-ter, dhuga-ter, jena-ter), whilst ma- (earlier IE *mah2-) is a baby like sound found in the word for “mother” in non-Indo-European languages; as, Estonian ema, Semitic cumm, Chinese māma, Apache, Navajo -ma, Vietnamese ma, Korean eomma, Malayalam amma, Zulu umama, Basque ama, Hawaiian makuahine, etc.; also, compare IE-related Hitt. anna, Hung. anya.

Compounds include māternós (or Lat. māternālís), maternal, mātérnitā, maternity, mātríkolā, list, register, and verb mātríkolā, matriculate, mtrīks, matrix, mātrimniom, matrimony; also, mātériā, tree trunk (<”matrix”, the tree’s source of growth), hence “hard timber used in carpentry”, hence (calque of Gk. hūlē, “wood, matter”), substance, stuff, matter, as in mātériālis, material; mātrópolis (from pólis), metropolis, as Gk. μητρπολις, as well as Greek goddess of produce (especially for cereal crops) Demeter, from -māter , which have been related to IE de, da, or don.

English “wedding” comes from O.E. weddianpledge, covenant to do something” from Gmc. wadjan (cf. Goth. ga-wadjon, O.N. veðja, O.Fris. weddia, Ger. Wette), from PIE base wadh-to pledge, to redeem a pledge”, as Lat. vas (gen. vadis),bail, security”, Lith. vaduotito redeem a pledge”. Development to “marry” is unique to the English language.

15.  PIE root leuk-/louk- means bright, light, brightness. Compare léuktom, light, as Gmc. leukhtam (cf. Goth. liuhaþ, O.N. leygr, O.E. lēoht, O.Fris. liacht, M.Du. lucht, O.H.G. lōh, O.Ice. lōn), or léuktio, make light, as Gmc. leukhtjan (cf. O.E. līhtan); léuks, light, as lat. lūx, as in leukíbheros, “light-bearer”, Lucifer (from bher, carry, as Greek bhóros, by samprasarana the initial desinene is lost, cf. Lat. uir<wiros, Lat. sacer<sakros in lapis níger, etc.); suffixed léuksmen, light, opening, as Lat. lūmen, for common derivatives adj. léuksmenónts(ós), luminous, enléuksmenā, illuminate, etc.; léuksnā, moon, as Lat. lūna, as in leuksnālís, lunar, leuksnātikós, lunatic, etc.; suffixed léukstrom, purification, as Lat. lūstrum; leukstrā, purify, illuminate, as Lat. lustrare, as in enleukstrā, illustrate; leukodhrā, work by lamplight, hence lucubrate, as Lat. lūcubrāre, as in eghleukodhrā, lucubrate, (see eghs) and eghleukodhrtiōn, elucubration; suffixed leukós, clear, white, as Gk. λευκς; o-grade loukē, shine, as Lat. lūcēre, in loukénts, lucent, loukeitós, lucid, ekloukeitā, elucidate, reloukē, shine, reloukénts, relucent, transloukénts, translucent; zero-grade suffixed lúksnos, lamp, as Gk. lukhnos; and also attributed by some to this root nasalized zero-grade Gk. λγξ, -γκς, “lynx”, in any case MIE lunks. Common IE derivatives include Lat. lux, lucere, Osc. lúvkis, Umb. vuvçis, Gk. λευκός,  O.Ind. roká-, Av. raočant, Toch. luk, Arm. lois, lusin, Lith. laukas, Ltv. lauks, O.C.S. luci, Russ. lug, Gaul. leux, O.Ir. luchair, Welsh llug, Kamviri luka; Hitt. lukezi, Lyc. luga, Luw. luha-,

For PIE root lech, light, having little weight, compare Gmc. likhtaz (cf. Goth. līhts, O.N. léttr, O.E. lēoht, O.H.G. līht, Swed. lätt, O.Fris., M.Du. licht, Ger. leicht, Eng. light), Lat. levis, Gk. λαχύς, Skr. laghú, raghú, Av. raghu-, rə (from *raghvī), Kashmiri lo.t, Toch. -/lankŭtse, O.Pruss. lāngiseilingins, Lith. lengva, Ltv. liegs, Sla. lьgъkъ (cf. O.C.S., O.Russ. льгъкъ, Russ. лёгкий, Pol. lekki, Cz. lehký, Sr.-Cr. ла̏к), O.Ir. lugu, laigiu (from *lagiōs), Welsh llai, Alb. lehtë. Common MIE derivatives include suffixed léchtos, light, and lechtio, lighten, as Gmc. likhtjan; lechús, light (extended in -is in Lat. leuis) into lechuā, lighten, raise, Lat. leuāre, as in léghuitā, levity, adlechuā, alleviate, eklechuā, elevate, relechuā, relieve, relechuánts, relevant; variant lachs, small, as O.Ir. -; nasalized zero-grade lńchs, lung, “light organ”, as Gmc. lungz (cf. O.N. lunge, O.E.,O.Fris. lungen, M.Du. longhe, Ger. lunge).

16.  Adjective cwós, alive, from zero-grade *gwiH, is the source for Gmc. kwikwaz (cf. Goth. quis, O.N. kvikr, O.E. cwicu, O.Fris. quik, O.H.G. quec, Ger. keck, possibly also O.E. cwifer, Eng. quiver), lat. uīus, Osc. bivus, O.Ind. jīvati, Av. ǰvaiti, O. Pruss. giwа, Lith. gyventi, Ltv. dzīvs. It comes from PIE root cei, live, compare Gk. βίος (bios), ζωή (zoé), Pers. gaithā, Toch. śo/śai, O.Arm. keam, O.C.S. жити, Russ. жить, Polish żyć, Gaul. Biturīges, O.Ir. bethu, Welsh byd.

17.  PIE root léus, loosen, divide, cut apart, gives extended verb luso, lose, forfeit, Gmc. lausan (cf. O.N. los, O.E. losian, O.Is. lyja, Swe. sofve), with zero-grade part. lusonós, Gmc. luzanaz, (O.E., Du. loren, Ger. [ver]loren), leusós, loose, untied, Gmc. lausaz (cf. Goth. laus, O.N. lauss, O.E. leas, Dan. løs, M.Du., Ger. los). Compare also Lat. luēs, Gk. λύω, Skr. lunáti, Toch lo/lau, O.Ir. loë, Alb. laj; Hitt. luzzi. It is derived from PIE leu.

18. For Indo-European (á)ŕtkos, bear, big animal, from older *h2(é)rtcos or h2(é)rtgos, (cf. Hitt. artagga), compare Lat. ursus (from Ita. orcsos), Gk. αρκτος, Skr. ka, Av. aršam, Pers. xers, Arm. arj, Gaul. Artioni, Welsh arth, Alb. ari, Kamviri ic, Osset. ærs. Common Modern borrowings include Latin rtkinós, ursine, Artkikós, Arctic (from *Arktikós), Antartkikós, Antartic (see ánti, opposite, in front), Welsh Artkór(i)os, Arthur.

19.  Modern Indo-European nmn, name, from an older IE II *h1noh3mn̥, compare Gmc. namōn (cf. Goth. namō, O.N. nafn, O.E. nama, O.Fris. nama, O.H.G. namo, Du. naam), Lat. nōmen, Umb. nome, Gk. ονομα, O.Ind. ́ma, Skr. nāman, Av. nąman, O.Pers. nāma, Toch. ñom/ñem, Arm. անռւն (anun), O.Pruss. emmens (from emnes), Sla. jьmę-jьmene (cf. O.C.S. imę, Rus. имя, Polish imię) Alb. emër/emën, O.Ir. ainmm, O.Welsh anu, O.Corn. hanow, Bret. ano, Kamviri nom; Hitt. lāman. Common modern words include Latin (from nomen, “name, reputation”), nomnālís, nominal, nomnā, nominate, dwinomniālís, binomial, komnmn, cognomen, denomnā, denominate, nómniā, ignominy, nomnklatr, nomenclator, prāinmn, praenomen, prōnmn, pronoun, renmn, renown; from Greek are nomnstikós, onomastic,  -nomn, -onym, nomnós, anonymous, antinomnsíā (from anti), antonomasia, eponomnós, eponymous, (a)sunomnós, euonymus, snteronomnós, heteronymous, somonomnós, homonymous, mātronomnikós, matronymic, patronomnikós, patronymic, nomntoqoiweíā, anomatopoeia, paronomnós, paronimous, pseudonómn, pseudonym (from Gk. pseudes, “false”) komnómn, synonym.

For PIE qéi, pile up, build, make, compare o-grade qóios, body (as in Eng. cheetah), as Skr. kāya; suffixed qoiwós, making, (after Pokorny Gk. *ποι-ϝ-ς) in verb qoiweio, make, create, as Gk. ποιεν, qoiwéitis, making, and as Greek suffix -qoiweitis, -poiesis, Gk. ποησις, also from Lat. qoiweitíā, poesy, qoíweimn, poem (Gk. ποημα), qoiwéitā, poet (Gk. ποιητς), qoiweitikós, poetic, epoqoiwéiā, epopee, etc..

Similar root PIE qéi, pay, atone, compensate, gives Gk. time, Skr. cinoti, Av. kaena, O.C.S. cena, Lith. kaina, as well as common MIE o-grade qoin, fine, penalty, as Gk. poinē into Lat. poena, as in qoinālís, penal, qoinlitā, penalty, qóinitā, impunity, qoinologíā, penology, qoinitosiós, punitory, supqoin, subpoena.

20. For -qe, enclitic “and”, compare Goth, O.N. -u(h), Lat. -que, Gk. -τε, Messap. ti, si, O.Ind., Ira. -ca, Phryg. ke, Ven. kve, Gaul. -c, O.Ir. -ch-; Hitt., Luw. -ku, Lyc. -ke.

For MIE non-clitic words meaning “and”, compare especially MIE éti, “out, further”, also “and”, as Goth. , O.N. i, O.E. edw, O.H.G. ita-, Lat. etiam, et (cf. Fr. et, It. ed, Spa.,Ca., i, Gl.-Pt. e, Rom. şi), Gk. eti, O.Ind. ati, Av. aiti, O.Pers. atiy, Phryg. eti, Toch. atas, aci/, O.Pruss. et-, at-, Gaul. eti, etic, O.Bret. et-, O.Welsh et-, at-.

Common Germanic untha (cf. O.N. enn, O.E. and, ond, O.S. endi, O.Fris. anda, M.Du. ende, O.H.G. enti, Ger. und), reconstructed as MIE ńti, is generally said to be ultimately from PIE ánti, in front, although more conceivably a zero-grade form of nasalized *énti, from the aforementioned PIE éti (Adrados). Also, O.E. eac, “also” (as Eng. eke), Ger. auch, are used as the common conjunction in Da.,No. og, Swe. och, from aug, increase.

Slavic “a” comes from IE adverb ad, (older *h1d), “and, then”, as Skr. fat, “afterwards, then, so”, Av. fat, “afterwards, then”, while Slavic “(h)i” comes from IE conjunction ei, and, if, as in Gk. e.

21.  IE -r, enclitic “for”, cf. Gk. ar, ara, (Cypriot er), O.Ind. -r, Lith. ir, “and, also”, ar (interrogative).

22. The Angles are members of a Germanic tribe mentioned by Tacitus, O.E. Angeln, from Lat. Anglii, lit. “people of Angul” (cf. O.N. Öngull), a region in what is now Schleswig-Holstein, in Northern Germany. The adjectives for the older inhabitants could then be reconstructed as Modern Indo-European Angliós. Modern adjective English is a common Germanic formation, derived from IE suffix -isko-; as, Angliskós, Germaniskós, Teutiskós (along with ‘Classic’ Graeco-Latin Anglós, Anglikós, Germanós, Germanikós, Teutn, Teutonikós), etc.

The noun Germániā is from unknown origin. The Oxford English Dictionary records theories about the Celtic root gair. Another theory suggests gar, while the one that derive it from Gmc. gaizo- (cf. O.N. geirr, O.H.G. ger, O.E. gar, Ger. Ger) is one of the oldest theories proposed. It is still a common word in modern languages; as, Nor. germansk, Gk. Γερμανός, Rom. german, Ir. Gearmáinis, Sco. Gearmailtis, Arm. germaneren, Hindi Jarman, Alb. gjermanishte, etc. also in Non-Indo-European languages, like Maltese Ġermaniż, Hebrew germani, Georgian germanuli, Indonesian, Malay, Tagalog, Thai, Xhosa, Jerman, Amharic järmän.

23. For Indo-European wĺqos, wolf (fem. wĺqi/wĺqī), compare Gmc. wulfaz (cf. Goth. wulfs, O.S. wulf, O.N. ulfr, O.Fris., Du., O.H.G., Ger. wolf,), Lat. lupus, Gk. λύκος, Skt. vkas, Av. vehrka-, O.Pers. Varkana- (Hyrcania, “wolf-land”, district southeast of the Caspian Sea), Albanian ulk, Lith. vilkas, O.C.S. вълкъ; Rus. волк, Ukr. вовк. Closely related PIE words are wail, wolf, cf. O.Arm. gayl, O.Ir. fáel, and wĺpēs, fox, cf. Lat. uulpēs, Gk. αλωπηζ, Skr. lopāśá, Av. urupis, raopis, Pers. rōbāh, Arm. aluēs, lit. lãpė, Ltv. lapsa. Such animals are also a symbol of lust in many old Indo-European dialects.

24. PIE root bher, bear, carry, also bear children, gave Gmc. beranan (cf. Goth. bairan, O.N. bera, O.E., O.H.G. beran), Lat. fero, Umb. fertu, Gk. φέρω, O.Ind. bhárati, Av. baraiti, O.Pers. baratuv, Phryg. ber, Toch. pär, O.Arm. berel, Lith. beriù, Ltv. beŕu, O.C.S. бьрати, Rus. беру, Polish biorę, O.Ir. berim, Welsh cymmeryd, Alb. bie, Kamviri bor. With the meaning of give birth, compare Eng. birth, Goth. baurþei, Ger. Geburt, Lat. fors, O.Ind bh, bibhrāas, O.Ir. brith, O.C.S. бьранъ. Modern derivatives include bh, bier, Gmc. bērō (cf. O.N. bara, O.E. ber, O.Fr. biere, O.H.G. bara, O.Fris. bere, M.Du. bare, Eng. bier); o-grade bhórnom, child, Gmc. barnam (cf. O.E. bearn, Scots bairn); suffixed zero-grade (kom)bhŕtis, birth, as Gmc. (ga)burthiz (cf. Goth. gabaurþs, O.N. byrðr, O.E. gebyrd, Ger. geburt, Eng. birth),  bhŕtinios, burden, as Gmc. burthinjaz (cf. Goth. baurþei, O.N. byrðr, O.S. burthinnia, O.E. byrðen, Ger. bürde); compound root bhrenko, bring (from bher+enk, reach), as Gmc. brengan (cf. Goth. briggan, p.t. brohte, pp. broht, O.Fris. brenga, O.E. bringan, M.Du. brenghen, O.H.G. bringan); from Latin ferre are common MIE -bher, -fer, bhertilís, fertile, adbherénts, afferent, kikrombheréntiā, circumference, kombhero, confer, kombheréntiā, conference, debhero, defer, disbhero, differ, ekbherénts, efferent, enbhero, infer, obhbhero, offer, prāibhero, prefer, probhero, proffer, rebhero, refer, supbhero, suffer, transbhero, transfer, woqibherā, vociferate; prefixed and suffixed zero-grade próbhrom, reproach, in obhpróbhriom, opprobrium; suffixed zero-grade bhŕtus, chance (from “a bringing, that which is brought”), as in bhrtuitós, happening by chance, fortuitous, bhrtū́, chance, good luck, fortune; lengthened o-grade bhōr, thief, as in bhortēiuós, furtive, bhorónkolos, furuncle; from Greek pherein are o-grade noun bhóros, carrying, -bhorā, -phore, -bhoretis, -phoresis, -bhoros, -phorous, am(bh)bhorā, (from Lat., from Gk. ambhibhoreus), anábhorā, diabhorétis, (a)subhoríā, euforia, metábhorā, peribhéreiā, bheromónā, etc.; suffixed bhérnā, dowry (“something brought by a bride”), as in parabhernáliā.

IE nek, reach, attain, gives o-grade prefixed (with intensive kom-) komnóko, suffice, as Gmc. ganakh- (cf. Goth. ganohs, O.N. gnogr, O.E. genog, O.Fris. enoch, Ger. genug); variant Greek enk, carry, gives o-grade noun ónkos, burden, mass, hence a tumor, as Gk. γκος, Skr. aṃśa, as in onkogénetis, onkologíā; and Germanic bhrénko, bring, v.s.

  Greek eu is usually compared with Hittite assu<*eh2sugood”, hence MIE asu, usually su- in compounds, cf. O.Ind. su-. The fact that all Greek dialects show the same evolution in this Indo-European root is considered a rare phenomenon.

25. Attested derivatives include zero-grade Greek q’qlos/qúqlos, circle, cycle, Gk. κύκλος, (from which L.Lat. cyclus, Eng. cycle), Toch. kukäl/kokale, e-grade qéqlos, wheel, as Gmc. khwewlaz (cf. O.N. hvel, O.E. hwēol, hweogol, O.S. hiughl, O.Fris. hwel, M.Du. weel), and Lith. kãklas, or neuter qéqlom, chakra, circle, wheel, as O.Ind. cakram, Av. čаrа, also found as metathesized qélqos, charkha, as Old. Pers. čarka-, or Osset. calx. Other derivatives from PIE verbal root qel, meaning revolve, move around, sojourn, dwell, include Lat. colere, “till, cultivate, inhabit”, not originally o-grade in PIE (from basic form PIE qelo- -> Lat. cole-), as in qélōnos, setler, qélōniā, colony, qeltós, cultivated, qéltos, worship, cult, qeltēiuós, tilled, qeltēiuā, cultivate, qéltosā, culture, qeltós, incult, qélinos, inquiline, etc; suffixed qélōs, “completion of a cycle”, consummation, perfection, end, result, telos, gives Gk. τλος, -εος (remember that PIE [kw] becomes Gk. [p] or [t] before certain vowels), giving qeliós, perfect, complete, from which qeliologíā, teleology, qéliom, telium, qelio, consacrate, fulfill, in turn giving qelésmn, consecration ceremony, from which qelesmn (through Arabic tilasm, then It. talismano or Spa. talismán into Fr. talisman); from o-grade qólso-, “that on which the head turns”, neck, hals, are qólsos, Gmc. kh(w)alsaz (cf. Goth., O.N., Dan., Swed., Du., Ger. hals), and qólsom, as Lat. collum, from which derivatives qolsr, collar, deqolsā, decollate, behead, etc.; suffixed -qolā, -colous, and enqolā, inhabitant a Lat. -cola, incola; ánqolos, “one who bustles about”, servant, as Lat. anculus, giving dim. f. anqíllā, maidservant; qólos, axis of a sphere, pole, as Gk. πόλος, also -qólos, herdsman, as couqólos, cowherd, (from cōus, cow), as Gk. βουκλος, giving couqolikós, bucolic; also, qólōs, wheel, as Slavic kolo, koles (cf. O.C.S. коло, Russ. колесо, Pol. koło); suffixed o-grade qólenos, traffic, as O.Ira. -carana, as in wésāqólenos, “sale-traffic”, bazaar, as O.Ira. vahacarana (see wes), Pers. bāzār, hence also MIE partial loan wesr or loan bazr, bazaar. Compare also O.N. hjōl, Skr. cárati, Av. caraiti, Old Prussian -kelan, Lith. kelias, O.Ir. cul, Alb. sjell; Luw. kaluti-; zero-grade variant qĺin, again, as Gk. πλιν, as in qlíndromos (from Gk. -δρμος, racecourse), palindrome, qlínpsēstos, palimpsest, Gk. παλμψηστος (from Gk. psēn, “scrape”).

A common word for wheel is rótā, from which Gmc. radō (cf. ON rǫðull, O.E. rodur, O.H.G. rad), Lat. rota, Skr. ratha, Av. radha, Lith. ratas, Ltv. rats, Gaul. Roto-, Ir. rath, Welsh rhod,  Alb. rrath. Known modern derivatives are Celtic loan word to-wó-rets, formed by IE “do-upo-réts”, “a running up to”, which gives Mod. Eng. tory, from O.Ir. tōir, “pursuit”; also, retondós, rolling, which gave rotondós, round, rotund, as Lat. rotundus.

26. Compare for PIE ghóstis, stranger, guest, Gmc. gastiz (cf. Goth. gasts, O.N. gestr, O.E. gæst, O.Fris. jest, O.H.G. gast), Lat. hostis, hospes (hostis-potes) O.C.S. gosti, OCS gostĭ, Russ. гость, Polish gość; Luw. gaši. Compound ghospóts, host, (Lat. hospes, guest, originally host, “lord of strangers”), gives MIE ghospotālís, hospitable, and also ghospotlis, hospital (from M.Lat. hospitale, meaning inn, large house, “guest house”), reduced as ghostlis, hostel, from O.Fr. hostel, in turn from Lat. hos(pi)tale. For Hotel, a more international borrowing from the same word, it could be used either as ghostlis, or as a French loan word ghostél/ghotél; compare words with slightly different meanings: Eng. hostel-hotel, Ger. Gasthaus-Hotel, Swe. gstgiveri-hotel, Ice. gistihtel, Spa. hostal-hotel, It. ostello-hotel, Pt. hotel, Russ. гостиница (gostinitsa), Uk. готел (gotel), Pol. hotel, Cz. hostinec, Pers. hotel, Ind. hotel, and also in non-Indo-European languages, as Finnish hotelli, Japanese ホステル (hosuteru) - ホテル (hoteru), Korean 호텔 (ho-t'el), Thai โฮเต็ล (hō-ten), etc. The word for ‘hotel’ in Latin, however, was deuersorium, from the same root as Eng. divert.

27. More PIE derivatives related to stáuros, (also stéuros, both from PIE ster) are Germanic (s)teuraz (cf. Goth. stiur, O.S. stior, O.N. stjórr, O.E. steor, O.H.G. stior, M.Du., Du. stier; Dan. tyr, Swed. tjur), Lat. taurus, Osc. turuf, Gk. ταυρος, Av. staora, O. Pruss. tauris, Lith. tauras, Ltv. tauriņš, O.C.S. turu, Rus. tur, Pol. tur, Gaul. tarbos, Welsh tarw, O. Ir. tarb, Oscan turuf and Alb. taroç.

28. Indo-European nízdos, nest, resting place, is a secondary PIE root, from ni-, down, + sed, sit. Compare Gmc. nistaz, Lat. nidus, O.Ind. nidas, Skr. á, Arm. nist, O.C.S. гнѣздо, Russ. гнездо́, Polish gniazdo, O.Ir. net, Welsh nyth, Bret. nez. For mízdhos, compare Gmc. mizdō (Goth. mizdō, O.E. mēd, O.S. mēda , O.H.G. mieta), Gk. μισθός, Skr. mīdhá, Av. mīžda, Pers. muzd, meed, O.C.S. mĭzda, Russ. мзда́.

29. PIE ker, horn, head, gave derivatives kŕnos, horn, Gmc. khurnaz (cf. Goth. haurn, O.E. horn, Ger. Horn, Du. horen), Lat.,Celt. cornū (<*kórnus, a blending with variant o-grade kórus, as in Gk. koru-); kéruīks, neck, from Lat. cervīx; kérudos, male dear, hart, from Gmc. kherutas (cf. O.H.G. hiruz, O.N. hjörtr, O.E. heorot,  M.Du. hert, Ger. Hirsch); kéruos, deer, as Lat. ceruus, Welsh carw; kŕsniom, Gk. κρανον, Lat. cranĭum; kŕsnotom, hornet as Gmc. khurznutu- (cf. O.E. hyrnetu, hurnitu, Du. horzel); kerésrom [ke-‘rez-rom], brain, as Lat. cerĕbrum (compare also O.N. hjarni, O.H.G. hirni, Ger. Hirn); other derivatives include Gk. καρη, Skr. śiras, srngam, Av. sarah, Pers. sar, Toch. krāñi, Arm. sar, O.Pruss. kerpetis, Lith. szirszu, Ltv. šk̨irpta, O.C.S. чрѣпъ, Russ. čerep, Pol. trzop, Bret. kern, Alb. krye, Osset. sær.

30. For PIE snúsos, daughter-in-law, compare Gmc. snusaz (cf. Goth. schuos, O.N. snor, O.E. snoru, O.H.G. snur), Lat. nurus, Gk. νυος, Skr. snuā, Arm. nu, OCS snŭxa, Russ. сноха, Polish snecha, Alb. nuse.

31.  PIE nébhōs, cloud, evolved as Skr. nábhas, Av. nabah, Lith. debesis, Ltv. debess, O.C.S. nebo, Russ. nebo, Polish niebo, O.Ir. nem, Cor. nef, Kamviri niru; Hitt. nepiš, Luw. tappaš-, Lyc. tabahaza. Suffixed nébhelā gives Gmc. nibila (cf. O.N. niflhel, O.E. nifol, O.H.G. nebul, also found in MIE patronymic Nebhelńkos, Gmc. Nibulunkhaz, as O.H.G. Nibulunc, Nibulung), also Welsh niwl, Lat. nebŭla, as in nebhelós, nebulous, and Gk. nephelē, as in nebhelínā, nepheline, nebhelométrom, nephelometer; suffixed nebhologíā, nephology; nasalized némbhos, rain, cloud, aura, as Lat. nimbus.

For PIE , measure, compare  derivatives suffixed mlos, mealmeasure, mark, appointed time, time for eating, meal”, as Gmc. melaz (v.s.); suffixed mtis, wisdom, skill, as Gk. mētis, further suffixed metio, measure, as Lat. mētīrī, in nasalized p.part. mensós, measured, mensósā, measure, mensosālis, mensural, kommensosā, commensurate, disménsiōn, dimension, mensós, immense; métrom, measure, rule, length, proportion, poetic meter (referred by some to IE med-), as Gk. μτρον, in metrikós, metrical, diametrós, diameter, geometríā, geometry, wiswometrikós, isometric, metrologíā, metrology, kommetríā, symmetry;  extended and suffixed forms m, month, moon, as Gmc. mēnōn (cf. O.E. mona), Gk. mēn, mēnē, in derivatives mēnopáusā, menopause, mēnosréwiā, amenorrhea, etc.; for month, compare also mnōts, as Gmc. mēnōth- (cf. Goth. menoþs, O.N. manaðr, O.E. mōnath, M.Du. manet, O.H.G. manod, Du. maand, Ger. Monat), and Latin mnsis, as in menstruā, menstruate, menstruālís, menstrual, dwiménstris, bimester, dwimenstriālís, bimestrial, seksménstris, semester, triménstris, trimester, etc. (see also zero-grade suffix -m(ns)ris, month).

PIE referred also to certain qualities of mind, as suffixed o-grade mtos, mind, disposition, as Gmc. mothaz (cf. Goth. moþs, O.N. moðr, O.Fris. mod, M.Du. moet, O.H.G. muot, Du. moed, Ger. Mut), and Latin mōs, wont, humor, manner, custom, as in loan words (affected by rhotacism) mosālís, moral, mósōs, custom, mosónts(ós), morose.

Also, PIE , big, gives suffixed comparative misā, greater, more, as Gmc. maizōn (cf. O.S. mera, O.N. meiri, O.Eng. O.Fris. mara, O.H.G. mero, M.Du. mere, Ger. mehr), Osc. mais, Gk. -moros, Av. mazja, O.Ir. mor; also, superlative mēistós, most, Gmc. maistaz; (Lat. maes, “more”, comes from meg). 

IE med, take appropriate measures, measure, gives Gmc. metan (cf. Goth. mitan, O.E. metan, O.Fris., O.N. meta, Du. meten, Eng. mete, Ger. messen), also (kom)médā, measure, Gmc. (ga)mætijaz (cf. O.N. mætr, O.E. gemæte, O.H.G. gimagi, Eng. meet, Ger. gemäß); medio, look after, heal, cure, as Lat. medērī, in medikā, medicate, medikínā, medicine, medikós, medical, remédiom, remedy; meditā, think about, consider, reflect, meditate; suffixed medes-, giving (influenced by Lat. modus) modestós, “keeping to the appropriate measure”, moderate, modestós, inmodest; modesā, “keep within measure”, moderate, controlmodesatós, inmoderate; medóntiā, Medusa, from Gk. medein, “rule”; suffixed o-grade módos, measure, size, limit, manner, harmony, melody, mood, as in módā, mode, modélos, model, modesnós, modern, modidhakā, modify, modolā, modulate, módolos, module, modulus, kommodā, commode, kommóditā, commodity, adkommodā, accomodate;  suffixed o-grade módios, a measure of grain; lengthened o-grade mōds, ability, measure, as in mōdo, have occasion, to be permitted or obliged, as Gmc. mōtan (cf. Goth. gamotan, O.Fris. mota, O.E. motan, M.L.G. moten, Du. moeten, Ger. müssen, Eng. must from O.E. part. moste).

32. PIE verb gen, give birth, beget, produce, is a well-attested root which gives derivatives referring to aspects and results of procreation and to familial and tribal groups, e.g. génōs, race, stock, kind, gender, as Lat. genus, generis, Gk. γνος, Skr. jana, giving derivatives genesā, generate, geneslis, general, genestiōn, generation; alternate base gńa, giving cognate gńtis, natural, native, clan, kin, race, as Gmc. kundiz (cf. O.E. gecynd, Eng. kind), Lat. gentis, Gk. γνεσις, Skr. jāta, Lith. gentis; reduplicate gígno, beget, with past participle genitós, as in genitr, genitlis, komgenitālís, etc., cf. Lat. gignere, Gk. γίγνεσθαι, Skr. jajanti, Av. zīzənti; gnāsko, be born, from Lat. gnāscī, as in gnātós, born, gnātēiuós, native, gntiōn, nation, gntosā, nature, komgnātós, cognate; prāignánts, pregnant; génios, procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality; engenuós, born in (a place), native, natural, freeborn, then ingenuous, and genuīnós, genuine; engéniom, inborn character, later engine, and engeniónts(ós), ingenious; endogenā, native, indigen; génmēn, germen, as in genmenā, germinate, genmenālís, etc. Compare also Gmc. kunjam, Osc. genetaí, Umb. natine, Skr. janati, Pers. zāēdan, Phryg. cin, Thrac. zenis, Toch. kän, Arm. cnanim, Lith. gimdyti, Ltv. znots, OCS zętĭ, Russ. зять, O.Ir. ro-genar, Welsh geni, Alb. dhëndër/dhândër, Kam. zut; Hitt. genzu.

33. From PIE root weid, woid, see, know, compare Gmc. wītan (Goth. weitan, O.N. vita, O.S., O.E. witan, O.H.G. wizzan), Lat. uidēre, Gk. ιδειν, ειδοσ, οιδα, Doric Gk. woida, Skr. vēdah, Av. vaēda, Phryg. wit-, Arm. gitem, O.Pruss. widdai (from vidāi̯et), Lith. véizdmi, O.C.S. видѣти, Pol. widzieć, Rus. ви́деть, Gaulish vindos, O.Ir. ro-fetar, Welsh gwyn, Breton gwenn, Kashmiri vūčhūn. Derivatives include wéistos (<*wéidtos), learning, wisdom, knowledge, appearance, form, manner, as Gmc. wissaz (cf. O.N. viss, O.S., O.Fris., O.E. wīs, O.H.G. wiz, O.Fr. guise, Du. wijs, Ger. weise, Eng. wise); suffixed wéidōs, form, shape, as Gk. eidos, in wéidolom, idol, eidolon, as Gk. εδωλον; zero-grade form wídiom, knowledge, understanding, intelligence, mind, as Gmc. witjam (cf. O.N. vit, O.S. wit, O.Fris. wit, O.H.G. wizzi, O.E. wit, Dan. vid, Swed. vett, Ger. Witz), also wídiom, ignorance (cf. Goth. unwiti); from zero-grade widē, see, look, as Lat. uidēre, are wistós (<*widtós, uisós in Latin), seen, as in wístā, visa, wístiōn, vision, wistitā, visit, wístōs, visor, adwístom, advice, adwistā, advise, enwídiā, envy, ekwidénts, evident, prowidē, foresee, prowistós, foreseen, prowistós, unforeseen, nprowistā, improvise, enterwidē, interview, enwidiónts(ós), invidious, prāiwidē, previse, prowidē, provide, prowidénts, prudent, rewidē, review, rewistā, revise, superwistā, supervise, survey; suffixed widésiā, appearance, form, idea, as Gk. δα; suffixed wistr (<*widtór), wise, learned, learned man, Gk. histōr, in wistoríā; Ńwidā, Hades, the underworld, perhaps “the invisible”, as Gk. Haidēs/Aidēs; suffixed o-grade wóidos, knowledge, as Skr. veda.

34. Indo-European qēl, far, gives prefixes qēle-, far off, from Gk. τηλε- (related to qēleos, Gk. τελεος, end, goal, result), and qai-, long ago, Eng. paleo-, from qaiós, old, ancient, Gk. παλαις. This PIE base is possibly related (as a lengthened form) to qel, move around; cf. Skr. caramah, Welsh pellaf, Bret. pell.

It is discussed whether television was formed in Eng. or borrowed from Fr. télévision, in either case from Gk. tele-, “far off, afar, at or to a distance”, and  Lat. vision. Other proposals for the name of this then-hypothetical technology were telephote (1880) and televista (1904). The technology was developed in the 1920s and '30s. Loan-translated in Ger. as Fernsehen.

English technology comes from PIE teks, weave, also fabricate, plait, cf. O.N. þexla, O.H.G. dehsa, Lat. textō, Gk. tektōn, Skr. takati, Av. tašaiti, O.Pers. ustašana, Pers. taš, Lith. tašau, Ltv. tešu, OCS tešǫ, Russ. tesla, Ir. tál; Hitt. takš. Common derivatives include tékstos, text, komtékstos, context, prāitékstos, pretext; suffixed tékslā, web, net, warp of a fabric, also weaver's beam (to which the warp threads are tied), also found in adj. suptekslís, thin, fine, precise, subtle (<*sup-tékslā,thread passing under the warp”, the finest thread); suffixed téksōn, weaver, maker of wattle for house walls, builder, tekstr, builder, tékstōn, carpenter, builder, as in tekstonikós, tectonic, or arkhitékstōn, architect (from Gk. arkhein, “begin, rule”); téksnā, art, craft, skill, as Gk. tekhnē, in teksnikós, technical, teksnologíā, technology.

Another common PIE verbal root for “weave” was webh, as in Gmc. webanan (cf. O.N. vefa, O.E. wefan, O.H.G. weban, M.L.G., M.Du., Du. weven, Eng. weave, Ger. weben), Gk. huphē, Skr. ubhnāti, Av. ubdaēna, O.Pers. baftan, Pers. bāfad, Toch. wäp/wāp, Alb. vegjë. A common MIE word is o-grade wóbhiom, web, fabric, as Gmc. wabjan (cf. O.S. webbi, O.N. vefr, O.E. webb, O.H.G. weppi, Du. webbe, Ger. gewebe), also as English loan word simply webh, as in Wíralts Wit Webh, World Wide Web, WWW; also, wobh(i)o, move back and forth as in weaving, as Gmc. wab- (cf. O.N. vafra, O.E. wafian, wæfre, M.E. waveren, M.H.G. waben, L.Ger. wabbeln); suffixed zero-grade form úbhā, web, as Gk. huphē.

Proto-Indo-European wi, apart, away, is the source for adj. witós, wide, as Gmc. withas (cf. O.S., O.E., O.Fris. wid, O.N. viðr, Du. wijd, O.H.G. wit, Eng. wide, Ger. weit), and also for wit(e)ros/m, against, lit. “more apart”, as Skr. vitaram, Gmc. withros (cf. Goth. wiþra, O.S. withar, O.N. viðr, O.E. wið, O.H.G. widar, M.Du., Du. weder, Du. weer, Eng. with, Ger. wieder). Compare other derivatives as Skr. vi, Av. vi-, Hitt. na-winot yet”, O.C.S. vutoru, “other, second”, as Russ. второй.

35. PIE root ag, drive, draw out or forth, move, set in motion, gives O.N. aka, Lat. agere, actus, Osc. acum, Gk. γω, Skr. ájati, ajiráh, Av. azaiti, Toch. āk, Arm. acem, O.Ir. ad-aig, āin, O. Welsh agit; probably Hitt. aggala-, “furrow”. For more on ag, v.i.

36. For root legh, lie down, rest, gave Gmc. ligjan (cf. Goth. ligan, O.N. liggja, O.E. licgan, O.Fris. lidzia, M.Du. ligghen, O.H.G. liggan), Lat. lectus, Gk. λεχώ, Toch. lake/leke, Lith. at-lagai, Ltv. lagača, O.C.S. lego, Russ. лежа́ть, Polish leżeć, Gaul. legasit, O.Ir. lige, Welsh gwal; Hittite lagi.

37. PIE root peds, foot, is the source for Gmc. fōts (cf. Goth. fōtus, O.N. fōtr, O.E. fōt, O.H.G. fuoz, Du. voet), Lat. pedis, Umb. peři, Gk. πεζός, Dor. πώς, Skr. раdám, Av. pâda-, Pers. pa, Arm. het, Toch. pe/paiyye, Lith. ́, Ltv. pęda, O.C.S. пѣшь, Russ. пе́ший, Pol. pieszy, Alb. poshtë, Osset. fad; Hitt. pata, Lyc. pede-, Luw. pati-.

38. The common verb klus(sk)o, listen, comes from zero-grade of PIE klew, hear, and it has derivatives refer also to fame, word or loud, as in Gmc. khlusinōn, ‘listen’ (cf. O.E. hlysnan, O.H.G. hlosen, Eng. listen), khlūdaz, ‘loud’ (cf. Goth. hliuþ, O.N. hljóðr, O.N. hlud, O.H.G. hlut), Lat. cluēre, Gk. κλυω, κλέος  (as in Ἡρακλῆς, Herakles), Skr. śru, srnoti, c̨rāváyati  Av. sraota-, surunaoiti, sravayeiti, M.Pers. srod, Pers. sаrāуīdаn, Illyr. cleves, Toch. klyos, klāw, Arm. lu, O.Lith. šlãvė, šlovė̃, Lith. klausau, šlóvė, Ltv. klausīt, slava, slave, O.C.S. slusati, slava, slovo, Russ. слово, сла́ва, Pol. słowo, słаwа, Gaul. clu, O.Ir. clunim, Welsh clywaf, Alb. quhem.

The common Slavic word to define themselves, O.C.S. словѣне, словѣньскъ, reconstructed as an older base [kjlou-], if ultimately Indo-European (cf. for klutós, “heared, famous”, Skr. śrutá-, Av. sruta-, Gk. lytós, Lat. in-clitus, M.Ir. rocloth, O.H.G. Hlot-hari, Arm. lu), is a demonym whose first reference is probably found in Ptolemy, who identified tribes called Stavanoi and Soubenoi, then translated (6th century) as M.Lat. Sclaueni/Sthlaueni, M.Gr. Σκλαβηνοί/Σθλαβηνοί. It is thus probably related to either slava, fame, (as slaviane), thus “glorious people”, or from slovo, speach, (as slověne),  therefore originally meaning “member of the speech community” (cf. Albanian noun for themselves, shqipetár, derived from shqipónj, understand), in contrast with the Germans, who were in O.C.S. nemici, related to nemudumb’. Compare with the Greek custom of using βαρβαρος to mean “foreign, strange, ignorant” (derivatives are Lat. barbărus, Eng. barbarian) from PIE base barbar-, echoic of unintelligible speech, like that of foreigners (cf. Skt. barbara-, stammering, also “non-Aryan”). Therefore, a proper MIE reconstruction for such Slavic term is Klówenos, Slav, for словѣне, and Kloweniskós, Slavic, for словѣньскъ, but – because the reconstruction is uncertain, and modern crossed borrowings are usual–, modern loan words Slawénos, Slaweniskós should be preferred.

For common MIE terms – which could be also written with initial klo- instead of slo-/sla-, compare: Slawénos, Slav; Slaweniskós, Slavic; Slowéniskā, Slovakia; Slowéniā, Slovenia; Sloweniskós, Slovak; Slowenikós, Slovene; Augosláwiā, Yugoslavia. The later is a compound of MIE reconstructed augs, southern, from ug- (proper IE reconstruction of Slavic jug-), originally referring to a southern wind, possibly ultimately from PIE root aug, with derivatives meaning increase, enlarge, as already seen.

39. PIE root bhes breathe, blow, gave Skr. bhas-, Gk. ψυχειν, and is probably of imitative origin. Its zero-grade bhs- gives supposedly *bhsūgh [‘(bh)su:-kha:], spirit, soul, originally breath, life, “the invisible entity behind the physical body” (personified as Psykhe, the lover of Eros), a MIE loan word (bhsūgho- in compounds) from Gk. ψυχ, with an unreconstructed Greek ending -kh-, probably PIE -gh-. In light of O.Ind. bábhasti, some would rather reconstruct a metathesized PIE spu-, hence MIE psūgh.

40. Usually reconstructed preposition and preverb *ksun, with, together, as Gk. ξυν, is explained as kom via Greek-psi substratum (Villar). Slavic su-, so/s, normally compared with the Greek form, could in turn come from zero-grade sm (see sem, one), as O.Ind. sa. Then compound smwdus, council, from Slavic so-vetu, is also formed by O.C.S. вѣтъ, counsel, advice (a loan-translation in Gk. βουλή in ‘συμ-βούλιον’), which comes from PIE root weid, know (see Consonant Change in § 2.8.4), also found with this broader sense of speak, “share knowledge”, in Baltic, cf. O.Pruss waitiāt, Lith. vaitenù.

41.  IE gntiōn, nation, stock, race, lit. “that which has been born”, is a Latin loan from gn(ā)tós, past part. of gnásko, be born, as Lat. natiōnis, natus, gnasci (ultimately from gen). Political sense has gradually taken over from racial meaning “large group of people with common ancestry”, and common derivatives include gnātionālís, national, or gnātionlitā, nationality, or gnātēiuós, native, “innate, produced by birth”, etc.

42. PIE root for prkskó is prek, ask, entreat, pray, and is cognate with Gmc. frēkhnan (cf. Goth. fraíhnan, O.N. fregna, O.E. frignan, O.H.G. frāga), Lat. prex, Osc. aparsam, Umb. pepurkurent, Skr. prac̨nás, prāś, Av. frāsa, Toch. prak/prek, Arm. hаrc̣аnеm, Lith. рrаšаũ, Ltv. рrаsu, O.C.S. просити, Russ. проси́ть, Pol. prosić, Welsh archaf, Ir. arco, M.Bret. archas. Common MIE derivatives include preks, prayer, as Lat. prex, and verb prekā, entreat, pray, as Lat. precāri, in prekāsiós, precarious (a purer IE word is dúsopis, cf. O.Ir. domme  ‘poor’ <*dus-op-smjo, Lat. inops, O.Ind. durāpahhard to obtain’, etc), deprekā, deprecate, enprekā, imprecate; from prkskó is extended p(o)rs(k)stolā, ask, request, postulate, as Lat. postulāre.

43. Modern Indo-European words for “house”:

A.    Derivatives from an original PIE root dem- are dmos/démos, house, ‘shelter’, are Lat. domus, Umb. dâmoa, Gk. δόμος, δμος (deme), O.Ind. dámas, Av. dąm, Toch. tam/täm, Arm. tun, Lith. namas, Ltv. nams, O.C.S. домъ, Rus. дом, Pol. dom, Welsh . Also common for lord, ‘house-master’, is dómūnos, cf. Skr. dámūnas, Lat. dominus (see Latin ablaut). From IE dmn is Gk. δμα, dome. Probably from same root is base demo, build, giving démrom, timber, Gmc. temran (cf. Goth. timrjan, O.N. timbr, O.E. timber, O.Fris. timber, O.H.G. zimbar, Ger. Zimmer); also verb demrio, build, Gmc. timrian (build, cf. O.E. timbran, Du. timmeren, Ger. zimmern) and compare also Gmc. tumfetìz, (Eng. toft, from O.N. topt),  Gk. δάπεδον, Lith. dimstis.

B.    For ‘house’ in Germanic languages MIE reconstructs a common kúsom, dwelling, shelter, from Gmc. khusam (cf. Goth. -hus, O.N., O.E., O.Fris. hus, Du. huis, Ger. Haus), probably related to PIE root (s)kéu, cover, conceal. Compare in kéudh(i)o, hide, conceal, Gmc. kluthjanan (O.E. hyde), Gk. κεθω, and other derivatives like kéudhis, covering, Gmc. khudiz (cf. O.N. huð, O.E. hyd, O.Fris. hed, M.Du. huut, Ger. Haut), skéuiom, cloud, cloud cover, as Gmc. skeujam (cf. Goth. skuggwa, O.N. scy, skuggi, O.E. sceo, scua, O.S. scio, O.H.G. scuwo, scūr, O.Ice. skāli, skjōl, M.H.G. hode, Ger. Scheuer), Lat. cutis, scutum, ob-scurus, Gk. κύτος, Skr. kostha, skunati, Arm. cim, Lith. kvalas, Ltv. skura, Rus. kishka, O.Ir. cūl, Welsh cuddio.

C.    PIE root kat, hut, shed is probably the source of Romance kasā (thus older PIE kátiā) as in Gmc. kha- (cf. O.E. heaðor), Lat. catena, cassis, castrum, Av. kata-, Pers. kad, O.C.S. kotici, kotú, O.IR. cathir, Welsh cader. The different warlike meanings found are explained by confusion with a similar PIE root, kats, troop, battle, cf. O.N. hoð, O.E. heaþu, O.H.G. hathu, Skr. śātayati, Toch. /keta, O.C.S. kotora, Gaul. catu, O.Ir. cath, Welsh cad.

Compare also from other works, Swe. kåta, Nor. kota/kote/kåte (probably borrowed from Uralic kota, as Finnish koti, Est. kodu, Hung. ház), and also Skr. cātvāla-, Av. čāiti, Toch B kotai-, Alb katua, as well as other unexplained words like Bul. къща, Srb.-Cro. kuča, Slovene hiša, all meaning hut, shed, house, or hole, prison, some of them reconstructed as derived from PIE root ket, storage pit (Mallory-Adams).

D. Old Greek οκος (oíkos), house, comes from IE wóikos, which gave also Gk. οκία, house, and Gk. οκησις, dwelling, administration, and Gk. οκητός, inhabitant; in MIE, it has universal loan-translations like woikonomíā, economy, originally “household, management”, from woikonómos, econome, “manager, steward”, woikologíā, ecology, woikosōménos, world, inhabited world (into Proto-Greek woikohōmeno- -> Att. Gk. οκουμνη [γ], “inhabited [land]”). It is the o-grade form of wéikos, village, dwelling, “group of houses”, (cf. Lat. uīcus, Skr. vesa), as in wéikinos, neighbour, weikínitā, neighborhood, or loan word wīllā (from It. villa, country house, villa, farm, from Lat. villa, in turn from PIE wéikslā). The noun is derived from PIE root weiks, clan, village, “social unit above the household”; compare Goth,O.H.G. weihs, O.E. wic, Skr. viś, Av. vīs, O.Pers. vitham, Toch. īke, Lith. viešas (cf. also O.Pruss. waispattin, Lith. viešpats, MIE weikspóts,“clan-master”, landlord, a compound equivalent to dems-póts, “house-master”, landlord, and similar to ghos-póts, “guest-master”, host), Ltv. viesis, OCS vĭsĭ, Russ. ves', Pol. wieś, Alb. vis.

MIE suffix -nomíā, -nómos come from IE nómos, custom, law, usage, method, Gk. νμος, in turn from PIE base nem, allot, distribute, divide, manage; cf. Gmc. niman (cf. Goth. niman, O.N. nema, O.E. naemel, numol, O.H.G. nëman, Eng. numb, nim, Ger. nehmen), Gk. νέμειν, Av. nəmah, Toch. ñemek, Lith. nuomas, Ltv. noma, Russ. nemoj, O.Ir. nem. Other known derivatives include nómesos, number, division, as Lat. numerus, nomesālís, numeral, etc. nómā, pasturage, grazing, hence “a spreading, a spreading ulcer”, noma, from which nómads is derived (Lat. nomas); also, nomismátis, Lat. numismatis, in nomismátikā, numismatics, from nómismn, current coin, custom (from O.Gk. νόμισμα, lit. “what has been sanctioned by custom or usage”), from IE verb nomiso, “to hold or own as a custom, usage, to use customarily, practise, to be used to a thing” (as Gk. νομίζω, in turn from νμος). Also, Németis, Gk. goddess of vengeance, from Gk. Νέμεσις, “indignation, jealousy, vengeance” lit. “distribution, partition”.

E. For Indo-Aryan ghar, compare a comon IE root ghers, court, yard.

44. For PIE base pótis, powerful, able, capable; also lord, master, compare poto, “be able”, (from Lat. potere), from which poténts (Lat. pres.p. potens) and poténtiā; cf. also Gk. posis, Skt. patih, Lith. patis. Also found in compounds posso, be able, (Lat. posse, from [ti]s, able, and [e]s, be), as in possibhilís, possible, “that can be done”, and possedē, possess (from Lat. possidēre, from po[ti]s, “as master”, and sédē, sit), which gives posséstiōn (<*possedtion), possession, forms which are properly expressed by potio, as O.Lat. potēō, a verb usual in modern Romance through a V.Lat. potere (cf. Fr. pouvoir, Ita. potere, Pt., Spa. poder, Rom. putere, etc.).

For PIE es (older *h1es), be, compare Goth. ist, O.N. es, O.E. is, O.H.G. ist, Lat. est, Osc. súm, Umb. sent, Gk. esti, Skr. asti, Av. asti, O.Pers. astiy, Toch. e/ei, Arm. ē, O.Pruss. asmai, Lith. esmi, Ltv. esmu, O.C.S. jestĭ, Russ. есмь, Polish jest, O.Ir. am, Alb. është/âsht; Hitt. asa, Lyc. es, Luw. as, Lyd. e-, Palaic -. Its origin is traced by some linguists to a dialectal pronunciation of eg-, “I”, in some early (influencial) Satem dialect; compare O.Ind. ásmi, “I am” (<PIE és-mi, from IE II *eg’?->*es, cf. Skr. áham, “I”, from eghóm), or Lat. sum, “I am” (from PIE esóm, cf. Ven. ehom, “I”, from eghóm). Such explanation from Pokorny is possibly out-dated today in light of the newest findings on the so-called palatovelars, v.s.

a.     A proper Indo-Euroepan word meaning “owe” was PIE verb áik, be master of, possess, and áikos, master, owner; as Gmc. aiganan  (cf. Goth. aigan, O.Fris. aga, O.N. eiga, O.E. āgan, O.H.G. eigan, Eng. ought), Skr. īṣṭe, iah, Avestan īšti, išvan-.

A similar IE root forms áiks, meaning spear, pike; compare O.N. eigin, Lat. īcō, Gk. αικλος, Av. išarə, O. Pruss. aysmis, Lith. iešmas, Ltv. iesms, O.C.S. igla, Russ. игла, Pol. igła.

b. For PIE sed, sit, compare derivatives sedio, Gmc. sitjan (cf. Goth. sitan, O.S. sittian, O.N. sitja, O.E. sittan, O.Fris. sitta, M.Du. sitten, O.H.G. sizzan, sezzal); sédlos/sédlā, seat, position, as Gmc. setlaz (cf. Goth. sitls, M.L.G., M.Du. setel, O.E. setl, Du. zetel, Ger. Sessel), Lat. sella, O.C.S. sedlo, O.E. sadol; suffixed stative sedē, sit, as Lat. sedēre, with p.part. sestós (<*sedtós), sat, giving sedentasiós, sedentary, séstiōn, session, sédikom, siege, (from L.Lat. sedicum, although besiege from Lat. is situā, possibly from IE tkei), dissedē, disagree, dissedénts, dissident, adsedē, asist, assess, help, adseduós, assiduous, prāisedo, preside, resedo, reside, supsédiom, subsidy (but supsisdo, v.i.); Greek δρα is IE sedrā, chair, throne, face of a geometric solid,  hence loan translations komsedrós, sitting in council, komsédriom, council (from which Hebrew sanhedrīn, from Gk. συνδριον), eksedrā, exedrakátsedrā, cathedra, katsedrlis, cathedral, bishop’s see, qetrasédrom, tetrahedron; Also, from Latin sdēs, see, seat, residence, sēdā, sedate, settle, calm down; prefixed and suffixed pisedio, sit upon (pi, from epi); cf. also Umb. sersitu, Gk. ζομαι, Skr. sad, Av. nišaðayeiti, O.Pers. niyašayadan, Pers. nešastan, Toch. sätk, Arm. nstil, O.Pruss. sīdons, Lith. sėdėti, sėdžiu, sėsti, sėdu  Ltv. sēdēt, sēdu, Slav. sěděti, sědi̯ǫ (O.C.S. сѣдѣти, сѣждѫ, Russ. сиде́ть, сесть Pol. siedzieć), sěsti, sędǫ (cf. O.C.S. сѣсти, сѫдѫ, O.Russ. сѣсти, сяду, Pol. siąść, siądę), Gaul. essedum, O.Ir. saidim, Welsh seddu, Ir. suidh.

45. For PIE gher with the sense of enclose, compare Gmc. gardaz (cf. Goth. gards, O.N. garðr, O.E. geard, O.Fris. garda, Du. gaard, O.H.G. gart), also Lat hortus, cohors, Osc. herííad, Gk. χορτος, Skr. g-, Phrygian -gordum, Lith. žardas, Ltv. zārds, Gaul. gorto, O.Ir. gort, Welsh garth, Bret. garz, Alb. garth-; Hitt. gurtas. Balto-Slavic terms related to this root and beginning with [g] – as Lith. gardas, O.C.S. gradu, Rus. gorod, -grad, etc. –  are own developments not affected by satemization, sometimes explained as borrowings from Gmc.

46. IE ghrdhus, hunger, gives Gmc. grēduz (cf. Goth. gredus, O.E. grædum, cognate with Skt. grdh, Gk. -gyros) and adjective ghrēdhighós, hungry, as Gmc. grēdigaz (cf. O.S. gradag, O.N. graðr, O.Eng. graedig, Eng. greedy). From the same PIE root is ghŕtā, urge on, encourage (from Lat. hortārī, giving eksghŕtā, exhort), ghŕis, grace, favor (from Gk. χαρις, which gives ghrísmā, charism, or (A)sughristíā, Eucharist), ghrē, it is necessary (from Gk. χρη, which gives ghrēstós, useful, and ghrēstomńdhia, chrestomathy). With the – possibly older – sense of bowels, compare Gmc. gernjan (O.N. gorn, O.Eng. gearn, O.H.G. garn, Eng. yarn), O.E. gorst, Lat. hernia, horrēo, Gk. χορδή, χέρσος, Skr. hirah, harate, Av. zaršayamna, Arm. dzar, Lith. žarna, Ltv. zarna, Russ. зор, O.Ir. garb, Welsh garw, Alb. derr; Hitt. karat.

47. PIE root cei(w), live, oldest *gweih3, with metathesized variant cjo- (older *gwjeh3, coloured to *gwjoh3) gives derivatives zero-grade cwós, living, alive, as Gmc. kwi(k)waz (cf. Goth. quis, O.N. kvikr, O.E. cwicu, O.Fris. quik, O.H.G. quec, Ger. keck, Eng. quick), Lat. uīus; verb cīwo, live, as Lat. uīuere; cīwoparós, viviparous, living, alive, as Lat. vivipărus, and shortened (wo)párā, viper, “bearing live young”, from Lat. vipĕra (both from IE parós, v.s.) and further suffixed form c(wo), life, Lat. vita, in (wo)tālís, vital. Compare also O.E. cwifer, Lat. uīuō, Osc. bivus, Gk. βίομαι, Skr. ǰīvaiti, Av. gaēthājiġaēsa, O.Pers. gaithā, Pers. zēstan, Toch. śo/śai, Arm. keam, O.Pruss. giwа, giwāntei, Lith. gýti, gyventi, Ltv. dzīvs, dzīt, O.C.S. живѫ, жити, Russ. жить, живу́, Polish żyć, żyję, Gaul. Biturīges, O.Ir. bethu, Welsh byd.

For another common PIE adjective meaning “lively”, compare bhers, as Lith. bruzdu, O.C.S. brŭzŭ, Russ. borzoj, Pol. bardzo, Gaul. brys, Ir. bras, and possibly Lat. festīnō (but cf. dhes).

48. PIE root ser- gives sérōs, “guardian”, heroe, Gk. ρως, and general verbal base serw, guard, protect, in sérwā, keep, preserve, Lat. seruāre, sérwio, serve, as Lat. seruīre, and sérwos, slave, servant, Lat. seruus (forms also found in other Italic dialects, cf. Osc. serevkid, ‘protection’, ooserclom, usually considered borrowings from Etruscan); cf. also O.Ind. Av. haraiti, (pasuš)haurvō, “shepherd”, Gmc. sarwia, Bal. serg-, Sla. stergt.

49. To refer to a person, man, PIE had root man, extended as Indo-Iranian mánus, Germanic mánuos and Balto-Slavic o-grade móng(i)os. Compare Gmc manwaz/mannaz (cf. Goth. manna, O.N. maðr, O.E. mann, O.S., O.H.G. man, Ger. Mann), Skr. manu, Av. manu-, Pers. mærd, Kurd. mêr, Lith. žmogus, O.C.S. mǫžĭ, Russ. муж, Polish mąż, Kamviri mânša. Compare also with Ger. Mensch, Du. mens, Nor.,Da. menneske, Swe. människa, Ice. manneskja, from Gmc. manniskaz, IE mánuiskos, person, human (cf. Romany manush, from Skr. manu). A common European borrowing is mbhudhománu(o)s, from compound ḿ(bhi)+bhúdhom (from Gmc. budam, O.N. bodh, “command”) + mánuos, ombudsman (with the exception of some regionally translated terms, as Fr. médiateur, Spa. defensor del pueblo, etc).

Some names for ‘German’, ‘Germany’, (Fr. allemand, Spa. alemán, Pt. alemão, Cat. alemany, Celtic, like Welsh Almaeneg, Bret. Alaman, Indo-Iranian, as Pers. almani, Kurd. elman; and even non-IE, as Turkish Alman, Arabic almanya, Azeri Alman, Basque alemanera, Guarani Alemaniagua, Malagasi alema, Khmer alaman, Tagalog Aleman), in turn a loan word from the tribal name that the neighboring Alamanni used for themselves. The term comes from Gmc. compound Ala-manniz, PIE reconstructed Alománuis, with first word from PIE root al-, therefore originally meaning lit. “all men”.

PIE al, all, is attested in Germanic and Celtic. Germanic derivatives include alnós, all, as Gmc. allaz (cf. Goth. alls, O.N. allr, O.E. all, eall, eal-, O.Fris., O.H.G. al), and alo- in compounds.

50. PIE stem (s)neu- (cf. Skr. snavan-, Arm. neard) is an extension of (s), spin, sew. It gives derivatives ntlā, needle, (with instrumental suffix -tlo-), as Gmc. nēthlō (Goth. nēþla, O.S. nathla, O.N. nál, O.E. nǣðlæ, O.Fris. nedle, O.H.G. nādala), snot, snood, as Gmc. snōdō, or nmn, thread, as Gk. νημα. Compare also Lat. neō, Gk. νειν, νηθω, Skr. snājati, Ltv. snāte, O.C.S. niti, Russ. нить, O.Ir. snáthat, Welsh nyddu, nodwydd.

51.  For derivatives of PIE root sti, hide, stone, also thicken, stiffen, compare stóinos, stone, Gmc. stainaz (cf. Goth. stains, O.N. steinn, O.E. stan, O.H.G., Dan. steen, Ger. Stein), and stjr, solid fat, from Gk. στεαρ; compare also Gk. stia, stion, Skr. stjajat, Av. staj, O.C.S. stena.

52. PIE root pūr/pwr, fire, bonfire, is probably derived from an older *peh2wr̥ (cf. Hitt. paḫḫur) and has an irregular Genitive pūnós. Compare Goth. fōn, Gk. πυρ, Osc. purasiai, Umb. pir, Skr. pu, Toch. por/puwār, Arm. hur, O. Pruss. panno, Polish perz, Cz. pýř. The suffixed form pū́ris, fire, gave Gmc. fūris (cf. O.N. fúrr, O.E. fȳr, O.Fris. fiur, M.Du. vuur, O.H.G. fiur).

53. IE per means lead, pass over, as in adj. perwntós, rocky, noun pérwntos, mountain, as Skr. parvata; pertā, cliff, rock (possibly earlier “bedrock”, “what one comes through to”), as Lat. petra, Gk. πτρα (both dissimilated as *pétrā, which means ‘feather’ in MIE, v.i., pértus, place for crossing over, ford as Gmc. ferthuz (cf. O.N.fjörðr, Eng. firth) or peritós, experienced (from Lat. peritus). Other derivatives include o-grade poro, journey, travel, as Gmc. faranan (cf. Goth. faran, O.E. fara, Ger. fahren, Eng. fare); póros, journey, passage, way, as Gk. πόρος; pórā/pórom, feather, as Gmc. farnō (cf. O.E. fearn, M.Du. varn, Ger. Farn, Eng. fern), Skr. parn̥am.; also, pōrio, lead, lead across, bring to safety, as Gmc. fōrjan (cf. O.E. gefera, O.H.G. fuoren, M.E. fere, Ger. führen). With zero-grade, common IE words are prtús, going, entrance, passage, modern ford, harbor, port, as Gmc. furthuz (cf. O.Fris. forda, O.E. ford, O.H.G. furt, Ger. Furt), Lat. portus, O.Welsh rit, Welsh rhyd; and prt, meaning “gate” as fem. noun and “carry” as a verb, as in Lat. porta and portāre respectively.

The name Portugal is MIE Prtukálē, Port of “Kale”, as Lat. Portucale, with the second term of uncertain origin, although some relate it to PIE sources akin to Lat. Gallus, “Gallic”, Lat. calĭdus, “warm”, or Lat. calx, “lime”.

54. English word “true” comes from O.E. triewe (W.Saxon), treowe (Mercian), faithful, trustworthy, from Gmc. treuwjaz (cf. Goth. triggws O.N. tryggr, O.Fris. triuwi, Du. getrouw, O.H.G. gatriuwu, Ger. treu), ultimately from adj. drewiós, related to dréwom, tree, oak, wood,  Gmc. trewan (cf. Goth. triu, O.N. tré, O.S. trio, O.E. trēow, O.Fris. tre), both then alternative forms of deru-, giving dórus (Gen. derwós), tree, oak, fig. firm, strong, as in Lith. drútas, Welsh drud, O.Ir. dron. Compare other IE derivatives from deru-, also drew-: Lat. durus, Gk. δρυς, δόρυ, Skr. dru, dáru, Av. dāuru, O.Pers. duruva, Pers. deraxt, Toch. or, Arm. tram, ca, O. Pruss. drawine, Lith. derva, Ltv. dreve, O.C.S. дрѣво, O.Rus. дрова, Rus. дерево, Pol. drwa, Gaul. Dervus, O.Ir. daur, derb, Welsh derwen, Alb. drusk, dru/drû, Kam. dâa; Hitt. ta-ru, Luw. tarweja-, and also A.Mac. darullos.

55. For IE root leu, loosen, divide, cut apart, compare léuwā, Gmc. lawwō (Swe. lagg, Eng. lag). For zero-grade forms, compare lwo, loosen, release, untie, from Gk. λειν, lúēs, plague, pestilence (< “dissolution, putrefaction”), from Lat. luēs, and also selwo, loosen, untie, as Lat. soluere (from PIE s(w)e-lwo-).

56. PIE bélis, power, strength, gives O.H.G. pal, O.Fris. pall, Lat. -bĭlis, Gk. βελτίων, Skr. bálīyān, báliṣṭhas, bálam, Phryg. balaios, O.Ir. adbal, M.Ir. bolg, Welsh balch, Kamviri bâlim. O.C.S. бол͂ии, бол͂ьши, болѥ, Russ. большо́й, Ukr. більший, Bulg. бо́ле.

57. Indo-European father, patr, is possibly an earlier compound formed by baby-speak sound like pa (compare modern baby words in your language beginning with p+vowel), probably earlier *ph2-, and IE common suffix for relatives -ter, a pattern followed in “mother” and other family members, too. It evolved as Gmc. fader (cf. Goth. fadar, O.N. faðir, O.E. fæder, O.H.G. fater), Lat. pater, Osc. patír, Umb. pater, Gk. πατήρ, Skr. pitár-, Av. pitar-, O.Pers. pitā, Pers. pedar, Toch. pācar/pācer, Arm. hair, Gaul. ātir, O.Ir. athir, Welsh gwaladr, Kashmiri petū́r, Osset. fyd.

58. Indo-European bhátis, appearance, phase, gives Greek φσις (phasis). It is derived from bhanio, “bring to light”, cause to appear, show, as Gk. φαινειν (phainein), from PIE base bhā, shine. It gives also derivatives bhantós, visible, bhántom, phantom, bhantasíā, fantasy, énbhatis, emphasis, enbhatikós, emphatic, epibhánia, epiphany, bhaniómenom, occurrence, circumstance, also phenomenon, from Lat. phaenomĕnon, in turn from Gk. φαινμενον, etc.

59. For PIE ana, breathe, blow, spirit, compare Goth. uzanan, andi, O.N. anda, önd O.E. eðian, ōþian, Lat. animus, Osc. anamum, Gk. anemos, Skr. ānas, aniti, Av. åntya, Toch. āñcäm/āñme, Arm. anjn, hov, Lith. anuoti, O.C.S. vonja, Russ. von', O.Ir. anál, animm, Welsh anysbryd, anadl, Alb. ajë/âj.

60. The reconstruction of common words for each day in a Seven-Day Week is almost impossible, if not through the adoption of numbers, from one to seven, like that used by the Roman Catholic Church (Lat. Feriae, used in Portuguese, see dhēs), Armenia, Greece, Iran, as well as in Arabic, Georgian and Hebrew. However, there seems to be a common old (pagan) pattern, followed in Greek (and partly in Sanskrit), and loan-translated from it in Latin and from this in Germanic.

PIE dhēs (possibly an extension of dhē, set) is the reconstructed base for words applied to various religious concepts, as zero-grade dhesós, god, Gk. θες, in apodhesótis, apotheosis, dhesós, atheistic, dhesísmos, atheism, endhesosiasmós, enthusiasm (Gk. νθουσιασμς), pántdhesiom, pantheon, Gk. Πνθειον; full-grade dhsiās, holidays, Lat. fēriae, (O.Lat. fēsiae), dhstos, festive, Lat. fēstus, in dhēstēiuós, festive, dhstēiuālis, festival; also, zero-grade dhásnom, temple, as Lat. fānum, in dhasnatikós, fanatic, prodhasnós, profane.

NOTE. In Latin, the s before m, n, l, disappears, and the preceding vowel shows a compensatory lengthening; cf. Duenos: cosmis > cōmis; Columna Rostrata -resmom > rēmum; fasnom > fānum, *habēsna > habēna, *catēsna > catēna; candēsla > candēla, *quaisēsla > querēla. , etc.

For PIE “feast”, a more common verbal root wes was used, cf. Goth. wisan, ON vist, O.E. wesan, O.H.G. wist, Lat. vescor, Skr. anuvāvase, Av. vastra, Lith. švest, Pol. wesele, O.Ir. fíach, Welsh gwest, Hitt. weši.

A.    The word for “day” (as opposed to “night”) in Indo-European comes usually from a common dínom, originally “daylight”, derived from PIE root diw-, shine, and it is still found in Eng. lent, from Gmc. compound langa-tinaz, (probably lit. “longer daylight”, cf. Goth. sintīns, O.S. lentin, O.E. lencten, M.Du. lenten, O.H.G. lenzo); compare also Lat. nіn-dinae (also general diēs, as in Eng. diurnal, from base *djeu-), Skr. dinam, O.Pruss. deinan, Lith. diena, Ltv. diena, O.C.S. дьнь, Russ. день, Pol. dzień, O.Ir. denus, día, Welsh dydd, Alb. gdhin.

B.    Germanic ‘day’ comes from old PIE agh-, day, older *h2egh, considered as a span of time, hence “24 hours”, cf. Skr. ahar, from IE ághōr, Av. azan, from IE ághōn, and Gmc. dagaz, reconstructed as MIE (dh)aghos, with first dh- of uncertain origin, although some relate it to PIE root dhech, burn, (which gave derivatives with the sense of “hot season”, “summer”, thus maybe mixed with -agh- in Germanic to mean “hot part of the day”, daylight); cf.  Lat. fovēre, Gk. -πτανος, Skr. dahati, dah, Av. dažaiti, Pers. dāġ, Toch. tsäk/tsäk, O. Pruss. dagis, Lith. dagas, degti, Ltv. degt, OCS žešti, Russ. sžigat', žgučij, Polish żgę, Ir. daig, Alb. djek.

Here is a brief explanation of possible loan-translations of the names of week days into Modern Indo-European in three different calendars, Pagan (like Greek, Roman and Germanic, as well as Sanskrit calendars, the last followed in Indian timekeeping, i.e., modern Hindi, Telugu, Gujarati, Bengali, and even Tamil and Malayalam, beginning in Monday), International (beginning in Monday, similar to the traditional Slavic one), and Christian (counting in Dhsiās, feasts, from Ecc.Lat. Feriae, see dhēs), viz:

I. Monday should be Mntós (déinos), “(day) of the moon”. Compare Gmc. Monan-dagaz, L.L. Lunæ dies, Gk. ημερα Σεληνης, and Skr. Soma vāsara (Beng. Shombar). Also, ‘neutral’ Prwóm (déinom), “First (day)”, and Christian Seqondh (Dhsiā), “Second (Feast)”, i.e. “Feast  following Sunday”.

PIE seq, follow, gives derivatives Gmc. sekw- (cf. ON seggr, O.E. secg, O.H.G. beinsegga), Lat. sequor, Gk. hepomai, Skr. sacate, Av. hačaitē, O.Pers. hačā, Toch. säk/, Lith. sekti, Ltv. sekt, Ir. sech Welsh hep. Common modern MIE words include Latin derivatives séqtā, sect, séqelā, sequel, seqéntiā, sequence, komseqénts, consequent, ekseqo, carry out, accomplish, ekseqotós, accomplished, carried out, ekseqotā, execute, obhséqiom, present, obhseqiós, obsequious, perseqio, persecute, proseqio, prosecute, supseqio, follow immediatly, supseqénts, subsequent; seqestr, “follower”, mediator, depositary, seqestrā, kidnap, séqestrom, sequestrum, kidnapping; seqós, following, along, alongside of, as in ekstrīnseqós, from outside, extrinsic, entrīnseqós, from inside, intrinsic; séqnom, identifying mark, sign (from “standard that one follows”), Lat. signum, also séqnā, sign, adseqnā, assign, komseqnā, consign, deseqnā, designate, design, reseqnā, return, give back; suffixed sóqios, ally, companion (“follower”), in soqiabhilís, sociable, soqiālís, social, sóqietā, society, soqio-, socio-, adsoqiā, associate, komsoqiā, consociate, dissoqiā, dissociate.

II. Tuesday is Eiserós (déinos), “(day) of the anger”, as it is the day of the gods of war; cf. Gmc. Tiwaz-dagaz, (althoug Tiw, from PIE deiw-, thus , is in fact etymologically related to Gk. Zeus and Lat. Iove, v.i.), loan-translated from L.L. Martis dies, ημερα Αρεως, “day of Ares”, and compare also Skr. Mangala vāsara (Beng. Monggolbar), identified with Karttikeya, the god of war. Compare for PIE eis, originally maybe denoting “passion, vigor”, hence ‘anger, wrath’: cf. Lat. īra, Gk. οίστρος, ερος, Άρης, Skr. isirah, Av. aēšma (as in Asmodeus, v.i.). English “iron” comes from Gmc. īsarnan (cf. O.S. isarn, O.N. isarn, O.E. isærn, M.Du. iser, O.H.G. isarn), borrowed from Celtic isarnon (cf. O.Ir. iarn, Welsh haiarn), from IE ájos (gen. ájesos, PIE root ajos-, older h2ei̯os), originally metal (“vigorous, powerful material”); compare also Gmc. ajiz, (cf. Goth. aiz, O.N. eir, O.E. ār, O.H.G. ēr, ehern), Lat. aes, Umb. ahesnes, Skr. aya, Av. ayah, Pers. āhan, Gaul. Isarnodori, O.Ir. iarn, Welsh haearn. Also, Alteróm (déinom) or Christian Triti (Dhsiā).

III. Wednesday comes from North Gmc. Wodenaz-dagaz, “day of Odin” (cf. O.N. Ōðinsdagr, O.S. odensdag, O.E. Wōd(e)nesdæg, O.Fris. wōnsdei, M.Du. Wudensdach; but, from uncertain origin, compare O.Fris. wērendei, Du. wonseldach, South. Ger. guotentag, and even Eng. Wednesday and Du. waansdei, as well as Low Ger. and Du. dial. with initial g-), loan-translated originally from L.L. dies Mercurii, “day of Mercury”, in turn from Gk. ημερα Ερμου, “day of Hermes”, Lat. Mercurius (from merk-, Etruscan root for various economic aspects, as in mérkātos, market, or merkā, buy) and Gk. ρμς, (also from unknown origin, with some relating it to ρμα, a square pillar), both equivalent to Skr. Budha vāsara (Beng. Budhbar), “day of Budha”, the name of the planet Mercury, a son of Chandra, the moon, in Hindu mythology, but the three are unrelated to the Nordic concept of Odin, the “sky-god”, equivalent to Lat. Jupiter or Gk. Zeus.

III.A. Indo-Aryan term Budha (and also Buddha) comes from IE zero-grade verb budho, O.Ind. bodhati, budhjate, budhanta, “wake, observe, perceive, enlighten”, and noun búdhis, intelligence, reason, from Skr. bodhih, and *budhtós (MIE bustós) awaken, enlightened, from Skr. buddha, all from PIE root verb bhéudh, wake, rise up, be aware, and also make aware; compare also Gmc. biudanan (cf. Goth. anabiudan, O.N. bjóða, O.E. bēodan, O.H.G. biotan), Lat. fidere, foedus, Gk. peithein, pistis, Av. buidjeiti, Pers. bēdār-šudan, O.Pruss. budē, Lith. budinti, Ltv. budīt, O.C.S. beda, bljudo, Russ. будет, Pol. budzić, O.Ir. buide, Welsh bodd, Kamviri bidi. Due to the common meaning of anounce, hence message, messenger, herald, a concept akin to Sanskrit and Germanic sources (exactly the role of loan-translated Mercurius and Hermes), a  good possibility for Wednesday in a pagan week would be Budhonós (déinos), “messenger/message’s (day)”, búdhōn, message, messenger, bode, as in Gmc. budōn (cf. O.N. boð, O.E. boda, bodian, O.S. gibod, O.H.G. gibot).

III.B. The new, non-pagan model (cf. M.H.G. mittewoche, M.L.G. middeweke, Du.dial. Midswiek, Fris. metswik, Norw. dial. mækedag, Mod.H.G. dial. Mittag, Eng.dial. Mid-week, and also unrelated Ice. þriðjudagur, “third-day”), influenced by Gothic, was probably adopted from Gk. or Lat. missionaries, avoiding the old pagan week, and is also found in Slavic – and Hungarian – srēda, lit. “middle” (cf. O.C.S. srĕda, Rus. sreda, Pol. sroda), loan-translated from Lat. media hebdomas, itself a loan word from Gk. εβδομάδα, from βδομς, seven, from PIE séptm (->Gk. ‘hebdom’, seven, “period of seven days or years”), which was translated in L.Lat. as septimāna, from Lat. septem; compare also words for “week” in Srb. седмица, Cro. sedmica, Bulg. седмица, Bret. sizhun, Lith. savaitė, Hindi haftā, Hung. hét (from an Iranian source, cf. Kurdish heft, “seven”). Then, Medhj (Séptmā), “mid-week”, as well as ‘neutral’ Tritióm (déinom) or Christian Qetwrt (Dhsiā).

Other Indo-European terms for common periods of days:

III.B.1. From IE wíkom comes Eng. week, Gmc. wikon (cf. Goth. wikon, O.N. vika, O.E. wice/wican, O.Fris. wike, M.Du. weke, O.H.G. wecha, Ice. vika, even Finnish viikko), originally “a turning” or “succession”, from PIE weik/weig, bend, wind; cf. Gmc. wik- (e.g. Eng. wicker), waikwaz (Eng. weak), Lat. uix, uicia, Skt. visti.

III.B.2. Other common word for “week” in Slavic is O.C.S. ten dzień (cf. Pol. tydzień,  Slovak týždeň, Slovene teden, Ukr. тиждень, Cz. týden), translated as MIE tod déinom, “this day”.

III.B.3. Ltv. nedēļa is a loan word from Rus. неделя (nedélja), originally Sunday in Slavic languages, IE Nedh, Russ. не-делать, “no-work(ing day)”, composed of:

For PIE ne, no, compare Gmc. ne-, na-, (cf. Goth. ni, ON , O.E. ne, O.H.G. ne, Eng. no), Lat. , ne-, Osc. ne, Skr. na, Av. na, O.Pers. na, Pers. ن, O.Pruss. ne, Lith. ne, Ltv. , Russ. не, нет, Polish nie, O.Ir. , Welsh ni, na, Alb. nuk, Hitt. natta, Luw. ni-, Lyc. ni-, Lyd. ni-; also common is zero-grade suffix n- [n̥], as Gmc. un-, Lat. in-, Umb. an-, Gk. a-, an-, Skr. a-, an-, Toch. an-/en-, Arm. an-, frequently found in common IE compounds, as cowijós, “man without cows” (cf. Skr. ágos, Gk. aboúteō, O.Ir. ambuæ), mrtós, inmortal (cf. O.Ind. amŕ̥ta-, Av. aməšа-, Gk. μβροτος), udrós, without water (cf. Skr. anudrás, Gk. ánydros), ṇgnōtós, unknown (cf. Skr. ájñātas, ágnōtos), ṇgn(a)tós, unborn, etc. A common derivative is MIE nóin, no, none, originally “not one, not any” (from n(e)-óinos), giving Gmc. nean (cf. O.S., M.L.G. nen, O.N. neinn, M.Du., Du. neen, O.H.G., Ger. nein), maybe analogous to Lat. nōn, non- (although probably a nasal extension of o-grade negative particle ).

PIE root dhē, set, put, place, (see dhē for MIE derivatives) gives Gmc. dēdiz (Eng. deed, Ger. Tat), dōn (Goth. gadēþs, O.E. dōn, O.H.G. tuon, O.N. dalidun, O.S. duon, O.Fris. dua, M.E. de, Ger. tun), Lat. faciō/fēcī, facilis, condere, abdomen, fās, Osc. faciiad, Umb. feitu, Gk. θήκη, θμα, θέτω, τίθημι, Skr. dádhāti, Av. dađāiti, O.Pers. adadā, Phryg. dak-, Toch. täs/täs, Thrac. didzos, Arm. ed, Lith. dedù, ́tis, Ltv. dēt, O.C.S. благодѣт, дѣти, дѣлати,  Russ. деть, делать, Pol. dziać; działać, Gaul. dede, Welsh dall, Alb. ndonj; Hitt. dai, Lyc. ta-.

IV. Thursday is, after the Greek and Roman calendars, a day consacrated to Zeus and Jupiter respectively; cf. Gk. ημερα Διος (Gk. Zeus has gen. Dios), Lat. Iovis dies, both the “sky-gods” – compare also Hindu Guru vāsara, “day of the preceptor”, for Vjasa, the supreme preceptor of mankind, and Beng. Brihoshpotibar, “day of Brihoshpoti” (equivalent to Jupiter), the guru of the Devas and the arch-nemesis of Shukracharya, the guru of the Danavas. In loan-translated Gmc. thonaras-dagaz (cf. O.N. Þorsdagr, O.E. Þurresdæg, O.Fris. thunresdei, M.Du. donresdach, Du. donderdag, O.H.G. Donares tag), the day is dedicated to a Germanic god whose name is related to PIE root (s)téna, resound, thunder, as in Lat. tonāre, Skr. tánjati, Pers. tundar, Pashto taā; compare for IE tńros, thunder, Gmc. thunraz (cf. O.N. þorr, O.E. þunor, O.Fris. thuner, M.Du. donre, O.H.G. donar). Therefore, Diwós (déinos), “sky-god’s (day)”, Qturóm (déinom), “fourth (day)” or Penqt (Dhsiā), “fifth (Feast)”.

V. Friday is “Frigga’s day”, wife of Odin in Germanic mythology, goddess of heaven and married love, loan-translation of Lat. Ueneris dies, “day of (planet) Venus”, in turn translated from Gk. ημερα Αφροδιτης, “day of Aphrodite”, the goddesses of love, lust and beauty; also, Skr. Shukra vāsara (Beng. Shukrobar), where Shukra is the name for Venus, one of the Navagrahas, a male planet for the Hindus and named after the Guru Shukracharya. φροδίτη comes from Phoenician cAštart, “Astarte”, influenced by Gk. φρός, foam, having parallels to Indo-European “dawn” god(desse)s, as Vedic Skr. Ushas, Lat. Aurora (reinterpreted as a-Decl. *Ausós-ā), IE Áusōs. Latin Venus comes from wénos, love, sexual desire, loveliness, beauty, charm, from PIE wen, strive for, desire; as wenuo, Gmc. winnwan (“seek to gain”, O.E. wynn, Eng. win), wnē [‘u̯n̥-e:], as Gmc. wunēn, (“become accustomed to, dwell”, cf. O.E. wunian, Ger. wohnen, Eng. won), wonēio, as Gmc. wanian (“accustome, train”, cf. O.E. wenian, Eng. wean), wnsko, as Gmc. wunskan (“desire”, cf. O.E. wyscan, Ger. Wünsch, Eng. wish); or wenésnom, Lat. uenēnum, “venom”. Compare also Lat. uenia, uēnāri, Skr. vanas-, vanam, vanati, vanik, vanijah, Av. vanaiti, Toch. wani/wna, wins-/winsk, Arm. gun, Cel. wenj (cf. O.Ir. fine, O.Bret. coguenou, Welsh gwen, Bret gwenn); Hitt. wen-, went- (for more on this root v.i. Sla. voin’, “soldier”). For Frigg, compare Gmc. Frije-dagaz (cf. O.N. frijadagr, O.E. frigedæg, O.Fris. frigendei, M.Du. vridach, Du. vrijdag, Ger. Freitag), from IE príjā, woman, wife – also Freya, goddess of love and beauty in Norse mithology – Gmc. Frijō (cf. O.N. Freyja, O.E. frea, O.S. frua, M.Du. vrouwe, Ice. Freyjudagr, Ger. Frau, Eng. Freya), itself from PIE root prai, like, love, which gave prijós, noble, dear, beloved, as Gmc. frijaz (cf. Goth. freis, O.E. freo, M.H.G. vri, Ger. frei, Du. vrij), and other derivatives related to free, love, friend, like prítus, peace as Gmc. frithuz (O.H.G. fridu, L.Lat. exfredāre, Eng afraid), príjonts, “beloved”, friend, as Gmc. frijands (cf. Goth. frijonds, O.N. frændi, O.E. frēond, O.Fris. friund, M.H.G. friunt, Ger. Freund); also, compare Gk. πραος, Skr. priyah, prīāti, Av. frā, Ltv. prieks, O.C.S. prĕjati, prijatelji, Russ. приятель, Polish przyjaźń, sprzyjać, O.Ir. ríar, Welsh rhydd; therefore, Ausosés (déinos), “dawn’s day”, Penqtóm (déinom), “fifth (day)”, Sekst (Dhsiā), “sixth (Feast)”.

VI. Saturday is a partial loan-translation from Lat. Saturni dies, “day of Saturn” (where Saturnus was an Italic god of agriculture, poss. a borrowing from Etruscan), itself translated from Gk. ημερα Κρονου, “day of Cronus”; compare also Skr. Shani vāsara (Beng. Shonibar), from Sani, one of the nine Navagraha or primary celestial beings, embodied in the planet Saturn, MIE Satúrnos. Compare O.E. Sæterdæg/Sæternesdæg, Du. zaterdag, O.Fris. saterdi, M.L.G. satersdach; Ir. dia Sathuirn, Welsh dydd Sadwrn. However, an ancient Nordic custom is preserved in O.N. laugardagr, Dan. lørdag, Swed. lördag,  lit. “bath day” (cf. O.N. laug,bath”). Ger. Samstag (from O.H.G. sambaztag) appears to be from Vulg. Lat. sambatum, from Gk. *sambaton, a colloquial nasalized variant of sabbatonsabbath”, also attested in Slavic (cf. O.C.S. sabota, Rus. subbota, simbata) and even Hung. szombat; also Romance (cf. Fr. samedi, It. sabato, Spa. sábado, Pt. sabado). The sabbath is observed by the Jews as a day of rest, and comes from Hebrew shabbath, prop. “day of rest”, from shabathhe rested”. Hence, only two names appear to be correct for MIE, IE pagan Satúrni (déinos), and Christian Sabbátom.

VII. Sunday, the last day of the week –  first according to religious tradition –, is the “day of the sun”, Lat. dies solis, loan-translated from Gk. ημερα Ηλιου, compare also Skr. Ravi vāsara (Beng. Robibar); according to Hinduism, Ravi is Surya, the Sun. Therefore, the pagan version should be Sāwlós (déinos), “Sun’s day”, gen. of Swel, sun, v.i., and in Christian tradition, following Lat. dominicus dies, Gk. Κυριακος, (from Gk. κυριος, lord, with a different IE base), Kuriakós/Domūnikós (déinos).

Indo-European root kew, swell, also vault, hole, gives o-grade kówos, hollow, as Lat. cauus, as in kówā (as V.Lat. cova), cave, kowésna, cavern, kówitā, cavity, komkowós, concave, ekskowā, excavate; kówilos, hollow, kowilíā, belly, as Gk. κοιλα, and kówilom, coelom, as in Eng. derivatives -cele, celiac, -coel; kówos, hollow place, cavity, as in kówodeiā, poppy head, Gk. κδεια, which gives kowodeínā (-ínā, “alkaloid”), codeine; zero-grade shortened kúmolos, heap, mass, cumulus, as Lat. cumulus, kumolā, cumulate, or adkumolā, accumulate; zero-grade kūrós, “swollen”, strong, powerful, hence kū́rios, master, lord, as Gk. κυριος, as in kūriakós, “of the lord”, as in MIE Kūriakóm [dmn], Lord’s [dome] (from “house”, see dem-), as Late Greek kūriakon [dōma] (cf. Med. Gk. kūrikon, into W. Gmc. kirika, as O.E. ciricem, Eng. church, Ger. Kirche), used for houses of Christian worship since c.300, especially in the East, though it was less common in this sense than ekklēsíā (from Gk. ekklesía, see kela) or basílikā (from loan adj. basilik, royal, Gk. βασιλική, from basiliós, king); kūweio, swell, and derivative kū́mn, a swelling, wave, with Greek derivatives as Eng. cyma, cyme, cymo-, kymo-; enkūints, pregnant, as Lat. inciēns (as Eng. enceinte).

Indo-European kela, shout, older *kelh2, gives verb klāuo (from *klah2), roar, low, as Gmc. khlōwan (cf.  O.E. hlōwan, M.Du. loeyen, O.H.G. hluoje); suffixed klāmā, call, cry out, claim, as Lat. clamāre, as in klāmnts, clamant, klmōr, clamor, adklāmā, acclaim, deklāmā, declaim, eksklāmā, exclaim, proklāmā, proclaim, reklāmā, reclaim; kolā, call, as Gmc. khalōn (cf. M.Du. halen, Frank. halon, O.Fr. haler, M.E. halen, maybe also O.E. geholian); komkáliom (from kom-, together, and zero-grade *kĺh->IE kalio), meeting, gathering, council (“a calling together”), komkaliā, conciliate, rekomkaliā, reconcile; kálendās, calends, from Lat. kalendae (first day of the month, when it was publicly announced on which days the nones and ides of that month would fall), giving kalendásiom, calendar; kalo (variant klē), call, as in ekkalo, summon forth, which gives ekklēsíāassembly, church, as Gk. κκλησα; kalā, call, call out, as Lat. calāre, as in enterkalā, intercalate, nomnklātr, nomenclator; suffixed klārós (from zero-grade *kĺh), bright, clear, as in deklārā, declare; zero-grade klástis, summons, division of citizens for military draft, hence army, fleet, from Lat. classis, also class.

61.  MIE Januários is probably from IE jános, Lat. Janus, ancient Ita. deity, guardian god of portals, patron of beginnings and endings, lit. "gate, arched passageway" from PIE , go (cf. Skt. jana). Other Roman months are Februários (pl. of Lat. februum, purifications, unkn. origin), Mártios, (from Ita. god Mars, Mamers in Oscan, borrowed from the Etruscan deity Mariś as a war/agricultual god Mars and equated with Greek Ares by interpretatio romana), Aprílis (from Ita. godd. Venus, Etruscan Apru, possibly from Gk. aphrodite), Mágios (from Lat. Maia, from PIE meg, great), Júnios (from Lat. Juno, related to Eng. young), Djówilios (from Lat. Iūlius Caesar, from djeus, god), Augústos (from Lat. Augustus Caesar, from aug), Septḿmris, Oktmris, Nowńmris, Dekḿmris, all from IE numbers following the Roman calendar (which began in March) and adj. suffix -m(ns)ris, Lat. -bris, from PIE base mēn-, month.

a.     For PIE , go, walk, compare Goth. iddja, O.E. ēode, Lat. ire, iter, Umbrian ier, Oscan eítuns, Gk. ειμί, ἰών, Skr. ēti, imas, ayanam, Av. aēiti, O.Pers. aitiy, Toch. i, O.Pruss. eit, Lith. eiti, Ltv. iet, O.C.S. iti, idǫ Rus. идти, Polish iść, Gaulish eimu, O.Ir. ethaim, Kamviri ie; Luw. i-.

b.    For PIE meg, great, compare derivatives mégos (Skr. maha-, Gk. μέγας, Phryg. meka-, Pers. meh), megilós (“much”, as Gmc. mekilaz, cf. Goth. mikils, O.E. micel, O.N. mikill, O.H.G. mihhil, M.E. muchel), magiós (as Lat. major), magnós (Lat. magnus); cf. Skr. mahayati, mahat-, Av. mazant, Illyr. mag, Toch. māk/mākā, Arm. mec, Gaul. Magiorīx, O.Ir. mochtae, Welsh Maclgwn, Alb. madh, Kurd. mezin; Hitt. makkes.

c.     PIE root jeu, “vital force, youthful vigor”, and its suffixed zero-grade juwen- (cf. Skr. yuván-, Lat. iuuĕn-is), give júwntis, youth, as Gmc. juwunthiz/jugunthiz (cf. Goth. junda, O.S. juguth, O.E. geogu, O.Fris. jogethe, M.Du. joghet, O.H.G. jugund), and juwnkós, young, as Gmc. juwungaz/jungaz, (Goth. juggs, O.S., O.Fris. jung, O.N. ungr, O.E. geong, M.Du. jonc, O.H.G. junc) and Celtic yowankos (cf. Gaul. Jovincillus, O.Ir. ac, Welsh ieuanc); compare also Umb. iuengar, Av. javan, Pers. javān, Lith. jaunas, Ltv. jauns, Slavic junъ, junьcь (cf. O.C.S. юнъ, O.Rus. ѹнъ, O.Bulg. юн, юне́ц, юне́, O.Cz. junec, junoch, Pol. junosza, junoch).

d.    PIE aug, increase, gives Gmc. aukan (“eke”, cf. Goth. aukan, O.N. auka, O.E. eacan O.Fris. aka), Lat. augere, Umb. uhtur, Gk. αύξων, αξνειν, Skr. ojas-, ugra, Toch. ok/auk, O.Pruss. auginnons, Lith. augu, aukstas, Ltv. augt. Common modern derivatives include augonmn, nickname, as Gmc. aukanamon); augméntom, increase, augment, áugtiōn, auction, from Lat. augere; augē, create, from L.Lat. augēre, which gives augtós, created, áugtos, creation, augtr, author, creator, and augtoritiā, authorize; augū́r, diviner (< “he who obtains favorable presage”, from “divine favor, increase”), from Lat. augur, as in enaugurā, inaugurate; augsíliom, aid, support, assistance, from Lat. auxilium, and augsiliāsiós, auxiliary. Also, variant metathesized form weg-, o-grade and extended with -s, wógso, grow, Gmc. wakhsan (O.S., O.H.G. wahs, O.N. vax, O.E. weaxan, Du. was, Ger. Wachs, Eng. wax), and wógstus, waist, Gmc. wakhstus (cf. Goth. wahstus, O.N. vaxtr, Swed. vstm, O.H.G. wahst); from the same IE base, cf. Lith. vakas, O.C.S. vasku, Rus. vosk, Pol. wosk.

e.     Compare for MIE mēns (gen. mntós), moon, month, cf. Lat. mēnsis, Gk. μην, Skr. māsah, Av. maoh, Pers. māh, Toch. mañ/meñe, Arm. amis, O. Pruss. menig, Lith. mėnuo, Ltv. meness, O.C.S.  meseci, Russ. mesjac, Pol. miesiąc, O.Ir. , Welsh mis, Alb. muaj, Kurd. mang, Kamviri mos, Osset. mæj. In Germanic, “month” comes from IE mnōts, Gmc. mænoth- (Goth. menoþs, O.N. manaðr, O.E. monað, M.Du. manet, Du. maand, O.H.G. manod), “moon” from IE mnōn, Gmc. menon-, (cf. Goth. mena, O.N. mani, O.E. mōna, O.S., O.H.G. mano, O.Fris. mona, Du. maan). See also Proto-Indo-European , measure.

62. For season, year, time, PIE had different words

A.    From root jēr-, as jrom, year, season, cf. O.Pers. (duši)jaram, Gmc. jæram (“year, season” cf. Goth. jer, O.S., O.H.G. jar, O.N. ar, O.E. ġēar/gēr, Dan. aar, O.Fris. ger, Du. jaar, Ger. Jahr); j, hour, season, from Gk. hώρα (“hour, season, year” as in Mod.Eng. horoscope, hour); also, compare Lat. hornus, Av. jare, O.C.S. jaru, probably originally "that which goes a complete cycle", from older verbal root *h2, go, v.s. 

A.a. The best option for “season” in MIE would be to use jērós dáitis, “year-time”, loan-translated from IE compounds like Ger. Jahreszeit, Fris. jiertiid, Du. jaargetijde, Swe.,Da. årstid, Rom. anotimp, Lith. metų laikas, Russ. время года, Pol. pora roku, Cz. roční období, Slov. letni čas, Bret. koulz-amzer, etc., as a compound from gen. of jrom, followed by d(á)itis, time, as Gmc. tidizdivision of time” (cf. O.S. tid, Du. tijd, O.H.G. zit, Ger. Zeit), suffixed form of IE , divide, cut up; cf. dmos, Gk. δμος, also Skr. dati, O.Ir. dam. and Gmc. tīmōn.

A.b. Greek word for “season” is IE epsogh, Gk. εποχή, epoch, from PIE roots epi, on, at, and sogh, o-grade of segh, hold, as in Gk. εχειν, Skr. saha-, sahate; other derivatives are séghōs, victory (<“a holding or conquest in Battle”), as Gmc. sigiz- (cf. O.N. sigr, O.E. sige, O.H.G. sigu, sigo, as in Siegfried, M.Du. seghe), seghús, seghuerós, severe, as Lat. seuērus, sghol, school, as Gk. σχολ, sghmn, scheme, as Gk. σχμα.

A.c. Also, MIE sátiōn, sowing, season, from L.Lat. sessĭōnis (O.Fr. seison, Eng. season, Du. seizoen, Rom. sezon), from Lat. satiō, “a sowing”, from pp. satum of verb siso, Lat. serere, a reduplicate verb from IE , sow, as Gmc. sēanan (Goth. saian, O.N. , O.E. sāwan, M.Du. sayen, O.H.G. sāen), Skr. sāyaka, Toch. sāry, Lith. seju, sėti, Ltv. sēt, sĕti, O.C.S. sejo, sejati, Russ. сеять, Pol. siać, Welsh hil, O.Ir. , and Hitt. sai. It gave also smēn, seed, semen, sperm (cf. Lat. semen, Umb. semenies, O.H.G. samo, O.Prus. semen, O.C.S. seme, Rus. семя, Ger. Samen, even Finn. siemen), and stis, seed, as in Gmc. sēdiz (cf. O.N. sað, O.S. sad, O.Fris. sed, M.Du. saet, O.H.G. sat, Ger. Saat).

A.d. Other word is státiōn, from Lat. statĭōnis (cf. Spa. estación, Pt. estação, Cat. estació), from IE sta(n)t-, giving Gmc. standan (cf. O.S., Goth.,O.E. standan, O.N. standa, O.H.G. stān, Swed. stå, Du. staan), and other derivatives like IE statós, L. status, Gk. στατός, Lith. statau, ultimately from PIE stā, stand, with derivatives meaning “set down, make or be firm” and “place or thing that is standing”, as in IE stōdhā, stallion, studhorse, steed, from Gmc stōdō (cf. O.N. stoð, O.H.G. stuot, O.E. stod, M.H.G. stud, M.L.G. stod, Ger. Stute, and also O.C.S. stado, “herd”, Lith. stodas, “a drove of horses”); compare L. sistere, stō (from older stāiō) Umb. stahmei, Osc. staíet, Gk. στασθαι, στς, στλος, Skt. tiṣṭhati, Av. hištaiti, O.Pers. aištata, Pers. istādan, -stan (country, lit. “where one stands”), Phryg. eistani, Toch. tām/stām, Arm. stanam, O. Pruss. роstāt, stacle, Lith. stojus, Ltv. stāt, O.C.S. стояти, стоѬ, stanu, staru (old, lit. “long-standing”), O.Russ. стати, стану, Pol. stoję, stać, O.Ir. táu (from older stāiō), sessam, Welsh gwastad, Alb. shtuara; Hitt. išta, Luw. išta-, Lyc. ta-

A.e. Hindustani mausam (Hindi मौसम, Urdu موسم) comes from Persian موسم, in turn from Arabic مَوْسِم., weather, season, time.

B. Romance languages have words derived from PIE átnos, year (from “a period gone trough”), which gave Germanic and Italic words, cf. Goth. aþnam, Lat. annus (modern Romance Fr.,Rom. an,It. anno, Pt. ano, Spa. año, Cat. any), Osc.,Umb. akno-, from IE at, go, as in Skr. atati.

C. Modern Slavic languages have different words for “year, season”.

C.a Some dialects have IE o-grade ghodhós, originally fit, adequate, belonging together (v.i. for Eng. good), which developed into O.C.S. годъ, time, “pleasing time", giving O.Rus. годъ, Cro. godina, Bulg. година  (cf. Ukr. годi, Pol. gody, Cz. hod, Bulg. годе́, Srb. го̑д, Slov. gȏd), also adopted in Ltv. gads (cf. ‘proper’ Latvian derivatives, gadigs, gadit), ultimately from PIE base ghedh, unite, “be associated, suitable", also with the meaning of “good”.

C.b. Another common Slavic word is Pol., Cz., Slovak rok, Ukr. рік (also, cf. Russ. с-рoк), from O.C.S. рѫка, arm, hand (cf. Russ. рука, Ukr.,Bel. рука́, Slov. róka, Pol. ręka), also found in Lith. rankà (gen. rañką), Ltv. rùoka, “hand” (cf. Russ. rаnсkо, gen. rānkan, Lith. renkù, rinkaũ, riñkti, parankà) with the year as a notion of a “cubit measurement of time”; the word is believed to be ultimately from a source akin to a nasal extended IE wrn [‘wr̥-n̥-ka:], from PIE wer, turn, bend  (maybe through O.Ind. vrag, “corner, angle”, vrangr, “scythe”).

C.c. Finally, compare Slovene leto, лет, Pol. lata, Cz., Slovak. leto (cf. also Russ. лето, Pol. lato, “summer”), possibly cognate with O.Ir. laithe, day, reconstructed as common PIE ltom.

D. In Celtic, a common isolated root is found, MIE bhled-, cf. O.Ir. bladain, Ir. bliain, Sc. bliadhna, Welsh blwyddyn, Bret. bloaz, Corn. bledhen.

E. For “year” in modern Iranian languages, compare Av. sarәd, O.Pers. ýâre,  Persian سال (sâl), Kurdish sal, Pashto kāl, Zazaki serre, all from PIE jēr-, already seen.  Also borrowed in Hindustani as sāl (Urdu سال, Hindi साल), although some Indo-Aryan languages derive it from Skr. वर्षम् (varsham, as Marathi वर्ष, varsha, and Malayalam varsham), “year, summer, rain season”, a word which some derive from the sound of the rain, from a Dravidian source.

F. Another PIE word with a similar meaning is wet-, year, age, (cf. Alb. vit), which gives derivatives wétrus, yearling, as Gmc. wethruz (wether, cf. Goth. wier, O.S. wethar, O.H.G. widar, Ger. Widder), wétōs, year, age, old, as Lat. vetus, veteris or Gk. τος; wétolos/m, yearling, as Lat. vitulus and Gk. ταλον; cf. Skr. vatsa, Osc. vezkeí, O.Lith. vetušas, O.C.S. vetŭcŭ, Russ. ве́чный, Pol. wiotchy, O.Ir. fethim, Corn. guis, Alb. vjet; Hitt. witt.

I For Summer:

I.a. PIE root séma, summer, gives Sḿaros, and also sémā, season; compare Gmc. sumaraz (cf. O.N.,O.S. sumar, O.E. sumor, O.F. sumur, M.Du. somer, O.H.G. sumar), Skr. samā, Av. hama, Toch. me/māye, Arm. ama, Kurdish havîn; it is also a common Celtic word, cf. O.Ir. samain, samuin, samfuin, Ir. Samhain, Sc. Samhradh, O.Welsh ham, Welsh haf, Bret. hañv.

I.b. For Lat. aestātis (cf. Fr. été, It. estato, Cat. estiu, also secondary Spa. estío, Pt. estio) a MIE Aistā (< *aidht(o)-) is reconstructed, from common PIE root aidh, burn, illuminate; cf. Lat. aedēs, Gk. αθω, O.Ind. šṭakā, índdhḗ (nasalized form), Av. aēsma-, Lith. íesmė, O.Cz. niestějě, Slov. istė́je.

I.c. Another common form is derived from Wésr, spring (vide infra), as Lat. veranum (tempus), “(time) of spring” (cf. Spa. verano, Pt. verão, Rom. vară), Lith.,Ltv. vasara, Alb. verë.

I.d. For the common Slavic word, MIE reconstructs n. Ltom (cf. Russ. лето, Pol. lato, Cz. léto, Srb.-Cro. ljeto).

II. MIE has for Autumn, Fall, different Indo-European words referring to “harvest”.

II.a. Kérpistos, harvest, Gmc. *kharbistas (cf. Goth. ƕaírban, O.N. hverfa, O.S. hervist, O.E. hærfest, O.H.G. hwerban, Du. herfst, Ger. Herbst), from PIE kerp, pluck, gather, harvest (cf. Lat. carpere, Gk. καρπος, Skr. krpana-, Toch. kārp/kärp, Lith. kerpu, O.Ir. carr, M.Ir. cerbaim, Welsh par).

II.b. Ósōn (Gen. Osnós), from older *h3esh3en, harvest, as in Balto-Slavic, giving O. Pruss. assanis, Rus. осень, Ukr. осінь, Pol. jesień, Srb.-Cro. jesen, Slovak jeseň, and also osnoio, earn, from Gmc. aznojanan (cf. Goth. asans, O.N. önn, O.E. earnian, esne, O.H.G. aran, Ger. Ernte); cf. also Lat. annōna, Gk. οπωρ, Arm. ashun.

II.c. Autúmnos (Lat. Autumnus, of Etruscan origin), is the common word in Romance languages and English.

II.d. In Baltic ‘autumn’ is found as Ltv. rudens, Lith. ruduo, originally “red season”, derived from PIE reudhós, red, ruddy. Compare Gmc. rauthaz (cf. Goth. rauþs, O.N. rauðr, O.E. rēad, Dan. rød, O.Fris. rad, M.Du. root, O.H.G. rōt), Lat. ruber, (Lat.dial. rufus), Osc. rufriis, Umb. rufru, Gk. ρυθρς; Skr. rudhira-, Av. raoidita-, Toch. rtär/ratre, O.C.S. rudru, Rus. рдеть, румяный, Pol. rumiany; Lith. raudas, Ltv. ruds, Gaul. Roudos, O.Ir. ruad, Welsh rhudd, Bret. ruz.

III. For MIE Winter.

III.a. There is a common PIE base Ghéimn, snow, winter; compare O.N. gói, Lat. hiems (from alternative IE ghjéms), Gk. χειμα (Mod. Gk. χειμώνας), Skr. heman, Av. zimo, Pers. زمستان (zemestān), dai, Toch. śärme/śimpriye, Arm. dzme, Old Prussian semo, Lith. žiema, Ltv. ziema, OCS zima, Russ. зима, Polish zima, Gaul. Giamillus, Ir. gaimred, Sc. Geamhradh, Welsh gaeaf, geimhreadh, Bret. goañv, Alb. dimër/dimën, Kurdish zivistan, zistan, Kamviri z; Hittite gimma-. From the same root, compare ghéimrinā, hibernate, from Lat. hibernāre, from which also (témpōs) ghéimrinom, Lat. (tempus) hibernum, “time of winter” (cf. Fr. hiver, Ita.,Pt. inverno, Spa. invierno, Rom. iarnă), or ghímriā [‘ghi-mr̥-i̯a], chimera, from Gk. χμαιρα.

III.b. In Germanic, however, the word comes from Gmc. wentruz (cf. Goth. wintrus, O.N. vetr, O.E., O.Fris., Du. winter, O.S., O.H.G. wintar, Ger. winter, Dan., Swed. vinter), thus IE Wéndrus, “watery season”, from PIE root wed-/wod-/ud-, wet, water. Compare for IE general wódr/údr (or nasalized wóndr/úndr), Gmc. watar, (cf. Goth. watō, O.N. vatn,O.E. wæter, O.H.G. wazzar, O.Fris. wetir, Du. water), Lat. unda, Umb. utur, Gk. ύδωρ, Skr. udan, Toch. wär/war, Phryg. bedu, Thrac. udrēnas, Arm. get, O. Pruss. wundan, Lith. vanduo, Ltv. ūdens, O.C.S., O.Russ. вода, Pol. woda, O.Ir. uisce, Welsh gwer, Alb. ujë, Kashmiri odūr; also, Hitt. watar, and Ancient Macedonian bedu. And for alternate form údros, water, “water-creature”, otter, cf. Gmc. utraz (cf. O.N. otr, O.E. oter, O.H.G. ottar, Swed. utter, Dan. odder, Du. otter,), Lat. lutra, Gk. δρος, Skr. udra, Av. udra, Lith. ūdra, O.C.S. vydra, Russ. vydra, O.Ir. uydr, odoirne Ir. odar, Osset. wyrd; also, derivative ú(n)deros, belly, compare Ger. wanast, Lat. uterus, uenter, Skr. udara, Av. udaras, Lith. vėdaras, Ltv. vēders. As with IE “fire” (pwr-egnís), Indo-European had two different roots for “water”, one inanimate, referring to an inanimate substance, and the other, apos, water (animate), referring to water as a living force (cf. Sk. apa), which comes probably from an older IE II root *h2p-, giving PIE pískos, fish, older *h2p-isko-, cf. Gmc. fiskaz (cf. Goth. fisks, O.N. fiskr, O.E. fisc, O.H.G. fisc, Du. vis, Ger. Fisch), Lat. piscis, Russ. peskar', Polish piskorz, O.Ir. asc, Welsh pysgodyn.

IV. For Modern Indo-European Spring:

IV.a. The common PIE word was Wesr [we-sr̥]; compare O.N. var, Swe. vår, Lat. vēr, from which L.Lat. prima vera (cf. Spa.,Pt.,It. primavera, Rom. primăvară), Gk. έαρ, Skt. vasantah, Pers. ب (bāhār), Kur. bihar, Lith. vasara, Lith.,Ltv. pavasaris, O.C.S. vesna, Russ. весна, Pol. wiosna, Gael. Earrach, and even Turkish ilkbahar, bahar, a borrowing from Iranian.

IV.b. The spring is usually considered the first season, hence the common resource of taking words for ‘fore’ or ‘early’ followed by ‘year’, as MIE Prōjrom/Prājrom; cf. Dan. forår, Du. voorjaar, Ger. Frühjahr, Bul. пролет, Srb.-Cro. proljeće, Slovene pomlad, Alb. pranverë, originally lit. “fore-year”; also, Ger. Frühling, from M.H.G. vrueje, or Cz. jaro, Slovak jar, from jrom. Also, in French, the older primevère was substituted in the 16th c. for printemps, O.Fr. prin tans, tamps prim, from Lat. tempus primum, lit. “first time, first season”, which also influenced Mid.Eng. prime-temps; cf. also Faer. maitiid. For “fore” in compounds, there is IE prā [pr̥-ā], before, as Gmc. fura (cf. Goth. faiura, O.N. fyrr, O.E. fore, O.Fris. fara, O.H.G. fora, Ger. vor-), Gk. πάρος, Skr. purā, Av. paro, Hittite para-, as well as IE pro-/prō, before, in front of, as Gmc. fra- (cf. Goth. fram, O.N. frā, O.E. fram, Scots fro, Ger. vor-), Ita. pro-, Gk. προ-, Ind. pra-, Slav. pra-, Celt. ro-; although Eng. “fore” itself comes from PIE per/pr-, base of prepositions with meanings like forward, through, and other extended senses.

IV.c. Another common Germanic term is Dlonghodéinos, as Gmc. langa-tinaz, lit. “long-day”, (cf. O.S. lentin, O.E. lencten, M.Du. lenten, O.H.G. lenzo, Eng. Lent, Du. lente, Ger. Lenz), from dlo(n)ghós – maybe an older common, difficult-to-pronounce dlnghós [dl̥-n̥-‘ghos] –, long, as Gmc. lanngaz (cf. Goth. laggs, O.N. langr, O.E.,O.H.G. lang, M.Du. lanc), Lat. longus, Gk. δολιχς, Skr. dīrgha, Av. darəga, O.Pers. darga, Pers. derāz, O.Pruss. ilgi, Lith. ilgas, Ltv. ilgs, OCS dlŭgŭ, Russ. dolgij, Pol. długi, Gaul. Loggostalētes, O.Ir. long, Welsh dala, Alb. gjatë, Kashmiri dūr, Hitt. dalugaes; and IE déinos, a root meaning “day”, vide infra. The compound probably refers to the increasing daylight in Spring.

63. Indo-European Djéus, Déiwos (the later formed by e-insertion of zero-grade diw-), means originally shine, usually sky, heaven, hence sky god; cf. Gmc. Tīwaz (O.N. Tyr, Eng. Tiu, also in Tuesday), Lat. deus, Iovis, as in Iuppiter (from older Djóus patér, “o father Iove” cf. O.Ind. deva pitar, Gk. Zeus pater), Gk. Ζεύς, gen. Διός, Skr. deva (as in Devanāgarī), O.Pers. daēva-(as in Asmodeus), O.C.S. deivai, Lith. devas. From zero-grade djóus is extended djówis, Lat. Iouis, “Jupiter”, as adjective djowiliós, descended from Jupiter”, Lat. Iūlius (name of a Roman gens), into Djówilios, July. The form déiwos, as Gmc. tīwaz, Lat. deus, gives deiwísmos, deism, déiwitā, deity, deiwidhakós, deific, addéiwos, bye (“I commend you to God”, cf. Fr.,Eng.,Ger. adieu, It. addio, Spa. adiós, Pt. adeus, Cat. adeu, Nor. adjø, Swe. adjö, Gk. αντίο, Slo. adijo, Lux. äddi, Papiamento ayo, etc.); also, from Lat. dīuus, loan words dwos, famous artist (fem. dwā, diva), and deiwinós, divine; déiwēs, rich (“fortunate, blessed, divine”), as Lat. diues; diwiós, heavenly, as in Diwiánā, Diana, as Lat. Diāna, moon goddess; variant djus (from Lat. djē-), day, as in djewālís, daily, dial, djewāsiós, diary, djtā, daily routine, diet, national or local legislative assembly (alteration influenced by djē from díaitā, way of living, diet, from Gk. δαιτα into Lat. diaeta), djousnós, diurnal, “of the day”, daily, as in djousnālís, diurnal, daily, hence as noun “breviary, journal” (as Fr. journal), and also “salary” (as Prov. jornal), djóusnom, day, djousntā, day, day’s travel, journey, medhīdjus, midday (from medhiei djḗus, from locative of médhjos, middle), midday, which gives medhīdjewonos, “of or at midday”, also meridian, and adjective, medhīdjewonós, of or relating to a meridian, meridionalfrom Lat. merīdiānus, qōtidjewonós, quotidian; dejalós, clear, evident, as Gk. δλη, as in psūghodej(a)likós, psychedelic, (see bhes) an English loan word using Greek loan words. Also, with the sense of shining, clear, day, compare Goth. sinteins, Lat. diēs, Gk. δήλος, Skt. diva, O.Ind. dinam, Welsh diw, Bret. deiz, Arm. tiw, Prus. deinan, Lith., Latv. diena, O.C.S. дьнь, Pol. dzien, Ukr., Rus. день, etc.

The origin of Germanic word for “God” is probably Gmc. guthan (cf. Goth. guþ, O.E. god, O.N. guð, Du. god, Ger. Gott), from zero-grade ghútom, God, ”the invoked” (cf. Skr. huta-, invoked, an epithet of Indra), from PIE ghwa, call, invoke, although some trace it to ghúdepoured, libated”, from PIE root gheu, pour, pour a libation; as Gmc. giutan (cf. Goth. giutan, ON gjta, O.E. guttas, O.H.G. giozan, Ger. giessen, Eng. gut), Lat. fūtis, Gk. χειν, Skr. juhoti, Av. zaotar, Pers. zōr, Toch. ku, Phryg. Zeuman, Arm. dzulel. Originally neutral in Gmc., the gender of “God” shifted to masculine after the coming of Christianity. Following Watkins, “(...)given the Greek  facts, the Germanic form may have referred in the first instance to the spirit immanent in a burial mound”, therefore O.E. god was probably closer in sense to Lat. numen, a Latin term for the power of either a deity or a spirit that informs places and objects. A better word to translate Deus might have been Æsir, Gmc. ansuz (cf. O.N. Ás, O.E. Ós), a name for the principal gods of the pantheon of Norse mythology, but it was never used to refer to the Christian God. It survives in English mainly in the personal names beginning in Os- (cf. Oswin, Oswald, Osborn, etc.). The Germanic noun is believed to be derived from PIE (á)ńsus 'breath, god' related to Skr. asura and Av. ahura, with the same meaning; though in Sanskrit asura came to mean 'demon'. v.i. for more on meaning shift for substituted deities in IE languages. Ánsus is in turn related to ána, breathe, v.s.

64. Prōbhastr comes from Lat. professor, agent noun from profitieri, from Lat. pro-, “forth”, and bháto (p.part. bhastós<*bhattós), “acknowledge, admit, confess”, as Lat. fateri (pp. fassus), zero-grade from PIE roots bhā, speak, and pro-, already seen, also from Late Latin prōbhastā, profess, kombhastā, confess, etc.

65. MIE Kolumnélis, Colonel, comes from It. colonnellacommander of a column of soldiers at the head of a regiment”, from compagna colonella, “little column company” from IE kólumnā, Lat. columna, “projecting object, pillar, column”, from o-grade of PIE kel, be prominent, also hill. Column comes in turn from o-grade kól(u)men, top, summit, from Lat. culmen, which gives verb kol(u)menā, culminate, raise, lift up, from L.Lat. culmināre. Other derivatives from the same root are kolobhn, summit, end, colophon, from Gk. κολοφν; zero-grade kĺnis, hill, as Gmc. khulniz (cf. O.N. hallr, O.E. hyll, M.Du. hill, L.Ger. hull), kĺmos, islet in a bay, meadow, as Gmc. khulmaz (cf. O.N. holmr, O.E. holm), extended form ekskeldo (compound of PIE eks- and extended form keld-), raise up, elevate, also  “be eminent, excel”, from Lat. excellere. Compare also Goth. hallus, Lat. collis, celsus, Gk. κολονος, Skt. kutam, Lith. kalnelis, kelti.

66. Indo-European reg meant originally probably straight line, hence “move or direct in a straight line”, rule, guide, lead. Compare common derivatives like verb reg, rule, lead straight, put right, as Lat. regere, Gk. ορεγειν, Av. razeyeiti; rgtós, right, straight, upright, righteous, wise, true, as Gmc. rekhtaz (cf. Goth. raihts, O.N. rettr, O.E. riht, O.H.G., O.Swed. reht, Ger. recht, Eng. right, straight), Lat. rectus, Gk. ρεκτός, O.Pers. rahst-, aršta-, Pers. rahst, Lith. teisus, O.Ir. recht, Welsh rhaith, Breton reiz; rēgs, ruler, leader, king, as in rēgiós, royal, from Celtic (cf. Gaul. -rix, O.Ir. ri, gen. rig, Gael. righ) into Gmc. rīkjaz, “rich, wealthy”, (cf. Goth. reiks, O.N. rikr, O.E. rice, O.H.G. rihhi, O.Fris. rike, Du. rijk, Ger. Reich, Eng. rich); rēgs, king, leader, as Lat. rēx, regis, which gives rēgālís, royal, kingly, regal; rgēn, king, rajah, and verb rule, from Skr. rājā, rājan-, and rājati.; rgolā, straight piece of wood, rod, hence “rule”, and as verb “regulate”, from Lat. rēgula and L.Lat. rēgulāre; o-grade rogā, ask (<”stretch out the hand”), from Lat. rogāre; and lengthened rōgio, from Gmc. rōkjan - rakjan (cf. O.N. rækja, O.E. reccan, O.H.G. giruochan, Ger. geruhen, Eng. reck). Derivatives from Lat. rēctus include rgtom, rectum, rēgénts, regent, rgimēn, rgiōn, disrēgo, (compound with Lat. dis-, “apart”) to direct, disrēgtós, direct, komrēgo, to correct, komrēgtós, correct, rēgtr, rector, disrēgtr, director, etc.

67. North: from PIE root ner- below, under, also on the left, hence, “with an eastward orientation”, north, as north is to the left when one faces the rising sun, giving Nŕtos as Gmc. nurthaz, O.N. norðr, O.E. norð; cf. Skt. narakah, Gk. enerthen, O.U. nertrak.

Originally PIE had (s)kew(e)ros, north, northwind, cf. W.Gmc. skūraz (cf. Goth. skura, O.N. skúr, O.S., O.H.G., O.E. scūr, Ger. Schauer, Eng. shower), Lat. caurus, Arm. c'urt/c'urd, Lith. šiaurus, šiaurys, šiaure, O.C.S. severu, Russ. sever.

I. Other IE derivatives for “left” are:

I.1. Indo-European laiwós, left, as Gmc. laewaz (cf. ON lǽn, O.E. lǣw. O.H.G. lēwes), Lat. laevus, Gk. laios, Illyr. Levo, Lith. išlaivoti, O.C.S. lĕvŭ, Russ. levyj, Polish lewy. English “left” is maybe also derived from the same root, through an extended laiwt-, although probably from a source meaning “weak”; cf. O.E. lyft, E.Fris. luf, Du. dial. loof, M.Du., Low Ger. luchter, luft.

Common Germanic vocabulary include Ger. link, Du. linker, from O.H.G. slinc, M.Du. slink, related to O.E. slincan “crawl”, Swe. linkalimp”, slinkadangle”.

I.2. PIE seujós, left, was the source for Skr. savya, Av. haoya, Toch. -/saiwai, OCS šujĭ, Russ. šuj, Welsh aswy.

I.3. A reconstructed IE sen is in the origin of Romance senesterós, left, on the left side, as Lat. sinister (opposite of dexter), meaning prop. “the slower or weaker hand” [Tucker], but Buck suggests it's a euphemism, connected with the root of Skt. saniyanmore useful, more advantageous”.

Spa. izquierda, Gl.-Pt. esquerda, Cat. esquerra are late borrowings from Basque ezkerra.

II.   Indo-European derivatives for “right”:

II.1. The opposite of ner in PIE was probably deks, right, hence Deksinā/Deksiós south (facing east), giving Goth. taíhswa, O.H.G. zeso, Lat. dexter, Oscan destrst, Umb. destrame, Gk. δεξιός, Skr. dakina, Av. dašina, Kashmiri dchūn, Toch. täk/, Lith. dešinė, OCS desnaya; desnŭ, Russ. десница, Gaul. Dexsiva, O.Ir. dech, Welsh deheu, Alb. djathtë. Common derivatives from Latin are deksterós, right, on the right side, hence skilful, dexter, as, as in dekstéritā, dexterity, or ambhideksterós, ambidextrous.

II.2. The usual derivative for right (in both senses, direction and “straight, just”) in modern Romance and Germanic languages is still made from oldest rgtós (cf. Eng. right, Ger., Du. recht, Da.,Nor. rett, Swe. rätt, Spa. recto, Pt. reto), ultimately from PIE reg, although a usual Romance derivative comes from prefixed deregtós, as Lat. directus (cf. Fr. droit, Spa. derecho, It. diritto, Pt. direito, Rom. drept, Cat. dret), and a usual Germanic one is suffixed regtikós, as Gmc. rektikhaz (cf. Ger. richtig, Da. rigtig, Nor.,Swe. riktig); also found in both, Lat. and Gmc. is adj. komregtós, correct (as Ger.,Da. korrekt, Fr.,Du. correct, Spa. correcto, Pt. corretto).

II.3. Another usual word in Slavic languages comes from PIE verbal root bhew (older *bheuh2), be, exist, grow, (see more on bhew), as zero-grade reduced suffixal form -bhw-, as in probhwós, “growing well or straightforward”, hence right, upright, correct, as Slavic prōvos (cf. O.Russ., O.C.S. правъ, Pol. prawy, Cz.,Slk. pravý, Sr.-Cr.,Slo. pràv), Lat. probus, O.Ind. prabhú.

68. South: related to base of Gmc. sunnon, from súnom, sun, (swén-/sún- are alternate nasalized roots for PIE swel) with the sense of “the region of the sun”, Ger. Süd, Süden are from a Du. pronunciation. O.Fr. sur, sud (Fr. sud), Sp. sur, sud- are loan words from Gmc., perhaps from O.N. suðr. Compare Gmc. sawel/sunnon (Goth. sauil, sunno, O.N. sól, sunna, O.Eng. sigel, sunne, O.H.G. sunna) Lat. sōl, Gk. ήλιος, Skr. sūras, Av. hvarə, Pers. -farnah-, Kamviri su, Toch. swāñce/swāñco, Alb. (h)yll, O. Pruss. saule, Lith. saulė, O.C.S. slunice, O.Russ. сълньце, Pol. słońce, Welsh haul, O.Ir. súil.

69. The East is the direction in which the Sun breaks, from PIE aus, dawn; cf. Gmc. austo/austraz (O.N. austr, O.E. ēast, O.H.G. ōstra, Du. oost, Ger. Osten), Lat. aurōra, auster, Gk. αυριον (aurion), ηως (ēōs), Skr. uās, Av. ušastara, Lith. aušra, Ltv. ausma, Russ. утро, O.Ir. usah, fáir, Welsh gwawr. For Modern Indo-European we will use generally Áustos as Gmc. East, and Austrós as Gmc. Eastern (austraz) and for Lat. auster; as, Austrorgiom, Austria (cf. Gmc. austro+rikjan, Ger. Oesterreich), Austráliā (from Lat. Terra Australis, MIE Austr(lís) Térsā, Southern Land), etc.

70. West: Pie root wes- is root for words meaning evening, west, as west(e)ros/wesperos/weskeros Gmc. westraz (cf. O.N. vestr, Du. west, Ger. West), Gk. έσπερος (hesperos), Lat. vesper, O.C.S. večeru, Lith. vakaras, Welsh ucher, O.Ir. fescor, perhaps an enlarged form of PIE base we-, to go down (cf. Skt. avah), and thus lit. “direction in which the sun sets”.

71.  Lat. platea: courtyard, open space, broad street, comes from Gk. plateia (hodos), broad (way), fem. of pĺtus, broad, Gk. πλατυς, from PIE stem plat, spread out, broad, flat. Cf. Gmc. flataz; Lat. planta; Skt. prathati, Gk. pelanos, Hitt. palhi; Lith. platus, plonas; O.Ir. lethan. Related to plāk, to be flat; cf. Gmc. flakaz (Eng. flake), Lat. plācāre, Gk. plax. Both extended forms of PIE base ā [‘pl̥-a:] (from pel), flat, spread; cf. Gmc. felthuz (Eng. field), Lat. plānus, Gk. plassein, Sla. polje, etc.

IE plat is an extension of PIE root pel, flat, and spread. Compare péltus, flat land, field, as Gmc. felthuz (cf. O.Fris. feld, O.E. feld, M.H.G. velt, Ger. Feld, Eng. field, even Finnish pelto, “field”, from Proto-Germanic), plrus, floor, ground, as Gmc. flōruz (cf. O.N., O.E. flor, M.H.G. vluor, M.Du. vloer, Ger. Flur, Eng. floor) or Welsh llawr, plānós, flat, level, even, plain, clear, from Lat. plānus; pĺmā, palm, as Lat. palma; plān, “wandering”, planet, as Gk. πλαντης, from plānā, wander (<”spread out”), from Gk. πλανασθαι; also zero-grade pladhio, mold, “spread out”, as Gk. πλασσειν (plassein), hence plastikós (<*pladhtiko-), pládhmā, -pladhia, plastós(<*pladhto-), etc. In Slavic there are o-grade polís, open, and pólā, broad flat land, field.

The old territory of the tribe of Polans (Polanie), MIE Polános, had a name which became that of the Polish state in the 10th century. MIE Póliskā, Pol. Polska (Eng. Poland, “land of the Poles”), expressed both meanings, and comes from IE adjectival suffix -isko-, as in poliskós, polish, Póliskos, Pole, f. Polisk dńghūs or n. Póliskom, polish language. The name of the tribe comes from a PIE source akin to Polish pole, “field, open field”), from IE pólā.

72. PIE wer, speak, is the source of zero-grade wŕdhom, word, as Gmc. wurdan (cf. Goth. waurd, O.N. orð, O.S., O.E., O.Fris. word, Du. woord, O.H.G. wort), full-grade wérdhom, verb, from Lat. verbum (originally “word”), as in adwérdhiom, adverb, and prōwérdhiom, proverb, prāiwérdhiom, preverb; wério, say, speak, as Gk. ειρειν, from which werioneíā, irony, as Gk. ερωνεα; wrētr, public speaker, rhetor, as Gk. ῥήτωρ, from which wrētrikā, rhetoric, as Gk. ητορικ, or wrmn, word, rheme, as Gk. ημα;  compare also, with the sense of speak, command, agree, call, summon, lie, etc., Umb. uerfalem, Skr. vrata-, Av. urvāta, Old Prussian wīrds, Lith. vardas, Ltv. vārds, OCS vračĭ, Russ. врать, O.Ir. fordat, Hitt. ueriga.

73. Indo-European ékwos, ékwā, and kŕsos, have also another synonym in Celtic and Germanic – maybe a borrowing from Gaulish –, márkiā, mare, as Gaul. markan, O.Ir. marc, Welsh march, Bret. marh, and Gmc. markhjon, cf. O.N. marr, O.E. mearh, also fem. O.S. meriha, O.N. merr, O.E. mere/myre, O.Fris. merrie, O.H.G. marah, Eng. mare, Ger. Mähre.

74. PIE root bak, used for “staff”, is the source for bákolom, rod, walking stick, as Lat. baculum, and diminutive bákillom, staff, bacillum, and possibly nbakillós, imbecile, weak, feeble. Also, for báktrom, rod, from Gk. βάκτρον, and its diminutive baktriom, bacterium, little rod, for Gk. βακτηριον. French loan words débâcle (MIE debákolā) and baguette (from It. bacchetta, from bacchio, in turn from Lat. baculum) are also modern derivatives. Compare also Lith. bakstelėti, Ltv. bakstīt, O.Ir. bacc, Welsh bach.

75. For Indo-European bhel, light, bright, also gleam, compare Gmc. blaik- (cf. Goth. bala, O.N. bāl, blár, bleikr, O.E. blæcern, blǣcan, blǣwen, O.H.G. blecken, bleich, blāo), Lat. flagrāre; flāvus, Oscan Flagiúi; Flaviies, Gk. φλεγειν; φαλος, Skr. bharga; bhālam, Phryg. falos, Toch. pälk/pälk, Illyr. balta, Thrac. balios, Arm. bal, O.Pruss. ballo, Lith. blagnytis, baltas, Ltv. balts, Russ. belyj, Polish biały, Gaul. Belenos, Ir. beltene, blár, Welsh bal, blawr, Alb. ballë. Thus e.g. Modern Indo-European Bhaltikós, Baltic, Bhelārús, Belarus, “White Ruthenia”, and possibly Bhélgiā/Bhélgikā, from the Celtic tribe of the Bhélgās, Belgae for the Romans.

76. IE téuta means originally people, tribe; as Gmc. theudo (cf. Goth. þiuda, O.N. þjóð, O.E. þeoð, O.H.G. diutisc, M.Du. duitsch, Eng. Dutch, Ger. Deutsch, Ice. Þýska , L.Lat. theodice, It. tedesco), Osc. touto, Umb. totam, Illyr. teuta, O.Prus. tauto, Lith. tauta, Ltv. tauta, Gaul. teuto, O.Ir. tath; Hitt. tuzzi. Lyc. tuta. Today the Germanic adjective equivalent to MIE Teutiskós is mainly used to describe Germans (also in a wider sense of German-speaking people) and Germany (cf. Dan., Nor, Swe. tysk, Du. Duits, Ice. Þýskur, Lat. theodisco, It. tedesco, Rum. tudestg, even Chinese dǔ, Japanese doitsu, Korean dogeo, or Vietnamese Ðc), hence Téutiskom, German language, Teutiskoléndhom, Germany, from O.H.G. Diutisklant, Ger. Deutschland.

Finnish and Estonian derivatives are from loan word saksa, MIE Sáksōn, from L.Lat. Saxō, Saxonēs, in turn from West Germanic tribal name Saxon, traditionally regarded as from sóksom, Germanic sakhsam, “knife”, (cf. O.E. Seaxe, O.H.G. Sahsun, Ger. Sachse), therefore ‘Saxon’ could have meant lit. “warrior with knifes”, “swordsmen”, related to sókā, cutting tool, saw, as Gmc. sagō (cf. O.E. seax, secg, O.N. sõg, Norw. sag, Dan. sav, M.Du. saghe, Du. zaag, O.H.G. saga, Ger. Säge), from PIE root sek, cut. Athematic sekā, as Lat. secāre, gives common derivatives like séktiōn, section, sekméntom, segment, enséktom, insect, sektr, sector, dissekā, dissect, etc. Other derivatives include skend, peel of, flay, and skends, skin, as Gmc. skinths (cf. O.N. skinn, O.H.G. scinten, Ger. schinden, Flem. schinde); sáksom, stone (maybe from “broken-off piece”), from Lat. saxum; sékitā, sickle, scythe, as Gmc. segithō (cf. O.S. segasna, O.E. sigði, M.L.G. segede, M.Du. sichte, O.H.G. segensa, Ger. Sense). Compare also Lat. sасēnа, Slavic sěkǫ, sěkti (cf. O.C.S. сѣкѫ, сѣшти, O.Rus. сѣку, сѣчи, Pol. siес, siecę, Srb.-Cro. sijecem, sijehi), O.Lith. į̀sektiišsekt, O.Ir. doescim, Ir. ésgid, Bret. scant, Alb. shat.

77. Adjective entergnationālís comes from enter+gnationalis, and is a usual modern loan word (from Lat. terms inter+natio) in Romance and Germanic languages, as well as in Celtic and South Slavic. In some Slavic modern languages, even though the same Latin borrowings exist (cf. Russ. нация, интернационал-, Pol. nacja, internacjonal-, etc.), the usual compound is made by medhjonorodhós (cf. Russ. между+народный, Pol. między+narodowy, etc.) from PIE médhjos, middle, and nórodhs, nation.

Indo-European énter, between, among, gave Lat. inter, and is found in common loan words enteriós, interior, enternós, intern, and enternālís, internal. Also, compare other similar derivatives like ént(e)ro, as in éntrō, inward, within, from Lat. intrō, as in entroduko, introduce, entrospeko, “look inside”, introspect (see spek); or éntrā, inside, within, from Lat. intrā, as in verb entrā, enter, or suffix entra-, intra-; also found in énterim,  (with ablative suffix -im), entrīnseqós (from énterim and séqos, alongside), and entmós, innermost, intime, and its verb entmā, intimate, with -mo- being a superlative suffix. Similar IE words include entós, within, from Gk. εντός, énterom, intestine, enteron, from Gk. ντερον, and Skr. antara-.

The previous derivatives are ultimately derived from PIE root en, in, which gives Gmc. in(nan) (cf. Goth. in, O.N., O.Swe. i, O.E. inn, inne, O.Fris, O.H.G. M.Du., Eng. in), Lat. in, Gk. εν, Skr. an-, O.Pruss. en, Lith. į, Ltv. iekšā, O.C.S. on-, O.Ir. in, Welsh yn-, Luw. anda.

Other common derivatives include enerós, inner, further in, from Gmc. comparative innera; Gk. and Lat. endós, inner, within, which gives endostruós, diligent, industrious, from Lat. industrius (O.Lat. indostruus), thus  éndostruāindustry, and Lat. loan word endogénts, indigent. Extended ens, into, as Gk. εις (eis), which gives epensódiom, episode, from IE epi and ensódios, entering, from Gk. εισδιος (eisodios). Further suffixed ensō, within, gives ensoterikós, esoteric, and ensotropikós, esotropic, from Greek σω.

B. Common IE words for people, race, men, nation, apart from téuta, génos, man, wīros:

B.1. For Balto-Slavic rodhs, kind, sort, genre, family, clan, and nórodhs, people, nation – look at the parallelism with génōs and gnátiōn –, compare Lith. rasmė, Ltv. rads, rasma, rаžа (from older rádhiā), O.C.S.,O.Russ. родъ, Russ. род, народ, Pol. ród, naród, etc. It is deemed to be o-grade form of PIE redh, rise out, extend forth, an Indo-European base akin to PIE verb wrōdh, grow up, and also high, steep; compare Skr. várdhati, Av. varait, Alb. rit, and (doubtfully) Arm. ordi, “son”, Lat. arbor, “tree” (possibly but unlikely PIE *wrdhōr, maybe better MIE Lat. loan árbōr), Hitt. hardu. A common derivative is zero-grade suffixed wrdhuós, straight, with MIE comp. elem. wrdho-, as Gk. ρθο-, Eng. ortho-.

A common Indo-European preposition is reconstructed as PIE an, on, as Lat. in- (in some cases, and also an-), Gk. νά, νω, Av. ana, also on, up, upon, as Gmc. ana, anō (cf. Goth. ana, O.N. á, O.E. an, on, a, O.H.G. ana, Du. aan), and variant Balto-Slavic form no, as Slavic na (cf. O.C.S. на, Ukr.,Bul.,Russ. на, Cz.,Pol. na), O.Pruss. , , Lith. nuõ, Ltv. nùо.

B.2.  Tucker suggests from the same PIE base redh a common Romance rádhios, staff, spoke of a wheel, beam of light, as Lat. radius, which gives rádhiā, race, from L.Lat. radia into It. razza, Fr., Eng. race, Spa. raza, Pt. raça. In any case, whether originally related or not, both words are written this way in Modern Indo-European.

B.3. A common Germanic word is pĺgom, people, men, from Gmc. folkam (cf. O.N. folk, O.E. folc, O.Fris. folk, M.Du. volc, Ger. Volk), which is usually compared with Lith. pulkas, O.C.S. pluku, both believed to have been borrowed from Proto-Germanic. It is related to pldhūs, people, multitude, as Lat. plēbs, plēbēs, and plédhuos, multitude, as Gk. πλήθος, all from PIE root pel, fill, be full. Other derivatives include plnós, full, as Gmc. fulnaz, fullaz (cf. Goth. fulls, O.N. fullr, O.E. full, O.Fris. ful, O.H.G. fol, Ger. voll); pĺio, fill, as Gmc. fulljan (cf. O.S. fulljan, O.N. fylla, O.E. fyllan, O.Fris. fella, Du. vullen, Ger. füllen ); lengthened plē, fill, and plēnós, filled, full; plaús, plus, from Lat. plūs (earlier O.Lat. plous); o-grade polús, much, many, from Gk. πολύς; verb plēdhuo, be full, as in pldhuōrā, plethora, from Gk. πληθρα; adjective plērós, full, as Gk πληρης; plēiōn, more, as Gk. πλεον; or pleistós (superlative), most, as Gk. πλεστος.

B.4.  Latin populus, “people”, is usually seen as a borrowing from Etruscan. It is reconstructed as MIE pópolos, therefore maybe a secondary root derived from o-grade of pel-, full, already seen in Germanic folk and Latin plebs. Known derivatives are popolālís, public, popular, and poplikós, public, from O.Lat. poplicus, which was influenced by Lat. pubes, “adult”, into Lat. publicus, and thus also MIE publikós, which is a common Latin loan word today.

B.5.  Indo-European lúdhis, people, is found in Gmc. liudi (cf. Goth. liudan, O.N. ljlēod, O.H.G. liut, Ger. Leute, also found in Ger. Lette, Eng. Lett, mediaeval noun for Latvian), Osc. Lúvfreís, O. Pruss. ludis, Lith. liaudis, Ltv. ļaudis, OCS ljudĭje, Russ. люди, Pol. lud, O.Ir. luss, Welsh llysiau, Alb. lind. It comes from PIE verb léudh, mount up, grow – compare the parallelism with genōs/gnatiōn, wrōdh/redh –, as Skr. rodhati, Av. raodha. Also, leudherós, free, maybe originally “belonging to the people, public” (although the semantic development is obscure), as in Lat. līber, Gk. ελευθερος, and common derivatives like leudherālís, liberal, leudherā, liberate, léudhertā, liberty, deleudherā, deliver, etc.

B.6.  Another PIE common root is kei, lie, bed, couch, beloved, dear; as kéiuom, members of a household, hind, O.E. hīwan; kéiuidhā, measure of land, household, hide, O.E. hīgid, hīd; kéiuis, citizen, member of a household, Lat. cīuis, as in keiuikós, civic, keiuilís, civil, or kéiuitā, city; kéilijos, companion, as Eng. ceilidh, from O.Ir. céle; koin, cradle, from Lat. cunae; koimā, put to sleep, and also kóimā, village, as in Gk. κοιμη-, κώμη, and common borrowing koimātriom, cemetery, from Lat. coemeterium, itself from Gk. κοιμητριον; zero-grade kiuós, auspicious, dear, as in Skr. śiva-; kéims, person, servant, and kéimiā, household, domestic servants, family, as O.C.S. сѣмь, сѣмиıа, O.Russ. сѣмиıа, сѣмьца, Ukr. сiмя, Bulg. семейство, O.Pruss. seimīns, Lith. šeimà, šeimýna, Ltv. sàimе. Also, compare Lith. kaimas, “village”.

It gives secondary root (t)kei (from ad+kei), settle, dwell, be home, as in (t)kóimos, home, residence, village, from Gmc. khaimaz (cf. Goth. haims, O.N. heimr, O.E. hām, O.Fris. hem, M.Du hame, O.H.G. heim), which gives koimghórdhos, shelter, hangar, from Gmc. haimgardaz into O.Fr. hangard; tkiso, found, settle, metathesized form from Gk. κτίζειν; also probably Italic suffixed sítus (from older metathesized *ktítus), location, situs, and situā, situate, locate; compare also Skr. keti, Av. šaēiti, Arm. šēm.

B.7.  Common PIE wel, crowd, throng, is reconstructed for MIE wólgos, common people, multitude, crowd, as in Lat. uulgus, and adjective wolgālís, “of or pertaining to the common people, common, everyday, ordinary”, then extended with time as pejorative vulgar; cf. Skr. varga, “division, group”, and also Gk. ειλειν, M.Bret. gwal'ch, Welsh gwala.

B.8. Another MIE common loan translation is swédhnos, band of people living together, nation, people, from Gk. θνος (ethnos), lit. “people of one's own kind” from PIE reflexive s(w)e-. Compare also derivatives swedhnikós, ethnic, swédhniā, ethnia, race.

B.9. Latin persónā, person, (from Etruscan phersu, “mask”, and this from Gk. πρσωπον), and famíliā, family, household, from Lat. fámolos, “servant”, (compare parallelism with Balto-Slavic pair keims/kéimiā), both of uncertain etymology, are left as loan words in Modern Indo-European.

78. MIE rgios, king, rgi, queen, are Germanic loans from Celtic, in turn derived from PIE lengthened base rēg, a common Indo-European word for the tribal king. The correct Latin loan-translations are rēgs, king, rgīnā, queen (possibly suffixed earlier r-), while those from Sanskrit are rgēn, raja, rgenis, rani; Indo-European rgiom is the Celtic source for Germanic words meaning realm, kingdom, empire, as Gmc. rikjam (cf. O.N. rīki, O.E. rīce, O.H.G. rihhi, Ger. Reich).

English “queen”, from O.E. cwen, “queen, female ruler”, also “woman, wife” comes from Gmc. kweniz, ablaut variant of  kwenō (source of Mod.Eng. quean), from PIE cénā, “woman, wife”, vide infra. Indo-European languages have usually the same words for King and Queen, using the feminine marker when necessary. English, however, had a meaning (and phonetic) shift that could be used in Modern Indo-European – as with “Chancellor” instead of “Prime Minister” for Germany and Austria – to remember this peculiarity of the English language, hence Cénis between parenthesis.

79. For wros, man, freeman, as in Eng. were-wolf. Compare Gmc. weraz (cf. Goth. wair, O.E. wer, O.N. verr), Lat. uir, Umb. viru, Skr vīra, Av. vīra, Toch. wir, O.Pruss. wirs, Lith. vyras, Ltv. vīrs, Gaul. uiro-, O.Ir. fer, Wel. gwr. Usual derivatives are wīrīlís, virile, wrtūts, manliness, excellence, goodness, virtue, wīrtuónts(ós), virtuous, skilled, of great worth, virtuoso, dekmwrōs, decemvir (commission of ten men), or komwriā, “men together”, curia, court. It is found in compound wirwĺqos (from shortened wíros), werewolf, as Gmc. wer-wulfaz (cf. O.E. werewulf, O.H.G. werwolf, M.Du. weerwolf, Swed. varulf, and also Frank. wer-wulf into O.Fr. garoul, then leu-garoul, from Lat. lupus, itself from wĺqos, hence Eng. loup-garou, lit. “wolf-werewolf”), and wíralts, world, v.i.

Common IE words for man, male, apart from mánus:

I. The common Romance word comes from Lat. homō (cf. Fr. homme, It. uomo, Spa. hombre, Pt. homem, Cat. home), in turn from IE (dh)ghómōn, man, “earthling”, human being, (cf. Arm. տղամարդ, dghamard, “man”), which gives derivatives ghomonidós, hominid, dim. ghomonkolós, homuncule, ghomokdiom, homicide, ghomontiōn, homage (from Oc. homenatge), closely related with (dh)ghōmnos, human, kind, humane, both related with MIE (dh)ghómos, earth, ground, soil, as Lat. humus, (cf. Osc. huntruis, Umb. hondomu) which gives common derivatives as ghomilís, low, lower, humble, and ghomílitā, humility, ghomiliā, humiliate, eksghomā, exhume, enghomā, inhume, transghomā, move livestock seasonally, as in Eng. transhumance. They all come from PIE root dhghem, earth, (as in Pers. zamīn, Kashmiri zamin), which gives common IE dhghōm [gho:m] (gen. dhghmós [ghm̥-‘os]), earth, and other derivatives as (dh)ghḿōn [‘ghm̥-on], man, “earthling”, in Gmc. gumōn (cf. Goth. guma, O.N. gumi, O.E. guma, O.H.G. gomo, found in Eng. bridegroom, Ger. Bräutigam; Mod. Eng. groom was altered 16th c. by folk etymology after groomboy, lad”, itself from a source akin to verb grow); metathesized as ghdhōm, Gk. χθν, as in autoghdhm, autochthon; zero-grade (dh)ghm [ghm̥], on the ground, as Gk. χαμαι, as in ghmléōn, chameleon (“ground-lion”, lizard, léōn is from Semitic origin adopted in Greek and Latin), ghmmlōn, chamomile (“ground-melon”, from Lat. loan word mlōn, melon, short for Gk. mēlo-peppōn, “apple-gourd”); the common Balto-Slavic words come from IE (dh)ghémiā, land, earth, as O.Pruss. same, Lith. žemė, Ltv. zeme, O.Russ. zemi, Pol. ziemia, Cz. země, also found as zemlja, in O.C.S., Russ., Srb.-Cro., etc. Other common IE derivatives are Skr. ka, Phryg. zemelo; zamelon, Thrac. semele; semela, Toch. tkam/ke, O.Ir. du, Welsh dyn, Alb. dhè, Osset. zæxx; Hitt. tekan, Luw. dakam-,

I.1. Common words for earth, land, apart from dhghōm, polā, and léndhom:

I.1.a. Germanic “world” comes from wíralts, “life or age of man”, as Gmc. wirald- (cf. O.N. verold, O.S. werold, O.E. woruld, worold, O.Fris. warld, O.H.G. weralt, Du. wereld, Ger. Welt, Sca. jord), a compound of wīros, man, (cf. Hebrew adam, “man”, and adamah, “earth” and the opposite with Lat. homō, “earthling”, already seen), and altós, grown up, hence old, adult, and tall, high, deep, as Gmc. althaz (cf. (cf. Goth. alþeis, O.E. eald, O.Fris. ald, Du. oud, Ger. alt), Lat. altos, as in eksaltā, exalt, or altitū́dōn, altitude.

Adjective altós comes from PIE root al, grow, nourish, found in almós, nurturing, nourishing (as in alm mātr, “nourishing mother”, university); Latin verb alo, nourish, from which pres.part. alomnós, being nourished (from which álomnos, fosterling, step-child, alumnus, student), alobhilís, alible, aloméntom, aliment, as well as suffixed compound adalesko, grow up, as in adaleskénts, adolescent, or part. adaltós, grown up, adult; suffixed causative compound apaleio, retard the growth of, abolish; compound prlēs (from pro-alēs), offspring; and extended aldho, get well, as in Gk. λθαα.

The proper IE word for old is senós, cf. Goth. sineigs, ON sina, Lat. senex, Gk. henos, Skr. sana, Av. hana, Arm. hin, Lith. senas, Ltv. sens, Gaul. Senognatus, O.Ir. sen, Welsh hyn. It is found (from Lat. senex, MIE sénēks, an elder), in sentus, senate, senilís, senile, seniós, older, as in Latin sénios, senior, señor, signore, sir, sire, senktūts, senectitude, etc. A common fem. sénā is attested as Gk. hénē, Skr. śanā-, Lith. senà, Lyc. lada.

I.1.b. Romance terra, “earth, Earth”, comes from PIE térsā, “dry land”, in derivatives like tersnos, terrain, suptersaniós, subterranean, tersaqiós (from térsa+áqa), terraqueous, etc. PIE ters, dry, which gives tŕstus, dryness, thirst, Gmc. thurstuz (cf. O.E. thurst), trskós, dried, as Gmc. thurskaz (cf. O.N. thorskr, O.E. cusk); torsē, dry, parch, burn, as Lat. torrēre, also as loan word in torsénts, torrent, or torsidós, torrid, p.part. torstós, burnt, into torstā, toast, and noun torstátā; zero-grade tŕsos, tarsos, frame of wickerwork (originally for drying cheese), hence a flat surface, sole of the foot, ankle, Gk. ταρσς.

I.1.c. English “earth” comes from Gmc. erthō (cf. Goth. airþa, O.N. jörð, O.E. eorðe, M.Du. eerde, O.H.G. erda), hence MIE ertā, “ground, soil, dry land”, also used for the “physical world” (as opposed to the heavens or the underworld), from PIE root er-.

I.1.d. Latin mundus, “universe, world”, lit. “clean, elegant” is from unknown origin, hence loan wod MIE móndos, which gives mondānós, mundane, “belonging to the world”, (as distinct from the Church), used as a translation of Gk. κσμος (MIE loan word kósmos) in its Pythagorean sense of “the physical universe” (the original sense of the Gk. word was “order, orderly arrangement”). L. mundus also was used of a woman's “ornaments, dress”, and is related to the adj. mondós, clean, elegant.

Proto-Indo-European had a common root wes, for dress, clothe, compare Gmc. wazjan (cf. Goth. gawasjan, O.N. verja, O.E. werian, O.H.G. werian, Eng. wear, Ger. Wehr), Lat. uestire, Gk. hennynai, Skr. vaste, Av. vastē, Toch. wäs/wäs, Arm. zgenum/zkenum, Welsh gwisgo, Bret. gwiska, Alb. vesh; Hittite waš-. Common Latin derivatives are wéstis, garment, in dewestio, devest, enwestio, invest, transwestio.

I.1.e. Greek , earth, (m.γ, f. γαα) is also from unknown origin, and is left so in derivatives, as geō-.

I.1.f. English “ground” comes from Gmc. grunduz (cf. O.N. grunn, O.E. grund, O.Fris. grund, Du. grond, Ger. Grund), of unknown origin, MIE grúndus, foundation, ground, surface of the earth, originally deep place, bottom, bottom of the sea.

I.2. English “bride” comes from Gmc. bruthiz (cf. Goth. bruþs, O.E. bryd, O.Fris. breid, Du. bruid, O.H.G. brut, and from this into Mid.Lat. bruta, and from this into O.Fr. bruy), possibly originally daughter-in-law, later also “woman being married, bride. In ancient IE custom, the married woman went to live with her husband's family, so the only "newly-wed female" in such a household would be the daughter-in-law. Reconstructed as MIE bhrútis, it is probably derived as zero-grade from PIE verb bhrew, boil, bubble, effervesce, burn, with derivatives referring to cooking and brewing, as bhrútom, broth, from Gmc. brutham (cf. O.E. broþ, V.Lat. brodum). Other derivatives include extended bhréuwo, brew, as Gmc. breuwan (cf. O.N. brugga, O.E. breowan, O.Fris. briuwa, M.Du. brouwen); bhréutom, cooked food, leavened bread, as Gmc. brautham (O.E. brēad, O.N. brot, Dan. brød, Ger. Brot); variant lengthened bhrēto, warm, giving o-grade denominative bhrōt, “a warming”, hatching, rearing of young, brood, as Gmc. brōdō, and verb bhrōtio, rear young, breed, as Gmc. brōdjan, roast flesh, or bhrtōn, roast flesh, as Gmc. brēdōn (cf. O.H.G. brāto, O.Fr. braon); bhrésā, burning coal, ember, hence (from O.Fr. brese) braise, breeze, braze; bhérmōn, yeast, as Gmc. bermōn (cf. O.E. beorma, M.L.G. barm, Du. berm), or further suffixed bherméntom, yeast, ferment, as Lat. fermentum; extended bherwē, be boiling or fermenting, as Lat. feruēre, as in bherwénts, fervent, bherwr, fervor, eghbherwesko, effervesce, etc.; and, as very archaic words for spring, compare bhrúnōn, as Gmc. brunnon, and suffixed bhrwr, as Gk. φραρ, as in bhrewtikós, phreatic. From an original PIE root bher- are also Skr. bhurati, Gk. phurdēn-migdēn, Gaul. Voberā, O.Ir. bréo, M.Ir. berbaim, Welsh beru, Alb. burmë, and also probably lengthened bhrē, smell, breathe, from which bhrtos, odor, exhalation, breath, as Gmc. brēthaz (cf. ON bráðr, O.E. brǣþ, O.H.G. brādam, Ger. Brodem).

II.   A form almost restricted to West Germanic is koirós, gray, hence “gray-haired”, venerable, old, as Gmc. khairaz (cf. O.E. hār, O.H.G. her, comp. herro, “noble”, Ger. Herr, Du. heer, MIE kóireros), from PIE koi, shine.

III. A Greek form comes from IE *h2ner, man, with basic sense of vigorous, vital, strong, as in (a)nr, Gk. νήρ (anēr), and zero-grade in compounds as anr-, andro-, -anros, -androus, “having men”, -anriā, -andry, etc.

IV. Hindustani ādmī (Hindi: आदमी , Urdu آدمی ), from Persian آدم itself from Arabic آدَم , also found in Turkish adam, cf. אדם (adam), which is the origin of the Biblical name Adam.

V.    A curious form is Romanian bărbat (MIE bhardhátos), “bearded”, from Lat. barba, from Italic farba (cf. Celtic barfa, as in Welsh barf), a metathesized form of PIE bhárdhā, beard, attested in European dialects. Compare Gmc. bardō (also “hatchet, broadax”, cf. O.H.G. barta, as in halmbarta, into M.Fr. hallebarde, Eng. halberd), O.Pruss. bordus, Lith. barzdà, Ltv. barzda, ́rda, O.C.S. брада, Russ. борода, Polish broda. English “beard” comes from bhárdhos, Gmc. bardaz (cf. Goth. bars, O.N. barðr, O.E. beard, M.Du. baert, O.H.G. bart),

80.     Dwenós, good (< “useful, efficient, working”), as Lat. bonus, comes from PIE dew, do, perform, show favor; also, adverbial form dwénē, well, as in dwenēdéiktiōn, benediction, dwenēdhaktr, benefactor, etc.; diminutive dwenelós, handsome, pretty, fine, as Lat. bellus; dwēio, make blessed, as Lat. beāre, in dwēiatós, blessed, dwēiatidhakā, betify, etc.; also possibly but unlikely related to dunamikós, dynamic (from dúnamis, Gk. δναμις, force). The Germanic word for good is gōdaz (cf. O.Eng. gōd, O.N. gōðr, Du. goed, O.Ger. guot, gigat, Goth. gōþs, gadilings, Ger. gut, gätlich), from Modern Indo-European ghōdhós, which comes from PIE root ghedh, to unite, join, fit. Compare Skr. gadhjas, Lith. guõdas, Ltv. gads, gùods, Alb. ngeh, ngae, O.C.S. godŭ, Russ годъ, Polish gody, Toch. kātk/kātk.

81. Áutom, auto, is a diminutive of automóghwibhili, automobile, from Gk ατο- self, one’s own, (in turn from ατος, self, same, from IE au) and PIE meghw, move, in moghwē, cf. Lat. mouēre (cf. also Lat. uoueō <*woghw-ējō), Hitt. mugawar; it is usually reconstructed as from PIE mew, move, as PIE zero-grade noun motós, moved, movement, (cf. Lat. motus, Gk. ameusasthai, amuno, Skt. -muta, mivati, Lith. mauti, etc.). The words kŕsos (or kárros) and kŕsom (or kárrom), from Celtic and Latin (in turn from PIE kers, run) cognate with Modern English car, mean in Modern Indo-European charriot, cart, wagon, originally “wheeled vehicle”.

For PIE kers, compare zero-grade krso, run, as Lat. currere, giving modern derivatives as kŕsos, course, krsénts, current, krsr, cursor, komkrso, concur, komkŕsos, concurso, diskrso, think up, diskŕsos, discourse, ekskŕsiōn, excursion, enkrso, incur, enterkrso, mingle with, enterkŕsos, a running between, interposition, obhkrso, occur, rekrso, recur, etc.; kŕsos, or as loan word kárros, two-wheeled wagon, giving derivatives as krsáriā, career, krsikā, carry, charge, diskrsikā, discharge, krsikatósā (or karikatúrā, from Italian), etc., and krspéntom, two-wheeled carriage, from which krspentsios, carpenter. See also a possible Germanic cognate kŕsos, horse.

82. PIE per is the root for particles and words meaning forward, through”, and a wide range of extended senses such as “in front of, before, early, first, chief, toward, against, near, at, around”. Derivatives include péri, Gmc. fer-, far- (cf. Eng. for-, Du.,Ger. ver-), which is used as intensive prefix denoting destruction, reversal or completion; its superlative is per(e)ro, farther away, far, as Gmc. fer(e)ra (cf. O.N. fjarre, O.E. feorr, Du. ver, Ger. fern); per, per-, through, for, as Lat. per; péri, around, near, beyond, over, as Gk. περι, Skr. pari, O.Iran. pari; per-, around, again, as Slavic per-. Also, zero-grade pr, before, in, Gmc. fur, as Eng. for; prt, forward, as Gmc. furth, Eng. forth; pŕtero, farther away, Gmc. furthera, Eng. further; pr, por, forth, forward, as Lat. por-; pŕsōd, forward, parget, as Lat. porrō; prmós, Gmc. fruma/furma, Eng. former; prmistós, foremost, Gmc. frumista/furmista; pristós, first, foremost, Gmc. furista; prówariā, “forward part of a ship”, prow, from Gk. πρρα; prowtós, first, foremost, as Gk. πρωτο; pŕa, before, fore, as Gmc. fura; pára, beside, alongside of, beyond, as Gk. παρα; prō, forward, away from, as Gmc. fra; prómo, from, as Gmc. fram; pr, lady, Gmc. frōwō, from prówom, lord, Gmc. frawan; prōwós, true, as Slavic pravu; pro, before, for, instead, as Lat. pro; pronos, leaning, forward, as Lat. pronus; proqe, near, as Lat. prope; proqinqós, near, as Lat. propinquus; proq(i)smós, nearest, as Lat. proximus, as in verb adproqsmā, approximate; probhwós (bhw-o-, grow, from PIE root bhew), growing well or straightforward, upright, good, virtuous, as Lat. probus; pro, before, forth, in front, forward, as Gk. προ, Skr. pra-; proteros, before, former, as Gk. προτερος; (p)ro, intensive prefix as Celtic ro; extended forms prāi, prei, before, as Lat. prae; préijos, former, higher, superior, as Lat. prior; preiwós, single, alone (“standing in front”, “isolated from others”), as Lat. priuus, as in preiwtós, private; maybe *propreiwós, but more likely prop(a)triós, one’s own, particular, as Lat. proprius; preismós, first, foremost, as Lat. prīmus; préismkaps (from preismós+kaps), leader, chief, emperor, as Lat. prīnceps (analogous to Ger. fürsten, from the same source as Eng. first); preistanós, former, earlier, as Lat. prīstinus; préscus, old, old man, (cu-, “going”, from verb , go), as in Gk. πρέσβυς; próti/pros, against, toward, near, at, as Gk. προς. Other derivatives include Skr. prā, Lith. per, pro, Hitt. per.

For IE , go, come, and cem, come, compare Gmc. kuman (cf. Goth. quiman, O.E. cuman, Ger. kommen, Eng. come), as in bhicem, become, as Gmc. bikuman (from ámbhi); cémōn, “he who comes”, guest, in welcémōn, welcome, “a desirable guest” (from PIE welwish, will), as Gmc. wilkumōn; suffixed cemio, come, as Lat. uenīre, in adcemio, advene, adcémtos, advent, adcemtósā, adventure, adcemtā, avenue, kikromcemio, circumvent, komtrācemio, contravene, komcemio, convene, komcémtos, convent, komcémtiōn, convention, ekcémtos, event, ekcemtuālís, eventual, entercemio, intervene, encemio, invent, encemtósiom, inventory, prāicemio, prevent, procemio, come from, recemio, return, supcemio, souvenir, supcémtiōn, subventio, supercemio, supervene; suffixed cmio, as Gk. bainein, go, walk, step, with cátis, basis, a stepping, tread, base, and -catos, going, and -catā, agential suffix, “one that goes or treads, one that is based”, as in akrocátā, acrobat, as Gk. κροβτης, anacátis, diacátis, acátiā, diacmio, go through, in diacátā, diabetes; also c, step, seat, raised platform, as Gk. bēma.

From PIE wel, wish, will, are derivatives wel(l)io, desire, as Gmc. wil(l)jan (cf. Goth. wiljan, O.S. willian, O.N. vilja, O.E. wyllan, O.Fris. willa, O.H.G. wellan, Du. willen, Ger. wollen), also wéliā, desire, will, power, as Gmc. wiljōn, and wélā, well-being, riches, wealth, as Gmc. welōn; o-grade wolio, choose, as Gmc. waljan (cf. Goth. waljan, Ger. wählen), also wolós, good, well, as Frank. walaz, into wolā, take it easy, rejoice, as Frank.Lat. ualāre (then O.Fr. galer), as in wolnts, gallant, also from Frankish wolopā, gallop, wallop, from O.Fr. galoper (O.N.Fr. waloper); from basic form wel(l)o, wish, desire, as Lat. uelle (present stem o-grade Lat. uol-), as in weleitā, velleity, wolítiōn, volition, wolontāsiós, voluntary, dwenēwolénts, benevolent, maliwoléntiā, malevolence; probably extended adjetive welpís, pleasing, in adverb wólup, with pleasure, into wolúptā, pleasure, as Lat. uoluptās, into woluptuónts(ós), voluptuous. Compare also Gk. elpis, Skt. vnoti, varya, varanam, Av. verenav-, Lith. velyti, O.C.S. voljo, volitiwill”, and veljo, veleti, “ command”, Welsh gwell.

83. Indo-European épi, ópi, near, at, against, is the base for op (and reduced prefixal op-), “before, to, against”, as Lat. ob, ob-, also “on”, as O.C.S. ob; epi, “on, over, at”, as Gk. πι, or opisten, “behind, at the back”, as Gk. opisthen; zero-grade pi, on, in Gk. piezein (see sed); and ops, extra on the side, with, as ópsom, condiment, cooked food, as in opsóniom, supply, as Gk. ψνιον.

84. Proto-Indo-European root ánt, front, forehead, had a common derivative ánti, against, and also in front of, before, end; ántia, end, boundary, as Gmc. andja (cf. Goth. and, O.N. endir, O.E. ende, O.Fris. enda, O.H.G. endi); Lat. ante, as in antiénts, ancient, antiriós, anterior, etc.; enantios, opposite, as Gk. εναντιος; antiqós, “appearing before, having prior aspect” (in compound with PIE oq-, see), former, antique, as Lat. antiquus; ńti, away from, until, unto, as Gmc. und; ántos, end, as Skr. antah. Other IE derivatives attested are Osc. ant, Toch. ānt/ānte, Lith. ant, O.Ir. étan, Hitt. anta, Luw. hantili, Lyc. xñtawata.

The former particle builds a common compound, probably a plural (see plural declension), ánt-bhi, “from both sides”, giving PIE ámbhi (earlier *h2n̥-bhi), around, as Gk. μφ, both, both sides, which gives ambhícios, amphibious, as Gk. μφβιος, or ambhithéatrom, amphitheatre, from Lat. amphitheatrum, itself from Gk. μφιθατρον; MIE ambhi, ambh, “around, about”, as in Latin, gives ambholā, go about, walk, ambulate, ambholntiā, ambulance, prāiambholós, walking in front, prāiámbholom, preamble; also, Gmc. umbi (cf. O.N. um, umb, O.E. bi, be, ymbe, Du. bij, O.H.G. umbi, bi, Ger. um,bei, Eng. by,but); from Celtic, ambhágtos, embassador, sevant, vassal, and ambhágtiā, embassy, from Lat. ambactos, from Celt. amb(i)actos. Also, in other IE languages, Skr. abhita, Av. aiwito, aibi, O.Pers. abiy, Toch. āmpi, Lith. abu, O.C.S. oba, Gaul. ambi-, O.Ir. imb-, Ir. um, Welsh am.

85. PIE ad, to, near, at, toward, by, gives Gmc. at (cf. O.N., Goth. at, O.E. æt, O.Fris. et, O.H.G. az), Lat. ad, Osc. adpúd, Umb. , Skr. adhi, Phryg. addaket, Gaul. ad, O.Ir. ad, Welsh add, and Ancient Macedonian addai.

86. Compare for PIE root al, beyond, as in olse-, olsos, as O.Lat. ollus, ols, which gives olteriós, ulterior,  oltmós, last, oltmā, ultimate, etc. Also, suffixed forms with adj. comp. -tero-, alterós, and alternative anterós, “the other of two”, second, other, cf. Lat. alter, adulterāre, Gmc. antharaz (Goth. anþar, O.S. athar, O.N. annarr, O.E. oþer, Ger. ander), Skr. antara, Lith. antras, see dwo. Other derivatives are aliós, alnós, else, otherwise, “other of more than two”, as well as alienós, alenós, foreign, alien; compare Gmc. aljaz (Goth. aljis, O.N. allr, elligar, O.E. ellesel-lende, O.H.G. all, eli-lenti), Lat. alius, aliēnus, Osc. allo, Gk. άλλος, Skr. anja, áraa-, Av. anja-, airjō, O.Pers. ārija, Toch. alje, ālak/allek, Phryg. alu-, Arm. ail, Gaul. alla, O.Ir. oll,aile, Welsh allan,ail; Lyd. aλaś, probably Hitt. uli-, aluś.

Compare also MIE terms alienós, foreign, but loan words Ariánom (from PIE Alienóm), Iran, and Arianós (from PIE Alienós), Iranian, also ‘aryan’, from Skr. ārja, “noble, honorable, respectable”, the name Sanskrit-speaking invaders of India gave themselves in the ancient texts, originally “belonging to the hospitable” from O.Ind. arjas, PIE álios, lord, hospitable lord, originally "protecting the stranger" from aliós, stranger. Ancient Persians gave themselves the same name (cf. O.Pers. arija-, Pahlavi ʼryʼn, Parthian aryān); in Ardashir's time ērān (from Avestan gen. pl. Aryānām) retained this meaning, denoting the people rather than the state.

87. PIE de is the base of different prepositions and adverbs; as, o-grade lengthened , to, toward, upward, Gmc. (cf. O.S., O.Fris. to, O.E. , Du. too, O.H.G. zuo, ze Ger. zu); compound qmdo (from qo), as Italic quando; de, from, out of, as deterós, and deteris, worse, which gives deteriosā, deteriorate. Also, compare Lat. donec, Gk. suffix -de, Lith. da-, O.C.S. do, Celtic , O.Ir. do.

88.      Preposition kom, beside, near, by, with, is attested as Latin cum (O.Lat. com), co-, Slavic (cf. O.C.S. , Russ. к, ко, ко-, O.Pol. k, ku), also Gk. kata, Hitt. katta (< zero-grade km-ta), in Germanic as participial, collective and intensive prefix ga- (cf. Goth., O.H.G. ga-, O.N. g-, O.E. ge-), “together, with”, also marker of the past participle, and in Celtic kom-, O.Ir. cét-, Welsh cant/gan. Other derivatives include Latin kómtrā, against, opposite, as komtrāsiós, contrary; also, compare usually reconstructed IE *ksun, as Gk. ξυν, which is deemed a greek-psi substrate (Villar) from kom, also in metathesized komiós, common, shared, as Gk. κοινός, hence Komi, Koine, from Gk. κοιν. Also, the -m is usually lost in final syllables before vowel (as in metric), cf. Lat. animum aduertere>animaduertere. In Modern Indo-European, the -m is always written, although it may be pronounced without it. 

89. For PIE eghs, out, and variant form eks, compare Lat. ex, Oscan eh-, Umbrian ehe-, Gk. eks, Old Prussian is, Lith. ìš, , Ltv. is, iz, O.C.S. iz, izъ, is, Russ. iz, Gaul. ex-, O.Ir. ass, Welsh a, Alb. jashtë. For verbal compounds found in different languages, compare ek(s)bhero, carry out (from bher, carry), cf. Gk. κ-φρω, Lat. ef-ferō, O.Ir. as-biur, or eksei, go out (from , go), cf. Gk. ξ-ειμι, Lat. ex-eō, Lith. iš-eĩti, O.C.S. iz-iti. Derivatives include eks, eks-, out of, away from, as Lat. ex, ex-; eks, ek, out of, from, as Gk. ex, ek, as in ekso-, exo-, eksotikós, exotic, eksoterikós, exoteric, komekdok, synecdocha (see dek), from Gk. συνεκδοχ; suffixed comparative variant ekstrós, outward (feminine ekstrā, on the outside), as in ekstrāniós, extrange, ekstrnós, ekstriós, exterior, ekstrnālis, external, etc; ekstmós, outermost, extreme (-mo- functioning as superlative, see comparison of adjectives), cf. entmós, but also ekstrēmós, as Lat. extrēmus; eghskmtós, outermost, last, Gk. σχατος, as in eghskmtologíā, eschatology; Celtic eksout (of), or Balto-Slavic iz, from, out of.

For PIE dek, take, accept, compare dekē, be fitting (from “be acceptable”), Lat. decēre, as in dekénts, decent; suffixed causative o-grade dokē, teach (from “cause to accept”), as Lat. docere, as in derivatives dokénts, dokilís, docile, doktr, doktrínā, dokoméntos, etc.; doko, appear, seem, think (from “cause to accept or be accepted”), as in dókmn, dogma, dokmntikós, dogmatic, doktologíā, doxology (from leg), parádoktos, conflicting with expectation, as Gk. παρδοξος (from para-, beside, see per) as in parádoktom, paradox, as Lat. paradoxum, or wrdhodoktíā (see wrdho-, straight), orthodoxy, wrdhódoktos, orthodox, as Gk. ρθδοξος; suffixed form dékōs, grace, ornament, as Lat. decus, decoris, and loans dekosā, decorate, deks, seemliness, elegance, beauty, dekosós, decorous; deknós, worthy, deserving, fitting, deign, déknitā, dignity, komdeknós, condign, deknidhakā, dignify, disdeknā, disdain, endeknā, indign, endeknnts, indignant; reduplicated didksko, learn, Lat. discere, as in loans di(dk)skípolos, disciple, di(dk)skiplínā, discipline; Greek words include pandéktās, as Gk. πανδκται, ekdeko, understand, komekdeko, take on a share of, as Gk. συνεκδχεσθαι,  and komekdok, synecdoche, as Gk. συνεκδοχ; also, o-grade suffix dókos, beam, support, as Gk. δοκς, in dwiplodókos, diplodocus (see dwo).

90. For PIE upo, under, up from under, over, compare Gmc. upp (cf. Goth. iup, O.E. up, uppe, O.H.G. uf, M.L.G. up, Ger. auf); uponos, “put or set up”, open, as Gmc. upanaz (cf. O.N. opinn, O.E. open, O.H.G. offan, Swed. öppen, Dan. aaben, O.Fris. epen); suffixed upt(o), frequently, as Gmc. uft(a) (cf. Goth. ufta, O.N. opt, O.Fris. ofta, Dan. ofte, Ger. oft); variant sup, as Lat. sub, in súpter, secretly, as Lat. subter, and súpo, as Gk. πο-; variant upso (cf. also Hitt. upzi), as Greek úpsos, height, top; from compound upo-sto- (for st- see stā), one who stands under”, servant, young man, as Cel. wasso-, into V.Lat. uassus, hence MIE upóstos, vassal; úpolos, opal, Skr. upala, variant of uperós, lower, as Skr. upara- (from upo, Skr. upa, “below”), later borrowed as Gk. opallios, Lat. opalus. Compare Gmc. upp, Ita. sub/sup, Gk. hupo, Ind.-Ira. upa, Toch. /spe, Bal.-Sla. po, Cel. wo (cf. Gaul. Vo-, O.Ir. fo, Welsh go).

91.  For PIE -w, or, cf. Lat. ue, Gk. ϝ, , O.Ind.,Ira. , Toch. wa-t/pa-t, Cel. ue, O.Ir. [n]ó, [n]ú, Welsh [ne-]u.

92. PIE bhábhā, bean, broad bean, as Lat. faba, O.Pruss. babo, Russ. боб, Pol. bób, Welsh ffâen, Alb. bathë; also variant forms bháunā, as Gmc. baunō (cf. O.N. baun, O.E. bēan, O.H.G. bona, Ger. Bohne), and bhákos, lentil, as Gk. φακός.

93. Indo-European snéich, snow (and noun snéichs, snow), as Skr. snēha, Av. snaēža, Toch. śiñcatstse, O.Pruss. snaygis, Lith. sniegas, Ltv. sniegs, O.C.S. snegu, Russ. снег, Polish śnieg, O.Ir. snechta, Welsh nyf. Other derivatives are o-grade snóichos, as Gmc. snaiwaz (cf. Goth. snaiws, O.N. snjór, O.E. snāw, O.S., O.H.G. sneo, O.Fris., M.L.G. sne, M.Du. snee, Du. sneeuw), and zero-grade snichs, as Lat. nix, niuis, and sníchā, as Gk. νιφα.

94. Verb wegh, go, transport in a vehicle, move, is attested as “have weight, lift, carry” in Gmc. wegan (cf. Goth. gawigan, O.S. wegan O.N. vega, O.E. wegan, O.Fris. wega, Du. wegen, O.H.G. [bi]wegan, Ger. bewegen, wiegen), Lat. vehō, Osc. veia, Umb. ařveitu, Gk. ekhos, Skr. vahati, Av. vazaiti, Toch. wkä/yakne, O.Pruss. vessis, Lith. vežu, Ltv. vest, O.C.S. vesti, Russ. vezti, Polish wieźć, Gaul. Uecturius, O.Ir. fecht, fén, Welsh gwain, Alb. vjedh, udhë. Common derivatives include wghā, weight, unit of weight, wee, from Gmc. wēgō; wéghtis, weight, as Gmc. (ga)wikhtiz (cf. O.N. vætt, O.E. gewiht, O.Fris. wicht, M.Du. gewicht); wéghos, way, course of travel, as Gmc. wegaz (cf. Goth. wigs, O.E., O.S., Du., O.H.G. weg, O.N. vegr, O.Fris. wei); o-grade wóghnos, wagon, as Gmc. wagnaz (cf. O.N. vagn, O.E. wægn, O.S., O.H.G. wagan, O.Fris. wein, Eng. wain); wóghlos, populace, mob, multitude (<”moving mass”), as Gk. οξλος; from Lat. uehere is p.part. weghtós, carried, giving weghtr, vector, wegheménts, vehement, wéghikolom, vehicle, komwéghtiōn, convection, etc.; wéghiā, way, road, as Lat. uia, giving weghitikom, voyage, travel, Lat. uiaticum, weghiātikālís, viatical, komweghiā, convey, and komwóghis, convoy (loan-translated from Fr. convoier, variant of conveier), deweghiā, deviate, obhweghiā, obviate, obhweghiós, obvious, prāiweghiós, previous, weghiādéuktos, viaduct, etc.; also, weghsā, agitate (from “set in motion”), as Lat. uexāre; also, komweghsós, convex, (“carried or drawn together to a point”), from Lat. conuexus.

95. Originally PIE root ter, over, gives verb tero, cross over, pass through, overcome, as Skr. tirati, tarati; also contracted as athematic trā, as probable O.Lat. trāre, which gave tran(t)s, across, over, beyond, through, as Lat. trans. Other derivatives include zero-grade tŕilos, hole (<“a boring through”), as Gmc. thurilaz (cf. O.E. þyrel, M.H.G. dürchel, Eng. thrill); tŕqe, through, as, Gmc. thurkh/thurukh (cf. Goth. þaírh, O.S. thuru, O.E. þurh, O.Fris. thruch, M.Du. dore, Du. door, O.H.G. durh); also, in néktār, nectar, drink of gods, from nek, death, and -tar, overcoming, as Gk. νκταρ, and derivative nektarínā; verb trāio, protect, as Iranian thrāja-; extended truks, savage, fierce, grim (from “overcoming, powerful”), as Lat. trux, as trukulénts, truculent; and therefore also nasalized extended trunks, trunk, deprived of branches or limbs, mutilated (from overcome, maimed), Lat. truncus. Compare all IE derivatives meanig through, beyond: Gmc. thurkh, Lat. trans, Umb. traf, Gk. tar, Skr. tiras, Av. tarə, O.Ir. tre, Welsh tra.

For neks, death, dead person, murder, violent death, compare ON Naglfar, Lat. nex, Toch. näk, Lith. našlys, Ir. éc, Welsh angeu. Derivatives include nekrós, dead, corpse, as Gk. νεκρός; verb nekio, injure, harm, as Skr. naśyati, Av. nasyeiti, and its o-grade nokē, as Lat. nocēre, giving common derivatives as nokénts, nocent, or nokénts, innocent, or nokuós, nocuous; also o-grade noks, injury, hurt, damage, as Lat. noxa,  in noksiós, harmful, noxious, and obhnoksiós, obnoxious.

96. Indo-European verb , give, evolved (outside Germanic languages) as Lat. dare, Osc. dede, Umb. dadad, Gk. δίδωμι, Skr. , dádāti, Av. dadāiti, Pers. dadātuv, Pers. dādan, Phryg. dadón, Arm. tal, O.Pruss. dātwei, Lith. dúoti, Ltv. dot, deva, O.C.S. дати, Russ. дать, Pol. dać, Gaul. doenti, O.Ir. dán, Welsh dawn, Alb. dhashë, (Tosk dhënë, Geg dhąnë), Osset. daettyn, Kashmiri dyūn; Hitt. , Luw. da-, Lyd. da-, Lyc. da. Derivatives include zero-grade (as Lat. dare) datós, given, from which dátā, date (The Roman convention of closing every article of correspondence by writing “given” and the day and month,  meaning “given to messenger”, led to data, “given (pl.)”becoming a term for “the time and place stated”), datiuos, dative (”the case of giving”), dátom, datum, trade, transdo, (from trans+da), deliver, hand over, trade, part. transdatós, delivered, handed over, from which transdátiōn, delivery, surrender, a handing over/down, meaning both in Romance languages and English, as Lat. traditio, which gave O.Fr. tra(h)ison (Anglo-Fr. treson, Eng. treason, cf. It. tradimento, Spa. traicio), and O.Fr. tradicion (Eng. tradition, Fr. tradition, It. tradizione, Spa. tradicio); perdo, do away with, destroy, lose, throw away, as in perdátiōn, ruin, destruction, perdition; redo, give back, return, restore, giving part; redatós, rendered, and derivative redátā, rent, payment for use of property (Romance rendita through V.Lat. reddita, influenced by Lat. vendita, “sold”, or maybe Lat. prendita, “taken”); wesnomdo, (from wésnom, v.i.), sell, praise, as Lat. uendere (contacted from Lat. uendumare, from older uēnumdare); also dnom, gift, as in dōnr, donor, dōnā, give, present, donate, komdōnā, condone, dōntiōn, donation, dōnatḗiuos, donative, perdōnā, grant, forgive, pardon; dtis, dowry, marriage, portion, as Lat. dos, also Slavic dōti, gift, dacha, as Russ. dacha; dórom, gift, as Gk. δωρον; part. dótissomething given, as Greek δσις, giving antídotom, antidote, lit. “given against”, anékdotā, anecdote, apódotis, apodosis, etc.

For PIE wes, buy, compare wésnom, sale, from Lat. uēnum, as in wesnālís, venal; suffixed wosno, buy, as in wosn, buying, opswosn, cooked food, opswosno, buy food, hence opswósniom, purchasing of provisions, as Gk. ψνιον, from which monopswósniom, monopsony; wésā, sale, which gives Eng. bazaar (see qel); suffixed weslís, cheap, base, hence worthless, vile, as Lat. uīlis, with derivatives like weslidhakā, hold cheap, vilify, weslipendo, vilipend (from (s)pen).

From PIE root wes, live, dwell, pass the night, compare Germanic derivatives meaning to be, as o-grade was (as O.E. wæs), lengthened wēz (cf. O.E. wære), or wesan (cf. O.N. vesa, vera, “be”), or Lat. Vesta, household goddess, wástus, town, “place where one dwells”, from Gk. astu, into Lat. skill, craft (practiced in a town), as in wastutós, astute; also, wésenom, house, as Pers. vahanam, as in diwésenom/diwn, divan, from O.Ira. dipivahanam, “document house”, from dipī-, writing, document, from Akkadian tuppu.

Indo-European  (s)pen, draw, stretch, spin, gives spenuo, spin, as Gmc. spinnan (cf. Goth. spinnan, O.N., O.Fris. spinna, O.H.G. spinnan, Dan. spinde, Du. spinnen, Ger. spinnen), from which spéntrā, “spinner”, spider, as Gmc. spinthrō (cf. O.E. spīþra, Dan. spinder, and other cognates M.L.G., M.Du., M.H.G., Ger. spinne, Du. spin); extended pendē (intransitive), hang, and pendo, cause to hang, weigh, p.part. penstós (<*pendto-), with frequentative penstā, weigh, consider , as Lat. pensāre, as in pendénts, pendant, péndolom, pendulum, pénstiōn, pénstom, weigh, peso, adpende, append, adpéndīks, appendix, kompendiā, compend, kompéndiom, compendium, kompenstā, compensate, dependē, depend, dependo, pay, expend, ekspendo, expend, enpendo, inpend, propendē, propend, rekompénstā, recompense, supspendo, suspend, etc.; suffixed péniā, lack, poverty (< “a strain, exhaustion”), as Gk. πενια, usually found as suffix -peniā; peno, to toil, and o-grade pónos, toil, verb pono, toil, as in geoponikós, geoponic, lithoponos (from Gk. loan word líthos, stone), lithopone; o-grade (s)pon-, as in spono, span, stretch, bind, as Gmc. spannan (cf. O.E. spannen, O.H.G. spannan, M.Du. spannen), spon, span, Gmc. spanō (cf. O.E. spann; Gmc. word was borrowed into M.L. spannus, hence It. spanna, O.Fr. espanne, Fr. empandistance”); also, spong, clasp, spangle, from Gmc. spangō (cf. M.Du. spange); póndos, weight, giving Latin expression lbra póndō, “balance by weight” (borrowed into Gmc. punda, “pound”, cf. Goth. pund, O.Fris., O.N. pund, O.H.G. pfunt, Ger. Pfund, M.Du. pont); póndōs, weight, giving derivatives (affected by rhotacism, cf. Lat. pondus, ponder-), pondesā, weigh, ponder, as in prāipondesā, preponderate; also, compare sponde, “of one’s own accord”, as Lat. sponte (maybe from Gmc. spanan, “entice”), as in spondaniós, spontaneus.

97. Indo-European bháres-/bhars-, spelt, barley, grain, is the root for Gmc. bariz/barz (cf. Goth. barizīns, O.N. barr, and also O.E. bær-lic, i.e. “barley-like”), Lat. far (stem farr-), Osc.,Umb. far, Phryg. brisa, OCS brašĭno, Welsh bara. Latin derivatives include bhar(s)ínā, farina, bhar(s)inākiós, farinaceous, bhars, farrago, medley, mix of grains for animal feed.

98. PIE verb bhél means thrive, bloom, sprout, as in bhóliom, leaf, as Lat. folium, Gk. φυλλον, as in eksbholiā, exfoliate, debholiā, defoliate, perbholiā, perfoliate, prtbhóliom, portfolio, etc; suffixed o-grade bhlōuo, to flower, blow, as Gmc. blōwan (cf. O.E. blawan, O.H.G. blaen), bhlmōn, flower, blossom, as Gmc. blōmōn (cf. Goth. blōma, O.S. blomo, O.N. blómi, Du. bloem, O.H.G. bluomo, Eng. bloom); bhlōs, flower, blossom, as Gmc. bhlōs- (cf. O.E. blōstm, blōstma, Eng. blossom), Lat. flōs (stem flōr- due to rhotacism), as in bhlōs, flora, bhlōsālís, floral, etc.; bhltom, blood, as Gmc. blōthan (cf. Goth. bloþ, O.N. blóð, O.E.,O.Fris. blōd, M.Du. bloet, O.H.G. bluot), bhlōdio, bleed, as Gmc. blōthjan (cf. O.N. blæða, O.E. blēdan, Ger. bluten), bhlōtisā, bless, lit. “treat or hallow with blood”, (originally a blood sprinkling on pagan altars, this word was chosen in O.E. Bibles to translate Lat. benedicere and Gk. eulogein, and is not found with this sense in other Germanic dialects); bhlótos, blade, leaf, from Gmc. blathaz (cf. O.N. blad, O.Fris. bled, Ger. blatt). Other derivatives include Oscan Fluusaí,Toch. pält/pilta, O.Ir. bláth, Welsh blawd.

A proper PIE word for blood is kréwis (earlier root *kreuh2), as in O.E. hrot, Lat. cruor, Gk. κρέας, O.Ind. kraví, Av. -, rūm, O.Pruss. krawian, Lith. kraujas, Ltv. krevele, OCS кръвь, O.Pol. krу, Russ. кровь, O.Ir. cró, Welsh crau. A common adjective is o-grade krowós, raw, uncooked, “bloody”, as Gmc. khrawaz (cf. O.N. hrár, O.E. hrēaw, M.Du.rau, O.H.G. hrāo, Eng. raw, Ger. roh), Lat. crudus, O.Ind. kruras, Av. rūra-.

99.  IE verb der, split, peel, flay, as Gmc. teran (cf. Goth. gatairan, O.E. teran, O.S. terian, M.Du. teren, O.H.G. zeran), Gk. δερειν, Skr. darati, Arm. terem, O.C.S. dera, and dérom, piece, as Bret. darn; dŕtom, “something separated or discarded”, turd, Gmc. turdam (cf. O.E. tord, O.N. tord-, M.Du. torde, Du. tort-); der(r)is, leather covering, derris, from Gk. δερρις; dérmn, skin, derma-, as Gk. δρμα, in compounds dérmnto-, dermato-.

English “tear” (drop from eye), comes from PIE dákrus, attested as Gmc. takhruz (cf. Goth. tagr, O.N. tár, O.Fris. tar, O.E. tēahor, O.H.G. zahar), Lat. lacrĭma (from suffixed dákru-, O.Lat. dacruma, compare with evolution of O.Lat. dingua -> Lat. lingua), Gk. δάκρυ, Skr. aśru, Av. asrūazan, Toch. ākär/akrūna, Arm. arc'unk', Lith. ašara, Ltv. asara, O.Ir. dér, Welsh deigryn.

100.  PIE root gno, know, gives derivatives gnēuo, as Gmc. knē(w)an, (cf. O.E. cnāwan, O.H.G. bichnaan, irchnaan), go, know, know how to, be (mentally) able to, Gmc. kunnan (cf. Goth. kannjan, O.N. kenna, O.E. cunnan, O.Fris. kanna, O.H.G. irchennan), o-grade causative gónio, make known, declare, as Gmc. kannjan (cf. O.N. kenna, O.E. cennan, Eng. ken), gntós, known, well-known, usual, excellent, familiar, as Gmc. kunthaz (cf. O.E. cūth, Eng. couth), gńtitā, knowledge, acquaintance, friendship, kinfolk, as Gmc. kunthithō (cf. O.E. cyththu); gnōsko, komgnōsko, get to know, get acquainted with, as in gnōtítiā, notice, gntiōn, notion, gnōtosiós, notorious, komgnítiōn, cognition, rekomgnōsko, recognize, etc.; suffixed -ro-, as gnōrā, not to know, disregard, ignore, or gnros, knowing, expert, and verb gnar(r)ā, tell, relate, narrate; gnōdhlís, knowable, known, famous, noble, as Lat. nōbilis; part. gnōtós, known, noun gntis, knowledge, inquiry, gnmōn, judge, interpreter, progntis, diagntis, agntiā, etc., as Gk. γνσις, γνμων;  gńtis, knowledge, as Av. zainti-;  also probably gn, note, mark, sign, cypher, as Lat. nota, as in adgnōtā, annotate, komgnōtā, connote, etc., and also gnórmā, carpenter’s square, rule, pattern, precept, norm, as in gnormālís, normal, apgnormālís, abnormal, eghnormís (from eghs+gnorm-), irregular, extraordinary, very large, possibly a borrowing from Etruscan through Greek gnṓrmōn, γνμων, carpenter’s square, rule. For IE derivatives, compare Lat. nōscō/cognōscō, Umb. naratu, Gk. γιγνωσκειν, Skr. jānā́ti, Av. paitizānənti, O.Pers. xšnāsātiy, Toch. knān/nān, Arm. canot', O.Pruss. posinnāts, Lith. žinóti, žinaũ, Ltv. zināt, zinu, O.C.S.,O.Russ. знати, знаѬ, Russ. знать, Polish znać, Ir. gnath, Welsh gnawd, Alb. njeh, Kashmiri zānun Osset. zon; Hitt. kanes.

101.    PIE root ni, down, below, gives derivatives Skr. ni, Gk. neiothen, O.C.S. nizu, Russ. низ. A common derivative is nitero-, down, downwards, below, beneath, as niteros in Gmc. nitheraz (cf. O.S. nithar, O.N. niðr, O.E. niþera, neoþera, O.Fris. nither, Du. neder, Ger. nieder), or niterom in Skr. nitaram.

For PIE ńdher, under, also possibly derived from ni, compare Gmc. under (cf. Goth. undar, O.N. undir, O.Fris. under, Du. onder, O.H.G. untar), Pers. zēr, Arm. ĕndhup; also, compare ńdhos, below, as Skr. adhah; ndhrós, lower, as Av. aðara-, Lat. īnferus, and ndhriós, inferior; ndhŕnos, lower, inferno, and ndhrnālís, infernal; ńdhrā, infra, below.

English hell, a translation of Lat. infernus, comes from an o-grade noun derived from PIE kel, cover, conceal, save, (cf. Skr. cala, O.Ir. cuile), viz. koli, the underworld (from “concealed place”), Gmc. khaljō (cf. O.N. hel, O.E., O.Fris. helle, Ger. Hölle, Goth. halja; Eng. hell may be from O.N. Hel, the underworld, goddess of death, another transfer of a pagan concept and its word to a Christian idiom); kol(l), covered place, hall, as (dialectally geminated) Gmc. khallō (cf. Goth. halja, O.N. höll, O.E. heall, O.H.G. halla, Du. hal); suffixed koleiós, sheath, as Gk. κολες; zero-grade kĺos, hole, hollow, as Gmc. khulaz (cf. Goth. us-hulon, O.N. holr, O.Fris., O.H.G. hol, O.E. hol, hulu, M.Du. hool, Ger. hohl, Eng. hole, hull); extended klām, in secret, as Lat. clam, in klamdestēinós, clandestine (possibly a merge of klam-de- and entestēinós, internal, from entos, within, which gives pl. entestina, intestine), kalupio, cover, conceal, as Gk. kaluptein, part. kaluptós, covered, as in (a)sukalúptos, from Lat. eucalyptus, and MIE apokalúptis, revelation, from Gk. ποκλυψις, also apocalypsis, from Church Lat. apocalypsis; kélmos, helmet, helm, “protective covering”, as Gmc. khelmaz (cf. Frank. helm, O.E. helm, O.H.G. helm, M.Fr. helmet, dim. of helme); obhkolo, cover over, and part. obhkoltós, covered, occult, from which obhkoltā, to occult; suffixed kólōs, from Lat. color; kélnā, storeroom, chamber, cellar, as Lat. cella; kéliom, lower eyelid, cilium; lengthened-grade kēlā, hide, like in komkēlā, conceal.

102.   A Proto-Indo-European stem (s)klau, hook, crooked or forked branch (used as a bar or bolt in primitive structures) is reconstructed for kláustrom, bar, bolt, barrier, as Lat. claustrum, and kláustrā, dam, wall, barricade, stronghold, for Lat. claustra; kláwos, nail, for Lat. clauus; kláwis, key, for Lat. clauis; skláuso, close, Gmc. skhleusan (cf. O.E. beclysan, O.H.G. sliozan, Ger. schlieel); also, compare Gk. kleidos, klobos, Lith. kliuti, kliaudziu, kliuvu, O.C.S. kljucu, kljuciti, O.Ir. clo, M.Ir. clithar.

PIE verb bhec, run, flee, is attested in Balto-Slavic as Lith. begu, O.C.S. begu, bezati; also bhécios, stream, (possibly from an unattested verb bhécio) in Gmc. bakjaz (cf. O.N. bekkr, Eng. beck); and in Greek with the meaning of flee in terror, also o-grade verb bhoco, put to flight, frighten, and noun bhócos, panic, flight, fear, as Gk. φόβος (hence -bhocíā, Gk. -φοβα).

103.   For PIE ka(u)put, head, and also fig. top, upper end, chief person, leader, compare Gmc. khaubuthan (Goth. haubiþ, O.N. haufuð, O.E. heafod, O.H.G. houbit, O.Fris. haved, Ger. Haupt), Skr. kapucchala, Lat. caput.

104.   PIE verb dem, domesticate, gives o-grade domio, tame, domesticate, as Gmc. tamjan (cf.  Goth. gatamjan, O.E. temja, O.E. tem, O.H.G. zemmen); domós, domesticated, tame, Gmc. tamaz (cf. O.N. tamr, O.S., O.Fris., M.L.G., M.Du., O.E. tam, O.H.G. zam, Ger. zahm); domā, tame, subdue, as Lat. domāre; dḿo, tame, as Gk. δαμαν, with derivative ndmánts [n̥-dm̥-‘ants], not malleable, adamant, (lit. “not domesticable”) and also diamond, from Vulg.Lat. diamas,-antis, altered from Lat. adămas,-antis, from Gk. δμας. Other derivatives include Skr. dāmyati, Av. dam, Pers. dām, O.Ir. damnaim, Welsh addef, Osset. domun; Hitt. damaašzi.

For spek, observe, look at, compare spékōn, watcher, spy, as Gmc. spekhōn (cf. Frank. spehon, O.H.G. spehon, M.Du. spien, Ger. spähen, Spion, Eng. spy); from Lat. specere are spékimēn, spéktrom, spekolā, especulate, spékolom, adspéktos, aspect, ekspektā, expect, perspektiuā, perspective, respektā, look, respect, supspektā, suspect, etc.; spékiēs, seeing, sight, form, species, as in spekiālís, special; speks, watcher, “he who sees”, in Lat. compounds; dēspekā, despise, look down on; metathesized Grek forms as spekio (Gk. skepio), examine, consider, as in spektikós, skeptic, Gk. σκεπτικς; or o-grade spókos (Gk. skopos), one who watches, or object of attention, aim, target, (as Eng. scope) and verb spokē, see, as in modern jorospókos, horoscope, lit. “time-watcher”, from Gk. ροσκπος, qēlespókiom, from Mod.Lat. telescopium, or epispókos, overseer, bishop (Eng. bishop comes from O.E. bisceope, itself from Vulgar Latin ebiscopus), epispokālís, episcopal, etc. – the change spek->skep happened comparatively late in Greek to be reconstructed in a proper common IE language.

105.   For PIE sals, salt, compare Lat. sāl, Umb. salu, Gk. hals, Skr. salila, Illyr. Salapia, Toch. sāle/sālyiye, Arm. , O.Pruss. sal, Lith. saldus, Ltv. sāļš, OCS soli, Russ. соль, Polish sól, O.Ir. salann, Welsh halen, Alb. gjelbson. It gives derivatives as sáldom, Gmc. saltom (cf. O.S., O.N., O.Fris., Goth. salt, O.E. sealt, O.H.G. salz, Du. zout), zero-grade sĺdiā, salt, salt marsh, souse, as Gmc. sultjō (cf. M.E. cylte, Dan.,Nor. sylt, Eng. silt, and O.Fr. sous, into Eng. souse), saldo, to salt, as Lat. sallere, and p.part. salstós (<*saldtós), as in sálstā, sauce, salsa; from Lat. sāl is salásiom, salary, salátā, salad, or salámis; it gives also words for sea, from “salty water”, as in Greek, or in Latin sálom.

PIE root sol (or *solh2) means whole, and is attested in common derivative soluós, whole, intact, uninjured, as Gk. λος (Ion. ολος), Skr. sarvah, Av. haurva, O.Pers. haruva, giving  modern words like soluokáustom, holocaust (from neuter Lat. holocaustum, itself from Gk. λκαυστος, “burned hole”), soluograbhikós, holographic (for gerbh-, v.i. A), or katsoluikós, universal, catholic (as Lat. catholĭcus, Gk. καθολικς, for kat, v.i. B). Also, compare solidós, solid, in komsolidā, consolidate, solidāsiós, jointly liable (source akin to Eng. soldier), sol(i)dtos, soldier, from Lat. solidātus (from sólidos, a Roman gold coin, also salary, lit “one having pay”, cf. It. soldato, Fr. soldat, Spa., Pt. soldado, Swe., Nor., Ger. soldat, Du. soldaat, Russ., Ukr. солдат  etc.); sólos, whole, entire, unbroken, as solikitós, solicit, solicitous, or solemnís, solemn, from Lat. (dialectal geminated form) sollus; as zero-grade sálūts, health, as in salutā, greet; also in saluós, whole, safe, healthy, uninjured, from Lat. salvus (into O.Fr. sauf, and then to Eng. safe).

A.    For PIE gerbh, scratch, compare Gmc. kerban (cf. O.E. ceorfan, O.H.G. kerban, Eng. carve, Ger. kerben); zero-grade gŕbhis, a cutting(off), as Gmc. kurbiz (O.E. cyrf, Eng. kerf); o-grade gróbhis, edible crustacean, as Gmc. krabiz/krab(b) (cf. O.E. crabba, O.N. krafla, O.H.G. kerbiz, L.Ger. krabben, Eng. crab, crayfish, crawl); grbho, scratch, draw, write, as gŕbhmn [‘gr̥bh-mn̥], picture, letter, piece of writing, and gŕbhmā, line, with derivatives as (loan words) grbhmntik, grammar, from Gk. γραμματικ, and ghŕbhikos, graphic, anágrbhmn, anagram, epígrbhmn, epigram, ghrbhíā, agraphia, epigrbh, epigraph, as Gk. πιγραφ, parágrbhos, paragraph, prógrbhmn, programme, etc; also, W.Gmc. grafa, “count” (cf. M.Du. graave, M.L.G. grave, Ger. graf, Eng.-grave), possibly a borrowing from grbhus, Gk. grapheus, “scribe”. For other IE derivatives, compare O.Pruss gīrbin, Ltv. grīpsta, O.C.S. žrĕbŭ, Russ. žrebij, Arm. kerel/gerel, Alb. gërvish.

B.    For PIE kat-, down, compare Greek kata, down, and suffixed form kátolos, young puppy, young of animals (“dropped”), as Latin catulus.; also found in Ice. haðna, M.H.G. hatele, Sla. kotiti sę (cf. Russ. kotítьsja), dial. kótьka, Sr.-Cr. kot, Pol. wy-kot

106.   For Indo-European bhlēig, shine, compare  Gmc. blīkh(j)an (cf. O.N. blíkja, O.Ice. bleikr, O.H.G. blīhhan, bleih, O.E. blīcan, Ger. Blech), Lith. blaikštaũs, blaikštýtis, blyškė́ti, Ltv. bližģēt, blaiskums, O.C.S. блѣскъ, блисцати, Russ. blesk, Pol. blask.

107.   PIE verb bhel, blow, swell, inflate, is the root for various derivatives including round objects and the notion of tumescent masculinity; as, bhĺā, round vessel, rounded object, bowl, bole, boll, as in Gmc. bullō (cf. O.N. bolle, bolr, O.E.,O.H.G. bolla, M.H.G. bole, M.Du. bolle, bille); zero-grade and bhĺōn, fuller, as Lat. fullō; bhĺōnos, bull, as Gmc. bullōnaz (cf. O.N. boli, O.E. bula, M.Du., Ger. bulle), bhĺokos, bull, as Gmc. bullukaz (cf. O.E. bulluc), bhĺnos, phallus, as Gk. φαλλς; o-grade (dialectally geminated -l in Germanic) bhól(l)os, ball, bhól(l)ā, ball, bullet, round roll, bhól(l)ikos, testicles, bollix (cf. O.E. beallucas); bholtós, bold, from Gmc. balthaz (cf. Goth. balþei, O.N. ballr, baldr, O.E. bald, beald, O.H.G. bald); suffixed bhólnis, bellows, inflated ball, as Lat. follis (cf. Eng. follicle, folly, fool); possibly bhálaniā, whale, from Gk. φλαινα.

108.  MIE dmōn, time, is a loan translation from Germanic tīmōn, (cf. O.Eng. tīma, O.N. timi, Swe. timme), and is derived from PIE root , divide, as in dmos, people, land (from “division of society”), from Gk. δημος, as in dāmokratíā, democracy v.i., dāmogrbhíā, demography, epidāmíā, pandāmíā, dāmaggos, etc.; alternative root dajo, divide, as in geōdáisia, earth division, geodesy; dáimōn, divider, provider, hence divinity, later “demon, daimon”, v.i.; d(á)itis, division of time, time, season, as Gmc. tīdiz (cf. O.S., O.E. tid, Du. tijd, O.H.G. zīt, Ger. Zeit, Eng. tide), and verb dītio, happen, from “occur in time”, Gmc. tīdjan (cf. O.E. tīdan).

It is unrelated to Lat. tempus, which has an unknown origin. For the Latin word and its derivatives, Modern Indo-European uses loan word témpōs; as, komtemposāsiós, contemporary; témposā, temple (cf. Lat. tempora > V.Lat. tempula); tempesā, temper, moderate, regulate; tempositiā, temporize, etc.

PIE krátos, power, strength, (like Gk. κράτος) gives suffix -kratíā, power, rule, as Gk. - κρατα, adjective kratús, strong, as Gk. κρατυς or alternative kartús, hard, as Gmc. kharthus (cf. Goth. hardus, O.N. harðr, O.E. heard, O.H.G. harto, Du. hard), maybe from PIE root kar-.

Greek δαιμων meant divinity. For Greeks and Romans dæmons were supernatural beingsreplete with knowledge”, “divine power”, “fate” or “god”, not necessarily evil. Within the Christian tradition, ideas of “demons” derived as much from the literature that came to be regarded as apocryphal and even heretical as it did from the literature accepted as canonical. It happened more or less like with PIE djus (originally meaning heaven, sky, hence sky-god, cf. O.E. Tig, Lat. deus, Gk. Ζεύς, Skr. deva, Lith. devas, O.C.S. deivai), reduced in its Persian meaning as a special (bad) kind of divinity, giving daēva-, “spirit, demon”, so in Asmodeus, Old Persian Æshma, later Æshmadæva.

109.   PIE root bher-, with derivatives meaning brown, shining, gives bhrūnós, brown, shining, as Gmc. brūnaz (cf. O.E. brūn, O.N. brúnn, M.Du. bruun, adopted into Romance languages through M.L. brunus, cf. It., Sp. bruno, Fr. brun); reduplicated bhébhrus, brown animal, beaver, as Gmc. bebruz (cf. O.E. beofor, O.H.G. bibar, Low Ger. bever), Lith. bebrus, Cz. bobr, Welsh befer; bhérā/bhérnus, bear, lit. “brown animal” (as O.E. bera, O.H.G. bero, from Gmc. berō, or O.N. björn, from Gmc. bernuz). Compare Lat. fiber, Gk. phrynos, Skr. bhallas, babhrus, Av. bawra, Toch. parno/perne, parä/perne, O.Pruss. bebrus, Ltv. bērs, bebrs, Lith. bėras, bebras, Russ. bobr, Gaul. Bibrax, Welsh befer.

110.   Indo-European línom, flax, although sometimes considered a borrowing from a non-Indo-European language, is found in many IE dialects; as, Gmc. linam (cf. Goth. lein, O.E. lin, O.H.G. lin, O.N. lín, Ger. Leinen, Eng. linen), Lat. līnum, Gk. linon, O.Pruss. linno, Lith. linas, Ltv. lini, O.C.S. lĭnŭ, Russ. lën, Polish len, O.Ir. lín, Welsh llin, Alb. liri/lîni.

For PIE wĺnā, wool, compare Gmc. wulnō (cf. Goth. wulla, O.N. ull, O.E. wull, O.Fris. wolle, M.Du. wolle, O.H.G. wolla, Du. wol, Ger. Wolle), Lat. lāna, uellus, Gk. lēnos, Skr. ūrā, Av. varə, Pers. gurs, O.Pruss. wilnis, Lith. vilna, Ltv. vilna, O.C.S. vlŭna, Russ. volna, Pol, wełna, Lith. vilna, O.Ir. olan, Welsh gwlan; Hitt. hulana.

111.    PIE chen, strike, kill, slay, as Gk. θείνω, φόνος, Skr. hánti, Av. ǰainti, O.Pers. ajanam, Arm. gan, O.Pruss. guntwei, gunnimai, Lith. genù, giñti, ginù, gìnti, Ltv. dzęnu, dzìt, O.C.S. гънати, женѫ, O.Russ. гънати, жену, Cz. hnáti, ženu, Polish gnać, O.Ir. gonim, Ir. gandr, gonadh, Alb. gjanj; Hitt. kwen, Lyd. qn-; Slavic gъnanъ, which stands out in a Satem dialect, appears to be from a source akin to O.Ind. (ā)ghnānás, Av. avaġnāna-, an original ghn- form, which didn’t undergo the satemization trend. It gives derivatives as o-grade chónōn, slayer, cause of ruin or destruction, as Gmc. banōn (cf. Goth. banja, O.N. bani, O.E. bana, O.Fris. bona, O.H.G. bana), which gives also MIE loan word chon, way, road, as in autochon, Autobahn, cf. M.H.G. ban, bane, Ger. Bahn, “way, road” (from “strike” in a technical sense like “swath”); suffixed chńtiā, war, battle, as Gmc. gundjō (cf. O.Ice. gandr, O.E. gūþ, O.N. gunnr into O.E. gunne, giving Mod. Eng. gun), also in chntiāpánōn, standard, “battle flag”, as O.H.G. gundfano, It. gonfalone (for pan-, v.i.); suffixed form chend, giving prefixed verbs in Latin as dēchendo, ward off, defend, and obhchendo, strike against, be offensive, offend; also, suffixed zero-grade chńtros, poison, as Pers. zahr, O.Ira. jathra-.

112.    PIE génus, knee, perhaps originally angle, gives Lat. genū, Gk. gonu, Skr. jānu, Av. znum, Pers. zānu, Illyr. Genusus, Toch. kanwe/kenīne, Arm. cunr, Russ. звено; Hitt. genu, Palaic ginu-. Variants include Greek o-grade forms, as gónus, knee, which gives polúgonom, polygonum, and gniā, angle, corner, which gives gonós, angled, and derivative neuter suffix -gonom, Eng. -gon; also, alternate form gnew-, giving neuter noun gnéwom, knee, as Gmc. knewam (cf. Goth. kniu, O.N. kne, O.E. cnēo[w], O.Fris. kni, M.Du. cnie, O.H.G. kniu), and extended verb gnewio, kneel, “with bent knee”, as Gmc. knewjan (cf. Goth. knussjan, O.E. cneow[l]ian, Eng. kneel), or Gk. γνυξ.

Another meaning for PIE génus is jawbone, cheek, jaw. Compare Gmc. gennuz (from variant génwus, cf. Goth. kinnus, O.N. kinn, O.E. cin, O.H.G. chinni, Eng. chin, Ger. Kinn), Lat. gena, Gk. genus, Skr. hanu (from alternative form ghénus), Av. zanu, Pers. goune(h), Phryg. azon, Toch. śanwem, Arm. cnaut, Lith. žandas, Ltv. zods, Welsh genou, O.Ir. gin, and Ancient Macedonian kanadoi. A common derivative is zero-grade alternative gńdhos, jaw, from Greek.

113.     PIE chers, heat, warm, gives common derivatives as Germanic alternative forms chrenuo, burn, be on fire, intransitive, as Gmc. brennan (cf. Goth. brinnan, O.N. brenna, O.E. beornan, byrnan O.H.G. brinnan), and chrenuio, burn, kindle, transitive, as Gmc. brannjan (cf. O.E. bærnan); chróndos, burning or flaming torch, hence also sword, as Gmc. brandaz (cf. O.E. brand, brond, Du. branden, also Frank. brand, into O.Fr.,O.Prov. brand); chermós/chormós, warm, hot, and chérmā, heat, neuter chérmom, giving -chermiā, Eng. -thermy, as Gk. θερμος. Also, Lat. chórkaps, (-kaps is Lat. agential suffix, -keps, “-taker”, from PIE kap), forceps; chórnos, oven, as Lat. furnus; chórniks, arch, vault (from “vaulted brick oven”), as in chornikā, fornicate; chŕtom, clarified butter, ghee, as Skr. ghtam. Other known derivatives are Skr. ghṛṇa, Av. garəma, O.Pers. garmapada, Pers. garm, Phryg. germe, Thrac. germas, Arm. jerm, O.Pruss. goro, Lith. garas, Ltv. gars, Russ. žar, O.Ir. fogeir, Welsh gori, Alb. zjarr, Kashmiri germi, garū'm; Hitt. war.

114.     Indo-European verb éus, burn, is attested in Gmc. uzjan (cf. ON usli, and in compound [aim]uzjo, cf. as O.N. [eim]yrja, O.H.G. [eim]uria, O.E. [ǣm]erge, Ger. [Amm]ern, Eng. [emb]er), Lat. ūrō, Gk. heuō, Skr. oati, Lith. usnis, Ltv. usna, Alb. ushël.

115.     PIE root noch-, naked, gives nochetós/nochotós, as Gmc. nakwethaz/nakwathaz (cf. Goth. naqaþs, O.N. nökkviðr, O.Swed. nakuþer, O.E. nacod, O.Fris. nakad, O.H.G. nackot, M.Du. naket), nochedós, as Lat. nūdus, nochmós, metathesized in Gk. γυμνος (gumnos), as in nochmasíā, gymnastics, nochmástā, gymnast, from Gk. γυμναστς, etc., and nochnós, as Skr. nagna, Av. maġna, O.Pers. nagna-; compare also Lith. nuogas, Ltv. nogs, OCS nagŭ, Russ. nagoj, Polish nagi, O.Ir. nocht, Welsh noeth, Kashmiri nagay, Hitt. nekumant.

116.     Indo-European cer, mount, gives also cor, mountain; cf. Hom.Gk. βορέης, Att.Gk. βορές, βορρς, O.Ind. girí, Av. gairi-, O.Pers. gar, gīr, Arm. ler, O.Pruss. garian, Lith. girià, guras, O.C.S. гора, горѣ, Russ. гора, Pol. góra, Alb. gur.

English word “mount” comes from Anglo-Fr. mount, itself from O.Fr. mont and O.E. munt, both from Lat. mons, montis, MIE móntis, mountain, (cf. Welsh mynydd), which gives montanós, mountanious, móntaniā, mountain (from V.Lat. montanĕa, feminine noun of V.Lat montaneus, in turn from Lat. montanus), montíkolos, monticule, montā, go up, ascend, climb, mount, as in admontā, amount. It is derived from PIE base men, stand out, project, source of some Western Indo-European words for projecting body parts, as zero-grade mńtos, mouth, Gmc. munthaz (cf. Goth. munþs, O.N. munnr, O.E. muþ, O.Fris. muth, M.Du. mont, Ger. Mund), or méntom, chin, as Lat. mentum; mńā, projecting point, threat, Latin minae, giving mnkiā, menace, prōmnā, drive (animals) onward, (from prō, forth, and mnā, drive animals with shouts), as in prōmn, promenade; mnē, project, jut, threaten, as ekmnē, stand out, giving ekmnénts, eminent, enmnē, overhang, giving enmnénts, inminent, or promnē, jut out, as in promnénts, prominent, or promntósiom, promontory, from p.part. promntós.

A proper PIE word for “mouth” is ōs, as in O.E. ōr, ON oss, Lat. ōs, Skr. ās, oṣṭha, Av. aosta, O.Pruss. austo, Lith. uosta, Ltv. osta, Russ. usta, Kamviri âša, Hitt. aiš. Derivatives affected by rhotacism are usually from Lat. stem ōr-, as in ōsālís, oral, ōsidhákios, orifice, but most are not affected, as dim. skillom, swing (from “small mask of Bacchus”), giving verb ōskillā, oscillate, and noun ōskilltiōn, oscillation; also, skolom, osculum, giving enōskolā, provide with an opening, inosculate, and also stiom, door, ostium, giving ōstisios, doorkeeper, ostiary (M.Eng. hostiary), etc.

117.    PIE root cus, fem. cow, or masc. bull, ox, perhaps ultimately imitative of lowing (cf. non-IE Sumerian gu, Chinese ngu, ngo), gives Gmc. kōuz (>kūz, cf. O.N. , O.E. , O.H.G. cuo, Eng. cow, Ger. Kuh), Lat. bōs (stem bou-), Gk. bous, Skr. gauḥ. Derivatives include coukánā, horn, trumpet, “bellower” (compound with kan-, singer, v.i.), coukanatr, buccinator; cóucalos, gazelle (orig. “wild cow”), later buffalo, as Gk. βοβαλος (compare with Lat. būbulus, and as alternative cówalos with Skr. gavalaḥ, all referring to wild animals); suffixed cóunos, ox, as Pali goa-; curos, wild ox, as Skr. gauraḥ; zero-grade suffixed cwā, as in compound smkmtómcwā, hecatomb, “sacrifice of a hundred oxen” (see sem, one, kmtóm, hundred), Gk. κατμβη. Compare all IE derivatives: Gmc. kōuz, Lat. bōs, Osc. buv-, Umb. bum, Gk. βους, Skr. gaus, Av. gáus, Pers. gāv, Thrac. bonassos, Toch. ko/keŭ, Arm. kov Ltv. govs, Russ. govjado, O.Ir. , Welsh buw, Kamviri go, Kashmiri gāv, Osset. gal.

118.   Noun ármos, arm, upper arm, earlier *h2rmo-, is attested as Gmc. armaz (cf. Goth. arms, O.N. armr, Eng. earm, O.H.G. aram, O.S., M.Du., arm, O.Fris. erm), Lat. armus, Gk. ρμς, Skr. irmas, Arm. armunk, O.C.S. ramo, O.Prus. irmo Osset. arm. Interesting derivatives include árma, (pl. of ármom), tools, arms, armatós, armed, armátā, army, armátolos, armadillo, armatósā, armature, loan word alármā (from O.It. allarme, from all'arme, “to arms”, which could be loan-translated as ad armā), disarmā, disarm, loan word gendárme (“mounted soldiers, men-at-arms”, from O.Fr. gent-d'armes, which could be loan-translated as gntármā); armoníā, from Gk. ρμς, joint, shoulder. Base arm- comes ultimately from PIE root ar-, which gives derivaitves like ártis, art, skill, craft, from Lat. ars, as in verb artio, instruct in the arts, as Lat. artīre, and its p.part. artitós, skilled in the arts, which gives artitinos, artisan (from It. artigiano, from V.Lat. artitiānus), artístā, lettered person, artist, from Med.Lat. artista; further suffixed artiós, fiting, even, as Gk. ρτιος; ártus, joint (Lat. artus, translation of Gk. arthron, v.i.) as in artíkolos, joint, article; artós, tight, as in artā, compress, and komartā, coarctate; árdhrom, joint, from Gk. ρθρον, as in ardhrótis, enardhrótis, komardhrótis, etc.; suffixed superlative aristós, best, as in aristokratíā, aristocracy, from Gk. ριστοκρατα.

Probably from the same root are (then o-grade suffixed form) ōrdhio, begin to weave, as Lat. ōrdīrī; further suffixed rdhōn, order (originally a row of threads in a loom), from Lat. ōrdō, as in loan words ōrdhonā, order, ōrdhonatós, ordinate, orderly, komōrdhonā, coordinate, supōrdhonā, subordinate, enōrdhonā, inordinate, ōrdhonāsiós, ordinary, etc.; or differently suffixed ōrnā, adorn, ornate, as Lat. ōrnāre.

Also variant form , consider, reckon, confirm, ratify, as Lat. rērī, as in ratós, calculated, which gives rátiōn, calculation, ration, ratio, reason, or rátā, rate, (Med. Lat. rata, from Lat. prō ratā parte, “according to a fixed part”, MIE prō rátā párti); suffixed redho, advise, explain, counsel, and rédhos, counsel, opinion, as Gmc. redan, redaz (cf. Goth. rapjo, O.N. radan, redan, O.Fris. reda, Du. raden, O.H.G. radja, reda, ratan, Eng. read, rede, dread, Ger. reden, Rede, raten), as in redhislio, riddle, Gmc. redisljan (cf. O.E. rædels, O.S. radisli, M.Du. raetsel, Du. rakadsel, O.H.G. radisle, Ger. Rätsel, Eng. riddle).

119.    For PIE bhrtēr, brother, compare Gmc. brothar (cf. Goth. brōþar, ON bróðir, O.E. brōþor, O.H.G. bruoder), Lat. frāter, Osc. fratrúm, Umb. fratrom, Gk. φρά̄τηρ (phrātēr), Skr. bhrāt, Av. brātar, O.Pers. brātar, Pers. barādar, Kurd. bra, Phryg. brater, Illyr. bra, Toch. pracer/procer, Arm. եղբայր (ełbayr <*erbair), O.Pruss. brāti, bratrīkai, Lith. broterė̃lis, brolis, Ltv. brātarītis, brālis, OCS братръ, братъ, Russ. брат, Polish brat, Gaul. brātir, O.Ir. bráthir Welsh brawd, Kamviri bo, Kashmiri boy, Osset. ærvad Lyd. brafr-, Venetic vhraterei,. Derivatives include common bhrātríā, brotherhood ,phratry, as O.Cz. bratřie, O.Pol. braciá, Gk. φρτρία; O.Ind. bhrātryam; also, Latin derivatives bhrā, fra, monk, bhrāternālís, fraternal, bhrātérnitā, fraternity, bhrāternitiā, fraternize, kombhrtēr, confrere, bhrātrikdiom, fratricide (the killing), bhrātrik, fratricide (the killer) .

120.   For cénā, woman, wife, originally maybe “honoured woman”, compare Gmc. kwenōn (cf. Goth. qino, O.N. kona, O.S. quan, O.E. cwene, O.H.G. quena, Eng. quean), Gk γυν, O.Ind. janis, gnā, Av. jainish, gə, Pers. زن (zæn), Phryg. bonekos, Toch. śä/śana, Arm. kin, O.Pruss. genno, O.C.S. žena, Russ. žena, Polish żona, Alb. zonjë, O.Ir. ben, Welsh benyw; Luw. wanatti. Derivatives include West Gmc. cnis, woman, wife, queen, as Gmc. kwēniz (cf. Goth. qéns, O.E. cwen, see “queen”), and Greek cńā [gwn̥-ā], giving -cnā, -gyne, cno-, gyno-, -cnós, -gynous, -cnia, -gyny, and derivatives with cnai-ko- (see a-declension in nouns for more on this special derivative, which appears also in Armenian, and which gives Mod.Gk. γυναίκα), gyneco-, as cnaikokratíā, gynecocracy, cnaikologíā, gynecology, etc., as well as V.Gk. γυννίς, effeminate, etc.

For other IE derivatives meaning “woman, wife” compare:

I. Latin has:

I.A. From PIE dhē(i), suck, suckle, (also “produce, yield”), as dhmnā, woman, lit. “she who suckles”, as Lat. femina (cf. Fr. femme, Rom. femeie, as Mod.Eng. female), dhēmnāinós, feminine, ekdhēmnā, effeminate, similar to dhlus, female, fruitful as Gk. θήλυς. Other derivatives from the same root include dhtos, pregnancy, childbearing, offspring, with adj. dhētós, -, -óm, pregnant; suffixed reduced dhēkuondós, fruitful, fecund; dhnom, hay (from “produce”), as Lat. fēnum, faenum; dhēl(l)ā, suck, as in dhēl(l)tiōn, fellatio; dhēlks, fruitful, fertile, lucky, happy, as Lat. felix, as in dhēlīkitā, happiness, felicity, dhēlīkitā, unhappiness, infelicity, dhēlīkitā, felicitate; dhēl, mother’s breast, nipple, as Gk. θηλ, hence endodhēl, endothelium, epidhēl, epithelium, medhjodhēl, mesothelium. Other derivatives include Gmc. -/- (Goth. daddjan, O.Swed. dia, O.H.G. tila), Skr. dhayati, dhayah, O.C.S. dojiti, dojilica, deti, Russ. деть, Pol. dzieję, O.Prus. dadan, Lith. dele, O.Ir. denaim, dinu.

I.B. From dómūnos, lord (cf. O.Ind. damūnas, Lat. dominos), is dómūnā, woman, woman in charge, lady, Lat. domina (cf. It. donna, Cat. dona, also found as Fr. dame, Spa. doña/dueña, Pt. dona), derived from dmos, house, already seen. From Fr. dame are loan words as Nor. dame, Ger. Dame, etc. as well as Eng. madame, madam, ma’am, from O.Fr. ma dame, lit. “my lady”, from L. mea domina (cf. It. madonna), MIE mā dómūnā.

I.C. Lat. mulier (cf. Spa. mujer, Pt. mulher, Rom. muiere) is reconstructed as MIE mlir. Although probably unrelated, compare melg, to milk (in parallel with the pair dhē-dhmnā), as in zero-grade mĺgē, to milk, as Lat. mulgēre; full grade mélg, to milk, as Gmc. melkan (cf. O.N. mjolka, O.E.,.O.H.G. melcan Du., Ger. melken), and mélugs, milk, as Gmc. meluks (cf. Goth. miluks, O.N. mjölk, O.E. meoluc, milc, O.H.G. miluh, Du. melk, Ger. Milch); compare Lat. mulgeō, Gk. amelgō, Skr. marjati, Toch. malke/malkwer, Lith. melžti, Russ. molozivo, O.Ir. bligim, Welsh blith, Alb. mjelalso. Also, variant melks, milk, compare Gk. μέλγω, Lith. malkas, melzu, Ltv. malks, O.C.S. млѣко, Russ. молоко, Polish mleko.

A similar (maybe related through an earlier zero-grade *-(m)ĺk-t-) PIE word is (ga)lakts, milk, as Gk. galakt-, Lat. lact-, also Hitt. galank, found in (ga)laktiós, milky, galaktikós, galactic, galáktiā, galaxy, etc.

PIE mélits (early *mélh1-it-), honey, could be also originally related; compare Gmc. miliths (cf. Goth. miliþ, Eng. mildēaw, O.H.G. milltou, Eng. mildew, Ger. Mehltau), Lat. mel, Gk. melitos, Arm. mełr, Gaul. Melissus, O.Ir. mil, Welsh,Cor. mel, Alb. mjal; Hitt. milit, Luw. mallit-, Palaic malit-.

And all the aforementioned PIE bases may have been originally (but unlikely) derived from root mel/mol (from older *melh1), to grind, rub, crush, with derivatives referring to various ground or crumbling substances. Common derivatives include méluōn, flour, meal, as Gmc. melwan (cf. Goth. malan, O.N. mala, O.E. melu, O.H.G. malan, Eng. meal, Ger. malen), mĺdā, soil, earth, as Gmc. muldō (cf. Goth. mulda, O.N. mold, O.Fris.,O.E. molde, O.H.G. molta); mol, millstone, mill (coarse meal customarily sprinkled on sacrificial animals), as in Lat. molere, which gives molāsís, molar, molínom, mill, moulin, enmolā, immolate, ekmolo, grind out, as in ekmoloméntom, emolument, gain, originally a miller's fee for grinding grain; suffixed mélijom, millet, as Lat. milium; suffixed variant málnios, hammer, mallet, Lat. malleus; zero-grade Greek mĺā, mĺos, millstone, mill; extended mlnos, pancake, as O.Russ. blinu. Also, compare Umb. kumaltu, Toch. malyw-/mely-, Arm. malem, Lith. malti, Ltv. malt, OCS melję, Russ. melju, Polish mleć, O.Ir. melim Welsh malu, Alb. miell; Hitt. mallanzi.

PIE root mel means also:

a.     IE (s)mel, “soft”, with derivatives referring to soft or softened materials of various kinds. Extended as meldo, melt, as Gmc. meltan; meldio, milt, as Gmc. miltja (cf. O.E., M.Du. milte), móldos, malt, as Gmc. maltaz (cf. O.N. malt, O.E. malt, mealt, Ger. Malz); suffixed variant mlédsnos, slime, as Gk. blennos; mldús, soft, as Lat. mollis; nasalized variant mlandós, smooth, caressing, flattering, soft-spoken, as Lat. blandus; variant form smeld, smelt, as Gmc. smelt (cf. O.E. smelt, smylt, O.H.G. smalz, M.Du, M.L.G. smelten, Ger. Schmelz, and O.Fr. esmail), also loan word (from a Gmc. source into It. smalto or Prov. esmalt), smáldos, smalt, enamel, glaze; extended meldhiós, mild, as Gmc. mildjaz (cf. Goth. mildiþa, O.N. mildr, O.E. milde, O.Fris. milde, O.H.G. milti, Du. mild); máldhā, mixture of wax and pitch, as Gk. maltha; mélskos, mild, mellow, as Gmc. milskaz (cf. O.E. melisc, mylsc, Eng. mulch), mlakos, soft, as Gk. mlakós [ml̥-a-‘kos], soft, as Gk. μαλακς, as in mlakologíā, malacology, osteomlákiā; Celtic móltōn, sheep, as O.Fr. moton into Eng. mutton; zero-grade mlús, blunt, dull, dim, as Gk. amblus. Other derivatives include Skr. mrdu, Lat. molere, Gk. myle, O.C.S. mlato, also borrowing Finnish mallas.

English “soft” comes from O.E. softe “gentle, easy, comfortable”, from W.Gmc. samfti, MIE from Gmc. samftijazlevel, even, smooth, gentle, soft” (cf. O.S. safti, O.H.G. semfti, Ger. sanft, M.Du. sachte, Du. zacht), MIE sombhtís, sombhtijós, from IE base som-fitting, agreeable”, as in modern English compound sombhtowor, software.

For PIE wer, perceive, watch out for, compare (kom)worós, watchful, aware, alert, wary, as Gmc. (ga)waraz (cf. Goth. wars, O.N. varr, O.S. giwar, O.E. (ge)wær, O.H.G. giwar, M.Du. gheware, Eng. wary, Ger. gewahr); suffixed wórtos, guard, watching, keeper, as Gmc. wardaz (cf. O.S. ward, O.N. vörðr, O.E. weard, O.H.G. wart, also Fr.,Da. garde, Spa.,Pt. guarda, also into Eng. ‘lord’ and ‘steward’), and wortā, guard, ward, as Gmc. wardōn (cf. O.N. varða, O.S. wardon, O.E. warian, wearian, O.Fris. wardia, O.H.G. warten, M.Du. waerden Ger. warten, O.N.Fr. warder, O.Fr. guarder); wor, goods, protection, ware, as Gmc. waro (cf. O.E. waru, O.Fris. were, M.Du. were, M.H.G., Ger. ware, Du. waar, Swed. vara, Dan. vare), as in English loan translations sombhtowor, software, and kartuwor, hardware (see kratós); also, suffixed wóruos, guard, as Gk. ouros; variant sworā, see, as Gk. horān, in panswóramn, panorama; suffixed werē, respect, feel awe for, as Lat. uerērī, in rewerē, revere.

b. MIE mel, strong, great, meliós, better (originally “stronger”), as Lat. melior, in meliosā, meliorate; suffixed zero-grade mltos, much, many, as Lat. multus; compare also Osc. moltam, Umbr. motar, mutu, Gk. mela, Ltv. milns.

c. IE mel, false, bad, wrong, gives Latin mális, ill, malós, bad, (< mali-chnós, harmful, from IE chen), as in malghábitos, malady, from mali-ghabitós, in poor condition (see ghabh), malria, “bad air”, malaria (from mal-weriā), malidhaktr, malefactor, malidhakós, malefic, etc.; zero-grade mls, into mlsbhāmós, “speaking evil”, blaspheme (from bhā, speak); meliós, treacherous, as Av. mairiia-, into Eng. ‘markhor’.

II.   Germanic has:

II.A. English “wife” is possibly from PIE nominal root ghwībhs, shame, pudenda, as Toch. kip/kwipe, “female pudenda”, giving (gh)wbhom, woman, wife, (with semantic weakening from the original meaning) from Gmc. wībam (cf. O.N. vif, O.S., O.Fris., O.E. wif, Dan., Swed. viv, M.Du. wijf, O.H.G. wib, Ger. Weib). Some reconstruct this root as ultimately from the same source as general IE cénā, woman.

English “woman” is an especial compound restricted to English and Dutch, lit. “woman-man”, O.E. wīfmann, from wīf (‘adult female’, Eng. wife) and mann, later wimman (pl. wimmen), as Du. vrouwmens, “wife”; it was originally opposed to wæpen-mann,weapon-man”, male, with clear sexual overtones.

MIE wébnom, weapon, is the regular IE reconstruction of Gmc. wepnam  (cf. O.S. wapan, O.N. vapn, Dan. vaaben, O.Fris. wepin, M.Du. wapen, O.H.G. waffen, Ger. Waffe), without known derivatives outside Germanic.

II.B. Indo-European pr, mistress, woman, gives Gmc. frawō (cf. O.H.G. frouwa, M.H.G. vrouwe, Ger. Frau, Du. vrouw, Yiddish froy), and comes from PIE per.

III. Common Hindustani aurat (cf. Urdu عورت, Hindi ) comes from Pers. عورت, in turn from Arabic عَوْرَة (imperfection), although the usual Persian word is zæn, from Indo-European cénā.

121.     Proto-Indo-European ékwos may have been a suffixed form eku- akin to the lengthened o-grade adjective ōkús, swift, fast (as Lat. ocior, ocius, Gk. κς, Skr. āśús); compare Gmc. ekhwaz (cf. Goth. aiƕa, O.N. iór, O.Eng. eoh) Lat. equus, Gk. ππος, Skt. aśva, Av. asva-, Phryg. es', Pers. aspa/asb, Kamviri ušpa, Toch. yuk/yakwe; Old. Pruss. awinan, Lith. ašva, Gaul. epos, O.Ir. ech/each; Welsh ebol; Arm. ēš, Thrac. esvas, Venetic ekvon; Hitt. aśuwas Lyc. esbe-. Common words derived from Greek are ekwopótmos, hippopotamus (from Gk. pótmos, river, from pet, v.i.), lit. “river-horse”, ekwokámpos, hippocampus, ekwodrómos (from Gk. -δρμος, racecourse), hippodrome, ekwogrū́ps, hippogriff (from It. grifo, Lat. gryphus, Gk. grūps).

For PIE pet, rush, fly, compare derivatives pétrā, feather, as Gmc. fethrō (cf O.N. fjöðr, O.E. feðer, M.Du. vedere, Ger. Feder), peto, go toward, seek, as Lat. petere, as in petítiōn, petolánts, petulant, adpeto, strive after, adpetítos, strong desire, appetite, kompeto, compete, enpeto, attack, énpetus, impetus, enpetuós, impetuous, repeto, repeat; pétnā, feather, wing, as Lat. penna, pinna, as in diminutive petnkolom, pinnacle; propetiós (in compound with pro-, forward), favorable, gracious, propitious, originally a religious term meaning “falling or rushing forward”, hence “eager,” “well-disposed” said of the gods; also, from alternative root pte-, ptérōn, feather, wing, and ptérūks, wing, as Gk. πτερον, as in compounds ptero- and -pteros, -pterūks; ptílōn, soft feathers, down, plumeptnos, winged, flying; reduplicate pipto, fall, and verbal adjective ptōtós, falling, fallen, and nominal derivatives pttis, fall, ptosis, and ptmn, a fall, fallen body, corpse, as in kompipto, converge, coincide, from which komptōtós, intersecting, and komptōtós, not intersecting, asymptote, and also kómptōmn, a happening, symptom of a disease; o-grade pótmos (in compound with Gk. suffix -amo-), “rushing water”, river; péttrom, feather, leaf, as Skr. pattram.

Modern English “horse” comes from Gmc. khursaz (cf. O.Eng. hors, O.N. hross, O.Fris. hors, M.Du. ors, Du. ros, O.H.G. hros, Ger. Roß), which has an uncertain origin; following Germanic phonetic changes it should be translated as MIE kŕsos, which is possibly related with PIE kers, run (cf. O.N. horskr, Lat. currere, Lith. karsiu, Celtic karr), hence maybe originally the same PIE word kŕsos, giving Celtic kárros, wagon.

122.   For PIE gher, grasp, enclose, compare derivatives as verb ghrdhio, gird, girt, and noun ghrdhs, girdle, girth, as Gmc. gurd- (cf. O.N. gjördh, O.E. gyrdan, gyrdel); suffixed o-grade ghórtos (or Gmc. ghórdhos), enclosure, hence garden, pasture, field, as Gmc. gardaz (cf. Goth. gards, O.N. garðr, O.E. geard, O.Fris. garda, O.H.G. garto, Du. gaard), Lat. hortus, Gk. khortos, O.Ir. gort, Bret. garz, and also, with a wider meaning of house, village, town, city, compare Goth. garþs and O.Ice. gerði, Phryg. -gordum, Gk. κορθίλαι, Alb. garth, -dhi, Toch. kerciye (from ghórdhiom), and (not satemized) O.Ind. ghás, Av. gərəđō, Lith. gar̃das, gardins, O.C.S. градъ, Rus. город, -град, Pol. gród, hence Proto-Balto-Slavic gardŏs, suggesting an irregular evolution (for satemized Baltic forms, cf. O.Pruss. sardis, Ltv. zardi). Also, prefixed and suffixd zero-grade komghŕtis, enclosure, yard, company of soldiers, multitude, cohort, as Lat. cohors, cohortis, or cors, cortis, hence also court, as in komghrtisíā, courtesy, curtsy, or komghrtítiā, cortege, komghrtitinos, courtier, (from It. cortigiano) and komghrtiti, courtesan; and Greek ghóros, dancing ground, dance, dramatic chorus, as in ghorlis, choral, chorale (for Med.Lat. cantus chorālis, MIE ghorālís kántos), or ghorístā, chorister, etc.

123.   Adjective swādús, sweet, pleasant, is the origin of Gk. δυς, Skr.  svādu,  Av. xwāsta, Toch. swār/swāre, Lith. sūdyti, Polish słodki, Gaul. Suadu, O.Ir. sant, Welsh chwant, and even of further suffixed *swāduís, delightful, as Lat. suāuis. Also, compare derivatives from PIE root swād-, as swādiós, sweet, as Gmc. swotijaz (cf. Goth. sutis, O.N. sötr, O.S. swoti, O.E. swēte, O.H.G. suozi, M.Du. soete, Eng. sweet, Ger. süß); swādē, advise, urge (<“recommend as good”), as in modern derivatives swstiōn (<*swādtio-), advice, disswādē, perswādē; also, swdōs, pleasure, aedes, as Gk. δος, and further suffixed swādon, pleasure, as Gk. δον, giving modern derivatives swādonikós, hedonic, and swādonísmos, hedonism.

124.   PIE root neqt- comes probably from an older verbal root nec, be dark, be night. Common words attested are usually from o-grade nóqts/nóqtis (but compare older Hitt. nekuz, maybe from IE II néqus), as Gmc. nakhts (cf. Goth. nahts, O.N. natt, O.E. niht, neaht, O.H.G. naht, O.Fris., Du., Ger. nacht), Lat. nox (stem noct-), Gk. νυξ, Skr. nakti, Toch. nakcu/nekcīye, Old Prussian naktin, Lith. naktis, Ltv. nakts, O.C.S. nosti, Russ. ночь, Polish noc, O.Ir. innocht, Welsh nos, Alb. natë. Derivatives include nóqtuā, night owl; and suffixed plain verbal root necrós, black, as Lat. niger, as in denecrā, blacken, soil, hence denigrate.

125.   For PIE mreghús, brief, compare zero-grade mrghijós, “short-lasting”, hence pleasant, as Gmc. murgijaz (cf. Goth. gamaurgjan, O.E. myrige, O.H.G. murgi, Eng. merry), or extended *mreghuís, as Lat. brevis; compare also Gk. brakhus, Av. mərəzujiti.

126.   Indo-European kan, sing, gives Gmc. khannjo (cf. O.E. hana, O.H.G. henna, M.Du. henne), khan(e)nī (cf. O.E. hen, henn), Lat. canere, frequentative kantā, as Lat. cantāre, as in kanttā, adkántos, accent, enkantā, enchant, enkanttiōn, incantation, enkántēiuos, incentive; suffixed kánā, singer; opskan, “one that sings before the augurs”, as Lat. oscen, a singing bird used in divinationkánmēn, song, poem, charm, Lat. carmen.

127.    Different PIE words for “ship, nave”:

I. For Indo-European nus/náwis, ship, nave, possibly from an earlier verbal root nau, swim, compare O.E. nōwend, ON nōr, Lat. nauis, Gk. ναυς, Skr. nāu, Av. navāza, O.Pers. nāviyā, Arm. nav, Ir. nau, Welsh noe, Alb. anije, Osset. nau. Common derivatives include nawālís, naval, nawigā, navigate, náwigiom, ship, (pl. náwigia, ships, from which Eng. navy); from Gk. ναυς, νατης, are MIE náutā, sailor, mariner, nautikós, nautical, nautílos, sailor, nautilus, āweronáutā, aeuronaut (see wer, air), aqanáutā, aquanaut (see aqā, water), astronáutā, astronaut (see astr, star), kosmonáutā, cosmonaut (from Gk. kósmos, cosmos).

I.1. The English term “mariner” comes from PIE móris, sea, lake, pond, as Gmc. mariz (cf. Goth. marei, O.N. marr, O.E. mere, O.H.G. marī, M.Du. meer, Ger. Meer), Lat. mare, Skr. maryādā, O.Pruss. mary, Lith. marios, Ltv. mare, O.C.S. morje, Russ. more, Polish morze, Gaul. (Are)morici, O.Ir. muir, Welsh môr, Alb. përmjerr; giving derivatives móriskos, marsh, water-logged land, as Gmc. mariskaz (cf. O.E. mersc, merisc, O.Fr. maresc, mareis, Du. mars, Ger. Marsch); morinós, marine, moriqéltosā, mariculture, oltrāmorinós, ultramarine.

I.2. For IE áwis (earlier *h2ewis), bird, compare Lat. avis, Umb. avif, Gk. aetos, Skr. vis, Av. vīš, Arm. hav, Lith. višta, Ltv. vista, Ir. aoi, Welsh hwyad; derivatives include awiāsiós, aviary, awiqéltosā, aviculture, awiátiōn, aviation, and MIE loan word for aeroplane, awin (cf. Fr. avion, Spa. avión, Pt. avião, Rom.,Slo. avion); awispéks, augur, auspice (“observer of birds”, see spek, observe).

Possibly from o-grade are ówjom, egg (alsoa alternative form ójjom, both from earlier *h1óh2wiom), as Gmc. ajjam (cf. Goth. ada, O.N. egg, O.E. ǣg, O.H.G. ei, Eng. [cockn]ey) Lat. ōuum, Gk. ōion, Pers. xāyah, Kurd. hék, Arm. dzu, O.C.S. ajĭse, Rus. jajco, Ir. ubh, Welsh ŵy, Bret. ui, Alb. ve,vo. From Latin are owjalís, oval, ówjolos, ovule, ovolo, or owjásios, ovary; from dim. owjókos, O.Ira. āvyakah, are MIE ‘partial’ loan word owjr or ‘full’ loan word kawjr, caviar, from M.Pers. khāvyar, through Turkish into French caviar.

For “aeroplane”, different words exist in MIE, as loan words (from English using Latin words) āweroplánom, from wēr+plánom (cf. Lat. aeroplanum, Eng. airplane, Gk. αεροπλάνο, It.,Spa.,Pt. aeroplano, Lith. aeroplanas, Russ. аэроплан, Pol. aeroplan, Alb. aeroplan, even Saami jarplan, Hebrew ăvirōn, etc.), Germanic pleukomāghan, from pléuk+māghan (cf. Ger. Flugmaschine, Da. flyvemaskine, flyver, Swe. flygmaskin, Fris. fleanmasine) or plánom (cf. Swe. [flyg]plan, Eng. plane), Balto-Slavic [somo]lékts (m., cf. Lith. lėktuvas, Russ. самолёт, Ukr. літак, Pol. samolot, Cz. letadlo, letoun, Slk. lietadlo, Bulg. самолет, Slo. letalo).

An Indo-European root (á)wer, raise, lift, hold suspended, older *h2wer, is reconstructed for different Greek derivatives: awero, raise, and awrtériā, windpipe, artery, also metáworos, meteor, “lifted in the air” (from méta-, meta-, and -aworós, lifted), Gk. μετωρος; wēr, air (from lengthened āwer-), as in āweriālís, aerial, or mal-weriā, malaria, lit. “bad air” (see Lat. malós, bad); zero-grade áurā, breath, vapor, aura.

For Indo-European pleu, flow, compare metathesized Lat. pluere, rain, as in plewiós, rainy, pluvious, plewiālís, pluvial; Greek pléutis, sailing, pleusis; zero-grade suffixed plúos, trough, basin, dissimilated in Greek pyelos; suffixed pléumōn, “floater”, lung, as Lat. pulm (from plumon), Gk. pneumōn (influenced by pneu, “breath”), Skr. kloman, O.Pruss. plauti, Lith. plaučiai, Ltv. plaušas, Russ. pljuče, Serb. pluća, as in pleumonós/pleumonāsiós, pulmonary, or pleumoníā, pneumonia; o-grade plóutos, wealth, riches (<“overflowing”), as in ploutokratíā, plutocracy (see kratos), as Gk. πλουτοκρατα;  o-grade lengthened plōwo, flow, as Gmc. flōwan (cf. O.N. floa, O.E. flōwan, O.H.G. flouwen, Du. vloeien), suffixed pltus, flowing water, deluge, flood, as Gmc. flōthuz (cf. Goth. fiodus, O.N. floð, O.E. flōd, O.Fris. flod, M.Du. vloet, Ger. Flut); extended pleuko, soar through air, fly, also swim, as Gmc. fleugan (cf. O.N. flügja, O.E. flēogan, O.H.G. fliogan, M.Du. vlieghen, Ger. fliegen), Lith. plaukiu, and pléukā, fly, flying insect, as Gmc. fleugōn (cf. O.S. fleiga, O.N. fluga, O.E. flēoge,  M.Du. vlieghe, Ger. Fliege), and also maybe pleuko, flee, take flight, as Gmc. fleukhan (cf. O.N. flöja, O.E. flēon, O.H.G. fliohan, Du. vlieden, Ger. fliehen, although sometimes reconstructed as Gmc. thleukhan, as Goth. þliuhan, then later influenced by this root), causative ploukio, put to flight, as Gmc. flaugjan (cf. O.E. flygan, flegan, Eng. fley), pléukikā, arrow, from Gmc. fleugika (cf. Frankish into O.Fr. flèche, It. freccia, Spa.,Pt. flecha); zero-grade plúktis, flight, as Gmc. flugtiz (cf. O.E. flyht, fluht, Low Ger. flugt, Ger. Flucht); also plúgos, bird, dissimilated as Gmc. fuglaz (cf. Gothic fugls, O.E. fugol, O.N. fugl, M.Du. voghel, Ger. vogel, Goth. fugls), also in plúgilos, wing, as Gmc. flugilaz (cf. M.H.G. vlügel, Ger. Flügel); extended pleudo, float, swim, as Gmc. fleutan (cf. O.E. flēotan), and pléutos, fleet, swift, as Gmc. fleutaz (cf. O.N. fljōtr, O.E. fleot), also as zero-grade plud(i)o, float, as Gmc. flotōn (cf. O.E. flotian, Fr. flotter, Spa. flotar, also from same root Lith. plaukti, Du. vloeien),

PIE pneu, breath, is probably an imitative root, which appears in pneuso, sneeze, as Gmc. fneusan (cf. O.N. fnysa, O.E. fnēosan, O.H.G. fnehan, Eng. sneeze), zero-grade pnus(k)o, sneezing, snore, as Gmc. fnus(k)an (affected by rhotacism, cf. O.E. fnora, similar to M.H.G. snarchen, Du. snorken, Ger. schnarchen, Swed. snarka), and variant pneso, snort, gnash one’s teeth, as Gmc. fnesan (cf. O.E. fnǣran, Eng. sneer). Modern Greek derivatives include o-grade pnówiā, -pnowiā, breathing, and pnow, breath, as in pnówiā, apnea, (a)supnówiā, eupnea, superpnówiā, hyperpnea, supopnówiā, hypopnea, etc.; also, pnéumn, breath, wind, spirit, as in pneumo-, pneumnto-.

Also, a Modern Indo-European reconstructed lúptus, air, sky, is the source of Gmc. luftuz (cf. Goth. luftus, O.E. lyft, O.N. lopt, O.H.G. luft, Du. lucht).

For magh, be able, have power, compare Gmc. magan (cf. Goth. magan, O.N. mega, O.E. magan, O.H.G. magan, Ger. mögen, Eng. may, also into V.Lat. exmagāre, MIE [d]eksmaghā, “deprive of power”, frighten, O.Fr. esmaier, Anglo-Norman desmaiier, Eng. dismay, Spa. desmayar), Att.Gk. μχος, Dor.Gk. μχος, Skr. magha, Toch. mokats, Arm. mart'ans, Lith. mãgulas, magùs, ́gstu, ́gti Ltv. megt, Sla. mogǫ, mogti, (cf. O.C.S. могѫ, мошти, O.Russ. могу, мочи, Russ. мочь, Pol. móc, mogę, Sr.-Cr. могу, моħи, Cz. mohu, můžeš, mосi); mághtis, power, as Gmc. mahtiz (cf. Goth. mahts, O.N. mattr, O.E. miht, meaht, O.Fris., M.Du. macht, Ger. Macht, Eng. might), mághinom, power, strenght, as Gmc. maginam (cf. O.E. mægen, O.N. megenn, Eng. main); suffixed lengthened māghan, machine, device, “that which enables”, from Att.Gk. μηχανή, Dor.Gk. μαχανά̄, māghanikós, mechanic, and māghanísmos, mechanism, from Mod.Lat. mēchanismus, or māghano-; suffixed mághus, magus, member of a priestly caste, magician, (from “mighty one”), as O.Pers. maguš (said by ancient historians to have been originally the name of a Median tribe, borrowed into Gk. μγος and then into Lat. magus), as in maghikós, magic, or mághikā, sorcery, magic, (as O.Fr. magique, from Lat. magice, from Gk. magikē, fem. of magikos) or Mághes, Magi.

Common MIE lekto, fly (cf. O.C.S. летѣти, лештѫ, Russ. лететь, Pol. lесiеć, lесę, also O.C.S. лѣтати, Russ. летать Pol. latać), and noun lekts, “flyer”, airplane, (cf. Russ. лёт, Sr.-Cr.,Slo. lèt, Pol. lot, Cz. let) is reconstructed for Balto-Slavic common words, cf. Lith. lekiù, ̃kti, lakstýti, Ltv. lèkt, lęcu, lècu, ̃kat; compare also O.H.G. lecken, Nor. lakka, Ger. löcken, Lat. lōcusta, Gk. ληκν, λάξ, λακτίζω.

I.3. PIE (a)str, earlier *h2ster, is found in Gk. στρ, asterískos, asterisk, asterowéidā, asteorid (in compound with Gk. -ο-ειδης, IE -o-weidā, from wéidos, shape, form, from weid, see, know) as Gk. στεροειδς, astro-, as Gk. στρο-, astrālís, astral, ástrom, as Gk. astron, into Lat. astrum, as in disástrom, disaster; suffixed stersā, Gmc. sterzōn (cf. Goth. stairno, O.S. sterro, O.N. stjarna, O.E. steorra, O.Fris. stera, O.H.G. sterro, Du. ster, Ger. Stern), stérlā, as Lat. stēlla, as in sterlalís, stellar, komsterlátiōn, constellation. Also, compare Skr. tāras, stbhis, Pers. setāre, Kurd. stérk/estére, Oss. sthaly, Toch. śre/śćirye, Arm. astł, Welsh seren, Kam. âšto, Hitt. šittar.

II.   Indo-European bheid, split, as Gmc. bītan (cf. Goth. beitan, O.E. bītan, O.Fris. bita, M.Du. biten, Ger. beissen), zero-grade bhídis, bite, sting, as Gmc. bitiz (cf. O.E. bite), or bhídā, bit, a pice bitten off, as Gmc. bitōn (cf. O.N. biti, O.E. bite, bita), bhidhrós, bitter, sharp, as O.E. bit(t)er, bhoidhio, harass or hunt with dogs, as Eng. bait or abet , Gmc. baitjan (cf. O.N. beita, O.Fr. beter), bhóids, boat (< “dugout canoe” or “split planking”), as Gmc. bait- (cf. O.E. bāt, Ger., Du. boot, Da.,Nor.,Swe. båt, also O.Fr. batel, Fr. bateau, It. battello, Spa. bote, Sco. bàta, Welsh bad, Hi. pot, even Estonian paat, Japanese bōto, etc.); also nasalized zero-grade bhindo, split, as Lat. findere, with p.part. bhistós (<*bhidto-) giving bhístiōn, fission, bhistsā, fissure.

III. Greek barisEgyptian boat”, from Coptic barismall boat”, was adopted as bár(i) in Latin, as O.Fr. barge (from M.L. barga, and into Bret. bag, Eng. barge), Gk. βάρκα, It. barca, Spa., Pt. barco, barca, Rom. barcă, Alb. varkë, Slo. barka.

IV. Germanic “ship” is reconstructed as MIE skibs, ship, boat, from Gmc. skip- (cf. O.N., O.S., Goth. skip, O.E., M.Du. scip, O.H.G. skif, Dan. skib, Swed. skepp, Du. schip, Ger. Schiff, Yid. shif), possibly a zero-grade extended derivative from skei (in turn derived from PIE sek), cut, split, giving suffixed skéinā, shin, shinbone, (as O.E. scinu), or  ekskéinā, backbone, chine, as O.Fr. eschine; from Lat. scire, “know” (from “separate one thing from nother, discern”), are MIE skejéntia, knowledge, learning, science, komskejéntiā, conscience, inchoative skeisko, vote for, giving skéitom, decree, from which pledhuweskéitom, plebiscite (see plēdhūs, people); skíjenā, knife, as O.Ir. scīan, Eng. skean; skeido, separate, defecate, as Gmc. skītan (cf. O.N. skīta, O.E. scītan, O.H.G. skīzzan, Eng. shīt); skidio, split, as (aspirated) Gk. σχιζειν, found in skísmn, schism, skidio-, schizo-; nasalized zero-grade skindo, split, as Lat. scindere, p.part. skistós (<*skidto-), in skístiōn, scission, also in ekskindo, exscind, prāiskindo, prescind, reskindo, rescind; extended skeito, separate, as Gmc. skaithan (cf. Goth. skaidan, O.S. skethan, O.E. scēadan, scadan, O.Fris. sketha, M.Du. sceiden, O.H.G. sceidan, Du. scheiden, Ger. scheiden), skéitom, log, stick, snowshoe, hence ski, as O.N. skīdh, from Gmc. skīdam, also as MIE loan word skī(t); skóitom, shield (< “board”), as Lat. scūtum; extended skeipo, slice, split, as Gmc. skīfan, as in O.N. skīfa, M.E. sheve, M.L.G. schever, Eng. sheave, skive, shiver.

V.    For Slavic “lod-“ (cf. O.C.S. алъдии, ладии, O.Russ. лодья, лодъка, Ukr. лодь, Bel. ло́дка, Pol. ɫódź, Cz. lоd, lodí, Sr.-Cr. lađa, Slo. ládja, Bul. ла́дя) a common Slavic oldī, MIE óldīs, is reconstructed (cf. Lith. aldijà, eldijà), also attested as O.E. еаldоđ, “alviolum”, Swe. ålla, Da. ааldе, olde, Nor. оldа, dial. olle.

VI. Common Greek loan words for “boat”, also “crab, beetle”, are karábiōn, as Gk. καράβιον, borrowed in O.C.S., Russ. корабль, O.Pol. korabia, Ukr. корабель, Slk. koráb, Sr.-Cr. korab, корабаљ, also Rom. caraban, also kárabos, as Gk. κάραβος, borrowed in Lat. carabus (cf. Fr. caravelle, It. caravella, Spa. carabela, Pt. caravela,), Alb. karabishte, even Arab qārib, as well as (probably) skarabáios, scarab, as V.Lat. scarabaius (cf. Fr. scarabée, It. scarabeo, Spa. scarabajo, Pt. escaravelho, also in Gk. Σκαραβαίος, Russ.,Bul. скарабей, Sr.-Cr. skarabej, etc.). Probably unrelated to Eng. “crab”, from IE gerbh, “scratch”.

VII.    For Persian کشتی (kešti), “ship”, found in Hindustani kašti (cf. Hi. कश्ती, Ur. کشتی), from a source akin to Indo-Iranian kath, “wood”, MIE kadh, kástis (<*kadhti-), possibly non-IE, but maybe a secondary root derived from an earlier *ka-, related to forest, wood; compare with Indo-European roots kat- (“hut”, cf. Lat. casa, Av. kata-, Pers. kad, v.s.), kaito- (“forest”, v.i) and kald- (“wood”, as O.C.S. kladabeam, timber”, Gk. kladostwig”, O.Ir. caillwood”, and zero-grade kĺdom, Gmc. khultam, cf. O.E.,O.Fris., M.Du. holt, O.H.G. holz)

Indo-European root kaito-, forest, uncultivated land, also wood, is attested (in Celtic and Germanic) as Gaul. kaito-briga (Lat. cēto-briga), O.Welsh coit, O.Cor. cuit, Bret. coet, and also from káitis, Gmc. khaithis (cf. Goth. haiÞi, O.N. heiðr, O.E. ̄ð, O.H.G. heida, Eng. heath, Ger. heide), and loan-translated Germanic káitinos, heathen, as Gmc. khaithinaz (cf. Goth. haiÞnō, O.N. heiðinn, O.E. ̄ðen, O.H.G. heidan), from Lat. paganus, from Lat. pagus, “land”.

Proto-Indo-European pag, also pak, fasten, gives pakio, join, fit, as gmc. fōgjan (cf. O.E. fēgan, Eng. fay), nasalized panko, seize, as Gmc. panhan (cf. O.E. fang, feng, Du. vangen, O.H.G. fangen), and pango, fasten, as Lat. pangere, as in enpango, impinge, or loan words kompagtós, compact, enpágtos, impact; pāks, peace (from “a binding together by treaty or agreement”), as Lat. pax, in pakidhakā, pacify, pakidhakós, pacific; pakisko, agree, as Lat. pacīscī, as paktós, agreed, páktom, pact; pákslos, stake (fixed in the ground), pole, as Lat. pālus, in MIE pákslikiā, palisade (from V.Lat. pālīcea, into Prov. palissada, Fr. palissade, Spa. palizada), enpakslā, impale, tripaksliā, work hard (from tripáksliom, instrument of torture, from tri-paksli, having three stakes, Lat. tripaliāre, Fr. travailler, It. travagliare, Spa. trabajar, Pt. trabalhar, Cat. treballar, Filipino trabaho, etc., also Eng. travel, from Fr. travail); loan pákslā, spade, as Lat. pāla; lengthened-grade pgos, “boundary staked out on the ground,” district, village, country (cf. Fr. pays, It. paese, Pt.,Spa.,Cat. país, Rom. pajais), as in pāgānós, country-dweller, civilian, then extended as pagan, and pāgénts, inhabitant of a district (as Lat. pāgēnsis, M.Fr. paisant, Eng. peasant, Spa. paisano, Cat. pagès, etc.), pginā, “trellis to which a row of vines is fixed”, hence (by metaphor) column of writing, page, as Lat. pāgina; prōpāgā, propagate (from “fix before”, with prō-, before); pagno, fasten, coagulate, as in pāgtós, coagulated, Gk. πηκτς, or pāgtinā, pectin, and págos, mass, hill.

VIII. Common Slavic word cheln, “boat”, (cf. Russ. челн, Ukr. човен, Cz. člun, Slk. čln, Slo. čoln), MIE tsheln, was the name used by the Cossacks of Zaporizhian Sich within the first military campaigns of the Russian Navy against the Tatars and Turks, using sailboats and rowboats, in the 16th-17th centuries.

IX. Persian qayeq and Greek καΐκι, “boat”, are from a source akin to French caique, It. caicco, i.e. probably Turkish kayik, O.Turkish qayghug, maybe from an old Turkic (or otherwise old Asian) word, possibly related to American Indian kayak, and American Spanish cayuco. Hence, MIE kájik, boat, caique, kájak, kayak.

A PIE root similar (but unrelated) to these non-IE words is kaikós, blind, as Goth. haihs, Lat. caecus, Gk. kaikias, Skr. kekara, Lith. keikti, Polish Kajko, O.Ir. caech, Welsh coeg.

A common Iberian word for “bat” is MIE kaikomūs, “blind mouse” (cf. Gl.-Pt. morcego, Spa. murciégalo, Cat. muricec), from PIE mūs, mouse, Gmc. mūs (cf. O.N.,O.Fris., M.Du., O.E., O.H.G. mūs, Eng. mouse, Ger. Maus), Lat. mūs, Gk. mūs, Skr. , Av. mus, Pers. muš, Arm. muk/mug, Lith. musė, O.C.S. mysu, Russ. мышь, Polish mysz, Alb. mi, Kamviri musa. Compare for MIE pleukomūs, lektomūs, “flying mouse”, as Da. flagermus, Nor. flaggermus, Swe. fladdermus, Fae. flogmús, Du. vleermuis, Ger. Fledermaus, Russ. летучая мышь, Bel. лятучая мыш,; cf. also Sr.-Cr. slepi miš, šišmiš, etc. Also, cf. words for night, Gk. νυχτερίδα, Lat. uespertilio.

X.    Persian jahāz, also found in Hindustani (cf. Hi. जहाज, जहाज़, Ur. جهاز), is of Arabic origin.

XI. English vessel comes from O.Fr. vessel, in turn from V.Lat. uascellumsmall vase or urn” , also “a ship” (cf. Fr. vaisseau, It. vascello, Cat. vaixell, Spa. bajel, and, from Lat. pl.n. uascēlla, Spa. vajilla, Pt. baixela), dim. of uasculum, itself a dim. of uāsvessel” (cf. Fr. vase, It.,Spa.,Pt. vaso, Cat. vas), hence MIE loan words wās, vessel, vase, wáskolom, vessel, ship.

128.   Indo-European words for “war, battle”:

I. A common PIE word seems to have been kóros, war, strife, as O.Pers. kāra, Pers. kārzār, Kurd. šer, O.Pruss. kargis, Lith. karas, Ltv. kaŗš, Russ. кара, Pol. kara; with derivatives kórios, armed force, war-band, host, army, troop, as Gmc. kharjaz (cf. Goth. harjis, O.N. herr, O.E. here, O.H.G. heri, Eng. heriot, Ger. Heer), Lith. karias, Gaul. [Tri]corii,O.Ir. cuire; koriános, ruler, leader, commander, as Gk. koiranos; koriobhérghos, “army hill”, hill-fort, later shelter, lodging, army quarters, as Gmc. kharjabergaz (cf. O.N. herbergi, O.E. herebeorg, Du. herberg, Ger. Herberge, Swedish härbärge; meaning shift in Eng. harbor, into Welsh harbwr, see bhergh, v.i. for Germanic haven, “harbour”); koriowóldhos, army-commander, herald (woldho, rule, power, see wal), as Gmc. kharja-waldaz (cf. Anglo-Norman herald, Ger. [Wappen]herold, Fr. héraut, It. araldo, Spa. heraldo, Pt. arauto, etc.), korionéstom, “army provisions”, harness (from néstom, food for a journey, see nes), as Gmc. kharja-nestam (cf. O.Fr. harneis, Eng. harness); denominative korio, harry, ravage, plunder, raid, as Gmc. kharjōn (cf. O.E. hergian); korikrénghos, “host-ring”, assembly, public square (krénghos, ring, see sker), as Gmc. kharihring (cf. O.It. aringo, arringa, Prov. arenga, Eng. harangue, Spa. arenga, etc.).

I.1. PIE wal, be strong, is found as suffixed stative walē, Lat. ualēre, as in walós, strong, wálōs, strength, komtrāwálōs, countervail, walénts, brave, valiant, waléntiā, valence, ambhiwaléntiā, ambivalence, walidós, valid, walidós, invalid, adwális, avail (from Fr. aval), komwalēsko, convalesce, ekwaluā, evaluate, prāiwalē, prevail, walideiko, say farewell, (see deik, show), walidéiktiōn, valediction, aiqiwalē, have equal force (as Lat. aequi-, Eng. equi-), aiqiwalénts, equivalent; extended o-grade woldho, rule, govern, as Gmc. waldan (cf. O.S., Goth. waldan, O.N. valda, O.E. wealdan, wieldan, O.Fris. walda, O.H.G. waltan, Ger. walten, Eng. wield), and suffixed wólstis (<*wold-ti-), rule, as Sla. volstь (cf. O.C.S. vlasti, Russ. волость, власть), as in opwólstis, oblast, Sla. ob- volstь (cf. O.C.S. область, O.Russ. оболость, Cz. oblast,  etc.).

PIE verbal root deik, show, pronounce solemnly, gives Lat. dīcere, say, tell, as in borrowings déiktiōn, diction, deiktā, dictate, déiktātos, dictate, déiktom, dictum, addeiktós, addict, dwenideiko (see dwenós, good), bless, dwenēdéiktiōn, benediction, komdéikiōn, condition, komtrādeiko, contradict, ekdeiko, edict, enterdéiktom, interdict, jowosesdeikós, juridicial, (Lat. iūs, iūris, corresponds to MIE jówos, jowosés, see rhotacism), jowosesdéiktion, jurisdiction, malideiko, maledict, prāideiko, predict, wērideiko, “tell the truth” (see wērós, true), wērideikós, veridical, wēridéiktos, verdict; suffixed zero-grade verb dikā, proclaim, Lat. dicāre, as in apdikā, abdicate, dedikā, dedicate, prāidikā, predicate;  agential sufix -dik-, in éndiks, index, indicator, forefinger, endikā, indicate, also jówosdiks, judge, Lat. iūdex, jowosdikiālís, judicial, prāijowosdikā, prejudge, prāijowosdíkiom, prejudice; wíndīks, surety, claimant, avenger, as Lat. uindex, as in windīkā, vindicate, avenge, take revenge; deikno, show, déikmn, sample, pattern, as in deíktis, deixis, deiktikós, deictic, paradéikmn, paradigm, apódeiktis, proof, demonstration, policy (cf. Gk. πδειξις, into Lat. apodixa, “receipt”, then It. polizza, into Fr. police, Spa. póliza, etc.); zero-grade díkā, justice, right, court case, as in komdikós, syndic, as Gk. σνδικος, dhesodíkā, theodicy, and diko, throw (from “direct an object”), as in dikskos, disk, Gk. δσκος; o-grade doikuā, toe (“pointer”), as Gmc. taihwo (cf. O.N. ta, O.E. tahe, O.Fris. tane, O.H.G. zecha, M.Du. te). Variant form deig- gives o-grade doigio, show, instruct, as Gmc. taikjan (cf. Goth. ga-teihan, O.E. tǣcan, O.H.G. zihan, Eng. teach, Ger. zeihen), dóignom, mark, sign, token, as Gmc. taiknam (cf. Goth. taikns, O.S. tekan, O.N. teikn, O.E. tācen, tācn, O.H.G. zeihhan, O.Fris., M.Du. teken, Du. teken, Ger. zeichen), zero-grade dígitos, finger (from “pointer, indicator”).

Indo-European wērós (earlier *werh1-o-), true, trustworthy, and w, faithfulness, faith, hence pledge, agreement, promise, treaty, gives Gmc. wēro- (cf. O.E. wǣr, O.Du., O.H.G. war, Du. waar, Ger. wahr), Lat. verax (cf. O.Fr. verai, Anglo-Fr. verrai, O.E. verray, Eng. very), O.C.S. вѣра, Russ. вера, Pol. wiara, Bul. вяра, Welsh gwyr, O.Ir. fir. Derivatives include wērks, truthful, veracious, writā, verity, wēridhakā, verify, etc.

I.2. PIE nes, turn out well, rest, return safely home, gives O.Gk. nehomai (*ninsomai), O.Ind. nasate, Toch. nas-/nes-; also, suffixed néstom, food for a journey, as Gmc. nestam (cf. O.E., O.H.G., O.N. nest), as in korionéstom, harness (for kóros, war, v.s.); o-grade nóstos, a return home, as Gk. νστος, found in common nostalgíā, in compound with Gk. borrowing -algíā,  Gk. αλγα, from álgos, pain, Gk. λγος.

I.3. PIE (s)ker, turn, bend, gives Germanic nasalized extended skreng, wither, shrivel up, as Gmc. skrink, kréngā, a crease, fold, (cf. O.N. hrukka, Eng. ruck), and krengio, wrinkle (cf. Frank. hrukjan, O.Fr. fronce, Eng. flounce), as Gmc. khrunk-; nasalized extended krénghos, circle, something curved, ring, as Gmc. khringaz, (cf. O.E. hring, O.N. hringr, O.Fris. hring, M.Du. rinc, Ger. Ring), also found in O.Fr. renc, reng, “line, row”, which gives loan words krenghs, rank, range, adkrengho, arrange; extended kreukios, back, as Gmc. khrugjaz (cf. O.N. hryggr, O.E. hrycg, O.Fris. hregg, O.S. hruggi, O.H.G. hrukki, Du. rug, Eng. ridge, Ger. Rücken); suffixed variant kurwós, bent, curved, as Lat. curuus, as in kúrwā, curve, kurwatós, curved, or kurwatósā, curvature; suffixed extended krísnis, hair, as Lat. crīnis, krístā, tuft, crest, as Lat. crista, kripsós, curly, as metathesized Lat. crispus, hence MIE krispós, crisp; expressive krisā, wiggle the hips during copulation, as Lat. crīsāre, in krísom, crissum; reduplicated kíkros, ring (metathesized as *kirkos in Latin), also circus, kíkrolos, circle, kikrom-, circum-, kíkrā, go around, hence search, rekikrā, research; suffixed o-grade korōnós, curved,  as in kor, anything curved, kind of crown; variant kurtós, convex, as in kurtósis.

Another similar PIE root is (s)ker, cut, also “shear, separate” as in Gmc. skeran (cf. O.E. scieran, sceran, Low Ger.,Du. scheren, Eng. shear, sheer), Gk. keirein, Skr. krnati, krntati, Lith. skiriu, O.Ir. scaraim, Welsh ysgar, ysgyr, Hitt. karsh; skéros, share, portion, division, as Gmc. skeraz (cf. O.N. skör, O.E. scēar, scearu, scaru, O.H.G. scara , Ger. Schar); sk, scissors, as O.E. scēar, in skērbhérghs, “sword protector”, scabbard, as Gmc. skerberg (cf. O.H.G. scarberc, O.Fr escauberc, see bhergh); skŕā, notch, tally, score, from Gmc. skuro (cf. O.N. skor, O.E. scoru); skóriom, low reef (“something cut off”), as Gmc. skarjam (cf. O.N sker, Eng. scar, skerry), skórpos, diagonally-cut end of a board, as Gmc. skarfaz (cf. O.N. skarfr, Eng. scarf), suffixed o-grade skórdos, cut, notch, as Gmc. skardaz (cf. O.E. sceard, Eng. shard); skrdós, short, and skŕdos, skirt, shirt (“cut piece”), as Gmc. skurtaz (cf. O.N. skyrta, Swed. skjorta, O.E. scort, sceort; scyrte, M.Du. scorte, M.H.G. schurz, Du. schort, Ger. Schurz); extended skermo, protect, as Gmc. skirman (cf. O.H.G. skirmen, O.Fr. eskermir), as in MIE skérmā, skirmish (cf. Eng. skirmish, Du. schermutseling, Swe. skärmytsling, O.It. scaramuccia, Spa. escaramuza, etc.), skérmos, shield; variant form kórōn, flesh, as Lat. caro (stem carn-), as in koronālís, carnal, korontiōn, carnation, koron(es)lechlis, carnival, (cf. O.It. carnevale, haplology from Lat. carneleuare) also MIE partial loan karnichlis, koroniuorós, carnivorous; kóriom, leather (from “piece of hide”), as Lat. corium; krtós, short, as Lat. curtus; Greek kórmos, trimmed tree trunk, kóris, bedbug (from “cutter”); skŕā, shore, as Gmc. skurō (cf. O.E. scora, M.L.G. schor, M.Du. scorre); kórteks, bark (“that which can be cut off”); kértsnā, meal (“portion of food), as Lat. cēna; skerbhós, cutting, sharp, as Gmc. skarpaz (cf. Goth. skarp-, O.S. scarp, O.N. skarpr, O.E. scearp, O.Fris. skerp, Du. scherp, Ger. scharf), skróbā, “pieces”, remains, as Gmc. skrapo, skróbho, scrape, as Gmc. skraban, skróbis, trench, dith, as Lat. scrobis, or skrbhā, a sow (from “rooter, digger”), as Lat. scrōfa; extended suffixed epikrsiós, at an angle, slanted, “biased”, as Gk. epikarsios (cf. Fr. biais, Eng. bias).

I.4. Germanic “haven” comes from IE kápnā, harbour, perhaps “place that holds ships”, from P.Gmc. *khafnō (cf. O.N. hofn, O.E. hæfen, M.L.G. havene, Ger. Hafen, also O.N. haf, O.E. hæf, “sea), from PIE kap, grasp (compare with ghabh) cf. Skr. kapati, Gk. kaptein, Ltv. kampiu, O.Ir. cacht, Welsh caeth. Common derivatives include káptiom, handle, as Gmc. khaftjam (cf. O.E.  hæft, O.H.G. hefti, Du. hecht, Eng. haft, Ger. Heft); basic form kap, have, hold, as Gmc. khabb- (cf. Goth. haban, O.N. hafa, O.S. hebbjan, O.E. habban, O.Fris. habba, Eng. have, Ger. haben); kapigós, “containing something”, having weight, heavy, as Gmc. khafigaz (cf. cf. O.N. hebig, O.E. hefig); kápokos, hawk, as Gmc. khabukaz (cf. O.N. haukr, O.E. h[e]afoc, M.Du. havik, Ger. Habicht, compare with Russ. kobec); -kaps, “taker”, as Lat. -ceps; kapio, take, seize, catch, lift, as Gmc. hafjan (cf. Goth. hafjan, O.N. hefja, O.E. hebban, Du. heffen, Ger. heben), Lat. capere, as in kapks, capable, capacious, káptiōn, caption, kaptēiuā, captivate, kaptēiuós, captive, kaptós, captive, kaptr, captor, kaptosā, capture, antikapio, anticipate, komkapio, conceive, dekapio, deceive, ekskapio, except, enkapio, incept, enterkapio, intercept, preismkáps, prince, moineskáps, citizen, moineskápiom, city, municipality, obhkapā, occupy, partikapā, participate, perkapio, cerceive, rekapio, receive, recover, recuperate, supkaptibhilís, susceptible; variant Greek kōp, oar, handle.

PIE ghabh, also ghebh, give or receive, has derivatives as Gmc. geban (cf. Goth. giban, O.N. gefa,O.E. giefan, O.H.G. geban, Eng. give, Ger. geben), Lat. habēre, Oscan hafíar, Umbrian habe, Skr. gabhasti, Lith. gabana, Ltv. gabana, O.C.S. gobino, Gaul. gabi, O.Ir. gaibid, Welsh gafael, Alb. grabit/grabis. Common derivatives include perghebho, give away, give up, leave off, remit, as Gmc. fargeban (cf. Eng. forgive, Du. vergeven, Ger. vergeben); ghébhtis, something given (or received), gift, as Gmc. giftiz (cf. O.N. gipt, gift, O.Fris. jefte, M.Du. ghifte, Ger. Mitgift), ghóbholom, something paid (or received), tribute, tax, debt, as Gmc. gabulam (cf. O.E. gafol, M.H.G. gaffel, Eng. gavel, Ger. dial. gaffel); ghabhē, hold, possess, have, handle, and ghabitā, dwell, as Lat. habēre, habitāre, in ghabhilís, habile, able, ghábitos, habit, ghabhitābhilís, habitable, ghabhitnts, habitant, ghábhitā, habitat, eksghabhē, exhibit, enghabē, inhibit, proghabē, prohibit; deghabhe, owe, as Lat. debere, as in deghabitós, due, deghábhitom, debit, deghábhita (, debt.

The proper PIE term for debt seems to be deléghlā, cf. O.Ir. dligim, Goth. dulgs, O.Sla. dlъgъ, and also Lat. in-dulgeō, Gk. ν-δελεχς, Alb. glatë, etc., presumably from extended d(e)legh-, from del, long, see dlongho-.

I.5. For PIE bhergh, hide, protect, compare Gmc. bergan (cf. Goth. bairgan, O.N. bjarga, O.H.G. bergan, Ger. bergen), OCS brĕgą, Russ. bereč', as in zero-grade bhrghio, bury, Gmc. burgjan (cf. O.E. byrgan, Eng. bury).

Related PIE bhergh, high, with derivatives referring to hills and hill-forts, gives Lat. fortis, Skr. barhayati, Av. bərəzant, Pers. burj, Thrac. bergas, Illyr. Berginium, Toch. pärk/pärk, Arm. bardzut'iun, Russ. bereg, Gaul. Bergusia, O.Ir. brí, Welsh bre, bera, Alb. burg; Hitt. parku, Lyc. prije;pruwa, A.Mac. Berga. Common MIE derivatives include borrowing isobhérghs, iceberg (for MIE loan iso-, Gmc. isa-, “ice”, cf. O.N. iss, O.E. is,  O.Fris. is, Du. ijs, Ger. Eis), zero-grade bhrghs, hill-fort, castle, hence fortified town, city, as Gmc. burgs (cf. Goth. baurgs, O.N. borg, O.E. burg, burh, byrig, O.H.G. berg, Eng. borough, Ger. Burg, into Lat. burgus, O.Fr. burg, O.Spa. burgo, etc.), bhrghwórōn, “city protector”, townsman, as Gmc. burg-warōn (see wer, cf. O.H.G. burgari, Eng. burgher); suffixed zero-grade bhrghtís, strong, bhŕghtiā, force, as Lat. fortis, fortia (some relate it to dher), in ekbhŕghtis, effort, enbhrghtiā, enforce, bhrghtidhakā, fortify, reenbhrghtiā, reinforce, etc.

The proper IE word for “ice” is jeg, which gives Lith. iža, Ltv. ieze, Russ. ikra, O.Ir. aig, Welsh ia, and suffixed jégilos, ice, icicle, glacier, as Gmc. jekilaz (cf. O.N. jaki, dim. jökull, O.E. gicel, O.H.G. ichil, M.E. [is]ykle, Ger. gicht, oighear, Eng.dial. ickle, Eng. [ic]icle).

PIE root gel-, cold, gives Lat. gelū, Oscan gelan, Lith. gelmenis, Gk. gelandron; extended adjective goldós gives Gmc. kaldaz (cf. Goth. kalds, O.N. kaldr, O.E. cald, ceald, O.H.G. kalt), O.C.S. hlad, Pol. chłód.

PIE dher, hold firmly, support, gives dhermós, firm, strong, as Lat. firmus, in addhermā, affirm, komdhermā, confirm, dhermós, infirm, ill, dhermāríā, infirmary; suffixed zero-grade dhrónos, seat, throne (from “support”); suffixed dhérmn, statute, law, as Skr. dharma (“that which is established firmly”); suffixed dhérenā, a holding firm, Prakrit dharana; dhóros, holding, as Ira. dāra-, Pers. -dār.

IE wer, cover, gives wériā, defence, protection, as Gmc. werjōn (cf. Goth. warjan, O.N. ver, O.E. wer, O.Fris., M.Du. were, O.H.G. wari, Eng. weir, Du. weer, Ger. Wehr); compound apwerio, open, uncover, (ap-, off, away, see apo), as Lat. aperīre, as in apwertós, opened, overt, apwertósā, aperture, overture; opwerio, cover (op-, over, see epi), as Lat. operire, as in komopwerio, cover; wrtros, enclosure, as Skr. vatah; o-grade wornio, take heed, warn, as Gmc. warnōn (cf. O.E. warenian, O.N. varna, O.H.G. warnon, Eng. warn, Ger. warnen), in worónts, warrant, authorization, (cf. O.N.Fr. warant, O.Fr. garant), worontíā, warranty, guaranty (cf. O.N.Fr. warantir, Fr. garantie), woro, guard, protect (cf. O.Fr. garer, guerrer), in worótikom, garage, worio, defend, protect (cf. O.Fr. guarir), wórisōn, garrison, wornio, to equip (cf. O.Fr. guarnir).

Derivatives of PIE apo, or ap-, off, away, are Gmc. af- (cf. Goth.,O.N. af, O.E. of, æf, O.Fris. af, of, O.H.G. ab, aba, Eng. of, off, Du. af, Ger. ab), Lat. ab, Gk. apo, I.-I. apa, Bl.-Sl. po. Common MIE words include apton, behind, as Gmc. aftan (cf. O.E. æftan, Eng. aft, abaft), aptero, after, behind, as Gmc. aftar (cf. O.E. æfter), apuko, turned backward, as Gmc. afugo (cf. O.N. öfugr, O.E. awk); variant po-, on, in, as Balto-Slavic po, Latin extended post, also in verb posino (from Lat. pōnere, from po+sinere, “leave, let”, of obscure origin), p.part, positós, both giving common MIE pógrom, posteriós, posterior, postmŕtim, (see PIE mer), postmortem, positósā, posture, posítiōn, adposine, adposítiōn, komposino, compose, komposítiōn, komtrāpositós, deposino, depositós, disposino, dispose, eksposino, expose, enposino, impose, enpositós, imposed, enpósitom, impost, enterposino, interpose, obhposino, oppose, obhposítiōn, supposino, suppose, supposítiōn, supposition, transposino, transpose, etc.

For PIE mer, rub away, harm, compare mor, goblin, incubus, as Gmc. marōn (cf. O.E. mare, mære, Eng. [night]mare), O.Ir. Morri[gain], Bulg., Serb., Pol. mora, Fr. [cauche]mar; mŕo, waste away, wither, as in mrasmós, marasmus, as Gk. μαρασμς; mrtriom, mortar (from “ground down”) as Lat. mortāriom; extended mordē, bite, as Lat. mordēre, as in mordks, mordacious, remordē, remorse, etc.; suffixed mórbhos, disease, as Lat. morbus, in morbhidós, morbid. Probably the same root is mer, die (cf. Hitt. mer), with derivatives mŕtrom, murder, as Gmc. murthra- (cf. Goth maurþr, O.N. morð, O.E. morðor, O.Fris. morth, M.Du. moort, Ger. Mord, also in M.Lat. murdrum, O.Fr. mordre), mŕtis, death, as Lat. mors, O.Ind. mti, Lith. mir̃tìs, Ltv. mir̃, Sla. mьrtь (cf. O.C.S. [съ]мрьть, from svo-, reflexive swe-, Russ. смерть, O.Slo. smȓti, Pol. śmierć, Cz. smrt, etc.), with common Latin derivatives mrtālís, mortal, mrtidhakā, mortify, admortisā, amortize; mrio, die, with irregular p.part. mrtuós, death, as Lat. morire, mortuus, in mrtuāsiós, mortuary, mribhundós, moribundmrtuótikom, mortgage (from O.Fr. mort and gage,pledge”, from Frank. wadja, “pledge”, IE wotio); common adjectives mrwós, death, mrtós, mortal, as Gk. βροτος, mrtós [n̥-mr̥-‘tos], inmortal, undying, hence also divine, as Lat. inmortalis, Gk. μβροτος, Skr. amrtam; mortiós, mortal, as O.Pers. martiya, into Gk. manticore. Other IE derivatives include Skr. marati, Av. miryeite, O.Pers. amariyata, Pers. mordan, Kurd. mirin, Arm. menil, Lith. mirti, Ltv. mirt, O.C.S. mrĭtvŭ, Russ. meret', Pol. mord, umrzeć, Gaul. marvos, O.Ir. marb, Welsh marw, Kamviri me, Osset. maryn.

MIE assassinós via Fr. and It., from Arabic hashishiyyinhashish-users” pl. of hashishiyy, from hashish (Arabic hashishpowdered hemp”, lit. “dry herb”, from hashshait became dry, it dried up”). A fanatical Ismaili Muslim sect of the time of the Crusades, with a reputation for murdering opposing leaders after intoxicating themselves by eating hashish. The pl. suffix -in was mistaken in Europe for part of the word (cf. Bedouin).

II.   IE wers, confuse, mix up, (compare with IE ers), gives common wérsos, confusion, and loan word fem. MIE wérsā (see rhotacism), both from Gmc. werzaz (cf. O.S. werran, O.H.G. werran, Ger. verwirren; Eng. war is from O.E. wyrre, werre, from O.N.Fr. were, from Frank. werra, as O.H.G. werra, strife, borrowed in Fr. guerre, It.,Spa.,Pt,Cat. guerra); comparative wersiós, worse, and superlative wersistós, worst, as Gmc. wersizōn, wersistaz (cf. Goth. wairsiza, O.S. wirs, wirsista,  O.N. verri, verstr, O.E. wyrsa, wyrsta, O.Fris. wirra, wersta, O.H.G. wirsiro, wirsisto); wŕstis, sausage (from “mixture”), as Gmc. wurstiz (cf. O.H.G. wurst)

PIE ers, be in motion, gives variant rēs, rushing, race, as Gmc. rēsan (cf. O.N. rás, O.E. ræs, M.Du. rasen,  Ger. rasen); suffixed ersā, wander, Lat. errāre, as in ersātikós, erratic, ersta, errata, ersāniós, erroneous, ersr, error, aperstiōn, aberration; zero-grade ŕsis, poet, seer, Skr. rsi.

III. Indo-European wen, strive after, wish, desire, be satisfied, is the source for wóinos, soldier, and wóinā, war, as Sla. voin’ (O.C.S., O.Russ. воинъ, Ukr. воïн, Sr.-Cr., Slo.,Bul. vojnik, Cz.,Slk. vojin) and vojna; with similar meanings of hunt, chase, pursue, cf. O.N. veiðr, O.E. waþ, O.H.G. weida, Lat. venāri, Gk. εμαι, O.Ind. vēti, Av. vayeiti, Lith. vejù, výti, O.Ir. fíad. Other IE derivatives include wénos, desire, as Skr. vanas; wénuo, win, Gmc. winn(w)an (cf. f. Goth. gawinnen, O.S. winnan, O.N. vinna, O.E. winnan, O.Fris. winna, O.H.G. winnan, Du. winnen), suffixed zero-grade wńiā, pleasure, joy, as Gmc. wunjō (cf. O.E. wen, wynn, Ger.Wonne); stative wnē, be content, rejoice, extended as be accustomed to, dwell, as Gmc. wunēn (cf. O.E. wunian, O.S. wunon, O.Fris. wonia, O.H.G. wonen, Eng. wont); suffixed causative o-grade wonē, accustom, train, wean, as Gmc. wanjan (cf. O.N. venja, O.E. wenian, Du. vennen, O.H.G. giwennan, Ger. gewöhnen); wnis, hope, and verb wēnio, expect, imagine, think, as Gmc. wēniz and wēnjan (cf. Goth. wenjan, O.S. wanian, O.N. væna, O.E. wenan, O.Fris. wena, O.H.G. wanen, Ger. wähnen, Eng. ween); suffixed zero-grade wnsko, desire, wish, wńskos, wish, as Gmc. wunskan, wunskaz (cf. O.N. æskja, O.E. wyscan, M.Du. wonscen, O.H.G. wunsken); wénōs, love, giving wenesā, worship, venerate, wenesiós, venereal, etc., with rhotacism as Lat. uenus, ueneris; wenésnom, poison (originally love poison), as Lat. uenēnum, wéniā, favor, forgiveness, Lat. uenia; wenā, hunt, from Lat. uēnārī; wénom, forest, as Skr. vanam.

IV. Indo-European cer- (or *gwerh2), heavy, gives crús, heavy, venerable, as Goth. kaurus, Gk. βαρς, Skr. guruh, cuspháirā, barysphere (from Gk. spháirā, sphere), cútonos, baritone, and extended Lat. *gwruís, heavy, weighty, grave, as Lat. gravis, cŕuitā, gravity, cruā, burden, adcruā, aggravate, etc.; cŕōs, weight, heaviness, as Gk. βρος, as in wiswocŕōs, isobar (from Gk. īsós, equal, probably either from widwós, who has seen, from weid, know, see, or wiswós, all, as O.Ind. visva); udcri (see ud); crūtós, heavy, unwieldy, dull, stupid, brutish, as Lat. brūtus; crgos, strenght, vigor, cr, strife, as in crīgátā, brigade, found in Celt. brīgo (cf. Prov. briu, Spa. brío), Gmc. krīg (cf. O.H.G. krēg, chrēg, M.H.G. kriec, Sca. krig, Ger. Krieg), Cel. brīgā (cf. O.Ita. briga, Fr. brigade); cérnā, millstone, as Gmc. kwernōn (Goth. quirnus, O.N. kvern, O.E. cweorn, O.Fris. quern, O.H.G. quirn, Eng. quern, Ger. Querne), Skr. grava, Arm. erkan, O.Pruss. girnoywis, Lith. girna, girnos, Ltv. dzirnus, O.C.S. zrunuvi, Russ. žërnov, Pol. żarno, O.Ir. braó, Welsh brevan.

V.    Indo-European dwéllom, war, also duel (O.Lat. duellum, Lat. bellum), is maybe cognate with O.Ind. dunoti, duta-, O.Gk. du, duero, Alb. un, from a PIE verbal root du meaning torment, pain; common Latin loans include dwelligeránts, belligerent (from Lat. dwelligerā, make war, from Lat. gerere, “wage”), kástos dwélli, casus belli (see kad).

For PIE kad, fall, befall, also die, compare Lat. cadere, O.Ind. sad, Arm. chacnum, M.Ir. casar, Welsh cesair, Corn. keser, Bret. kasarc'h; Latin derivatives include kadáuēr, cadaver, kadénts, cadent, kadéntiā, cadence, chance, adkado, happen, adkadénts, accident, enkado, happen, enkádents, incident, dekado, decay, obhkado, fall, obhkádents, occident, and from p.part. kastós (<*kadto-), giving kastkátā, cascade, kástos, case, kastuālís, casual, kastuístā, casuist, obhkástos, sunset, obhkástiōn, occasion, etc.;

A similar but probably unrelated PIE root is dheu (older *dheuh2), die, also dhwei, found as dhoutós, dead, Gmc. dauthaz (cf. O.E. dēad), o-grade dhóutus, death, (with suffix -tus indicating “act, process, condition”), as Gmc. dauthuz (cf. O.E. dēath); suffixed o-grade dhowio, die, as O.N. deyja; extended zero-grade dhwino, diminish, languish, as Gmc. dwinan (cf. O.E. dwinan, Du. dwijnen, Eng. dwindle). The verb comes probably from dhew, close, finish, come full circle; cf. Lat. funus, -eris, Arm. di (gen. diog), Cel. dwutu- (cf. OIr duth). Derivatives include suffixed zero-grade dhū́nos, enclosed, fortified place, hill-fort, as Gmc. dūnaz (cf. O.E. dūn, M.Du. dūne, Eng. down, dune); also, from the same source is Celtic dūnos, “hill, stronghold”, borrowed in Gmc. tūnaz (cf. O.E. tun, Eng. town); dhū́nōs, funeral, as Lat. fūnus.

The same IE root dhew means also “run, flow”, as in Gmc. dauwaz, (cf. O.E. deaw, M.Du. dau, Eng. dew), Skr. dhauti, M.Pers. davadan; and also “shine, be light”, as O.Gk. theousan, O.Ind. dhavala-, Av. fraavata.

VI. Common Greek loans are pólemos, war, Gk. πόλεμος, giving polemikós, hostile, hence polemic.

129.   For PIE swésōr, (possibly from reflexive swe, and ésōr, woman, then lit. “woman of one’s own kin group” in an exogamous society, see also swe-kuro-), with zero-grade alternative swésr, compare Gmc. swestr- (cf. Goth. swistar, O.N. systir, O.S. swestar, O.E. sweostor, swuster, O.Fris. swester, M.Du. suster, O.H.G. swester, Du. zuster, Eng. sister, Ger. Schwester), Lat. soror, O.Gk. eor, Skr. svas, Av. xvahar, Pers. xāhar, Toch. ar/er, Arm. k'uyr, O.Pruss. swestro, Lith. sesuo, O.C.S. sestra, Russ. сестра, Pol. siostra, Gaul. suiior, O.Ir. siur, Welsh chwaer, Kamviri sus. It gave common derivatives latin swesrikdiom, sororicide, swesorālís, sororal, suffixed swesrnos, cousin, from Lat. sobrīnus, “maternal cousin”.

130.   For PIE súnus, also súnjus, son, compare Gmc. sunuz (cf. Goth. sunus, O.N. sonr, O.E. sunu, O.S., O.Fris. sunu, O.H.G. sunu, M.Du. sone, Dan. søn, Swed. son, Du. zoon, Ger. Sohn), Gk. huios, Skr. sunus, Av. hunush, Arm. ustr, Lith. sunus, O.C.S. synu, Rus., Pol. syn, from PIE root su, give birth, Skr. sauti, O.Ir. suth.

I. For Romance words from Lat. filius, MIE dhḗilios, “suckling”, son, and dhḗiliā, daughter, as in dhēiliālís, filial, addheiliā, affiliate; probably from PIE dhēi, suck, although some relate it to PIE bhew, be, exist (in both IE dh- and bh- evolved as Lat. f-), thus maybe IE *bhlios – but, v.i. for Slavic derivative ‘diti’ meaning “child, son”, from the same root dhēi.

For IE bhew, be, exist, grow, and common derivative bhwijo, be, become, give Gmc biju (cf. O.E. beon, O.H.G. bim, bist, Eng. be), Skt. bhava, bhavati, bhumi, Lat. fieri, fui, Gk. phu-, Lith. bu'ti, O.C.S. byti, O.Ir. bi'u, Rus. быть; bhowo, live, dwell, as Gmc. bowan (cf. O.N. bua, buask, O.H.G. buan, Eng. bound, husband, Ger. bauen); zero-grade bhútlos, dwelling, house, from Gmc. buthlaz (cf. O.E. bold, byldan, M.Du. bodel, Eng. build), bhwo, bring forth, make grow, as Gk. phuein, as in bhútos, bhútom, plant, and bhútis, growth, nature, as in bhútikā, physics, bhutikós, physic, epíbhutis, epiphysis, diábhutis, diaphysis, supóbhutis, hypophysis, etc.; suffixed bhutús, “that is to be”, and Lat. bhutū́ros, future; zero-grade bhū́rom, dweller (especially farmer), gives Gmc. buram (cf. O.E. bur, Eng. bower, Ger. Bauer), kombhū́rom, dweller, peasant, (cf. O.E. gebur, M.Du. gheboer, ghebuer, Eng. neighbor, Du. boer, boor), bhū́riom, dwelling, as Gmc. burjam (cf. O.E. byre), or bhū́wis, settlement (cf. O.N. byr, Eng. by[law]); bhū́lom, tribe, class, race,  Gk. φλον, and bhū́, tribe, clan, as in Eng. phylum, phyle, phylo-; zero-grade reduced suffixal form -bhw- in Lat. compounds dubhwiós, doubtful (from zero-grade of dwo, two), Lat. dubius, dúbhwitā, doubt, Lat. dubitāre, probhwós, upright, Lat. probus, “growing well or straightforward”, superbhwós, superior, proud, “being above”, as Lat. superbuus; bhóumos, tree (“growing thing”), as Gmc. baumaz (cf. O.E. beam, M.Du. boom, Eng. beam).

II.   Slavic “diti’, “child, son”, comes from Slavic dětę, dětь (cf. O.C.S. дѢти, S.C.S. дѣть, Russ. дитя, Pol. dziecię, Cz. dítě, Bul. дете́), MIE dhitis, “suckling”, child, (see also Lat. filius), from PIE dhēi, also found in Lat.  fēlāre, fēmina, Gk. θήσατο , θηλή, O.Ind. dhā́tavē, Lith. dėlė̃, O.Ir. dínim.

III. Germanic “maiden” comes from Indo-European mághotis, maid, young womanhood, sexually inexperienced female, virgin (dim. mághotinom, “little maid”), as Gmc. magadinam (cf. O.E. mægeð, mægden, O.S. magath, O.Fris. maged, O.H.G. magad, Ger. Magd, Mädchen), from mághus, young person of either sex, unmarried person, cf. O.E. magu, Avestan magava, O.Ir. maug.

131.    Indo-European dhúg(a)tēr, older *dhug(h2)ter, daughter, Gmc. dukter (cf. Goth. dauhtar, O.N. dóttir, O.E. dohtor, O.H.G. tohter, Scots, Du. dochter, Swe. dotter), Osc. fútir, Gk. θυγατήρ (thugatēr), Skr. duhit, Av. duydar, Pers. doxtar, Toch. ckācar/tkacer, Arm. dustr, O.Pruss. duckti, Lith. duktė, O.C.S. dŭšti, Russ. дочь, dočer', Gaul. duxtīr, Kamviri ; Hitt. duttariyatiyaš, Luw. duttariyata.

132.   Other PIE common words referring to relatives, apart from patr, mātr, bhrtēr and snúsos are:

A.    IE jénatēr (older *jenh2ter), brother-in-law's wife, gives Lat. ianitrīcēs, Gk. einatēr, Skr. yātar, Phryg. ianatera, Arm. ner, Lith. jentė, Ltv. ietere, Russ. jatrov', Pol. jątrew, Kamviri iâri.

B.    IE dáiwēr (older *deh2iwer), husband’s brother, O.E. tācor, O.H.G. zeihhur, Lat. lēvir, Gk. dāēr, Skr. devar, Kurd. diš/héwer, Arm. taygr, Lith. dieveris, Ltv. dieveris, OCS dĕverĭ, Russ. dever', Pol. dziewierz.

C.    A comon gálōus (PIE *gh2lōus) gave Gk. galōs, Phryg. gelaros, O.C.S. zlŭva, Russ. zolovka, Pol. zełwa.

D.   For PIE áwos, áwjos, paternal grandfather, maternal uncle (originally *h2euh2os, an adult male relative other than one's father), compare Gmc. awaz (cf. Goth. awó, O.E. ēam, O.H.G. ōheim, Ger. Oheim), Lat. avus, avunculus, Gk. aia, Arm. hav, O.Pruss. awis, Lith. avynas, O.C.S. uy, Russ. uj, Pol. wuj, Gaul. avontīr, O.Ir. aue, Welsh ewythr; Hitt. huhhas. Also found in feminine áwjā, grandmother (cf. Lat. avia).

E.    IE népōts (gen. neptós), grandson, nephew, gives Gmc. nefat- (cf. O.E. nefa, O.H.G. nevo, Eng. nephew, Ger. Neffe), Lat. nepōs, Gk. anepsios, Skr. napāt, Av. napāt, O.Pers. napā, Pers. nave, Lith. nepuotis, O.C.S. nestera, Russ. nestera, Pol. nieściora, Gaul. nei, OIr. necht, níath, Welsh nai, Kamviri nâvo, Alb. nip.

F.    PIE swékuros, father-in-law, give Gmc. swikhura- (cf. Goth. swaíhrō, O.N. svǽra, Eng. swēor, O.H.G. swehur, swagur), Gk. hekuros, Skr. śvaśura, Av. xvasura-, Arm. skesur, Lith. šešuras, O.C.S. svekŭrŭ, Russ. svekrov', Pol. świekra, Welsh chwegr, Alb. vjehërr, Kamviri č.. probably ultimately derived from fem. swekrū́s, mother-in-law, as O.H.G. swigar, Ger. Schwieger, Lat. socrus, Skr. śvaśrū, O.Sla. svekry, etc.

133.   PIE jéwos, norm, right, law (possibly from PIE jeu, bind), as in O.Ind. yōḥ, Av. yaožda, refers in MIE to the body of rules and standards to be applied by courts;  jówos, law, as Lat. iūs, iūris (O.Lat. ious), and jowosā, swear, Lat. jūrō (O.Lat. iouesat, see rhotacism), p.part. jowosātós, sweared, giving Latin common borrowings jowosístos, jurist, apjowosā, abjure, adjowosā, adjure, komjowosā, conjure, jówosātos, jury, enjowosā, injury, perjowosā, perjure, jowoseskomséltos, jurisconsult, jowosesproweidéntiā, jurisprudence (from proweidéntiā, from IE per and weid); Italo-Celtic jowest(i)ós, just, as Lat. iustus, O.Ir. huisse (<*justjos).

MIE komselo, counsel, call together, deliberate, consider, as Lat. consulere, found in Lat. consulere senatum, MIE komséltu senátum, to gather the senate (to ask for advice), from kom- "with" + selotake, gather together” from PIE base sel-to take, seize.

134.    For “law” as a written or understood rule or the body of rules from the legislative authority, i.e. the concept of Lat. lex, MIE has different words:

I. Latin lex, legis, comes possibly from PIE lengthened *lēgs, hence lit. “collection of rules” (see PIE leg, collect), although it is used as Modern Indo-European lēghs (both IE g and gh could evolve as g in Latin), from PIE legh, lie, lay, because its final origin remains uncertain, and this root gives also Germanic o-grade lóghom, law, “that which is set or laid down”, Gmc. lagam (cf. O.N.,O.E. lagu, lag-, O.H.G. lāga, Eng. law, Sca. lov, Ger. Lage), with common derivatives lēghālís, legal, lēghitimā, legitimate, lēghiālís, loyal, lēgheslatr, legislator, preiwolghiom, privilege (“a law affecting one person”, from preiwós, private), and from Latin denominative lghā, depute, commision, charge, legate (“engage by contract”), as Lat. legāre, are lghātom, legacy, komlghā, colleage, komlēghiālís, collegial, delghātos, delegate, relēghā, relegate. Other known derivatives include léghio, lay, as Gmc. lagjan (cf. Goth. lagjan, O.S. leggian, O.N. leggja, O.E. lecgan, O.Fris. ledza, O.H.G. lecken, M.Du. legghan, Eng. lay, Ger. legen, Du. leggen), suffixed léghros, lair, bed, as Gmc. legraz (cf. O.E. leger, O.H.G. legar, M.Du. leger, Eng. lair), and léghtos, bed, as Lat. lectus; o-grade Greek lóghos, childbirth, place for lying in wait. Cf. Gk. lekhesthai, Toch. lake/leke, Lith. at-lagai, lagaminas, Ltv. lagača, O.C.S. lego, ležati, Russ. ležat', Pol. leżeć, Gaul. legasit, O.Ir. lige, Welsh gwely, Hitt. laggari.

For the same sense of “that which is set or laid down”, compare IE statútom, Lat. statutum, “statute”, from Lat. statuere, “establish” or statúmos, Lith. istatymas, from istatytiset up, establish” (from IE stā, stand, set down); also, Ger. Gesetz (from O.H.G. gisatzida, IE kom+sedio, set).

For PIE stā, stand, “place or thing that is standing”, compare common derivatives stlos, stool, as Gmc. stōlaz (cf. Goth. stols, O.N. stoll, O.E. stōl, O.H.G. stuol, O.Fris. stol, Ger. Stuhl), stntiā, stance, stage, stātēiuós, stative, kikromstntiā, circumstance, komstnts, constant, komtrāstā, contrast, di(s)stā, distnts, distant, ekstnts, enstnts, obhstkolos, obhstātrikós, obstetric, supstntiā, substance; stmēn, thread of the warp (a technical term), stamen; stmōn, thread, as Gk. stēmōn; starós, old, “long-standing”, as Slavic staru; zero-grade nasalized extended stanto, stand, as Gmc. standan (cf. O.N. standa, O.E.,O.S., Goth. standan, O.H.G. stantan, Swed. stå, Du. staan, Ger. stehen), as in ndherstanto, stand under, stántkarts (see kar-, hard), standard; suffixed stámnis, stem, as Gmc. stamniz (cf. O.N. stafn, O.S. stamm, O.E. stemn, stefn, O.H.G. stam, Dan. stamme, Swed. stam, Ger. Stamm); státis, place, as Gmc. stadiz (cf. Goth. staþs, O.S. stedi, O.N. staðr, O.E. stede, O.H.G. stat, Swed. stad, Du. stede, Ger. Stadt), Lat. státim, at once, stat, státiōn, a standing still, station, armistátiom, armistice, sāwelstátiom, solstice; Greek státis, standing, stanstill, statós, placed, standing as Gmc. stadaz (cf. O.N. stadhr, Eng. bestead), Gk. statos, as in -stat, statikós, static; dekstanā, make firm, establish, destine, obhstanā, set one's mind on, persist; státus, manner, position, condition, attitude, with derivatives statū́, height, stature, statuo, set up, erect, cause to stand, and superstáts (Lat. superstes), witness, “who stands beyond”; stádhlom, stable, “standing place”, as Lat. stabulum; stadhlís, standing firm, stable, stadhlisko, establish; Greek -statās, -stat, one that causes to stand, a standing; zer0-grade reduplicated sisto, set, place, stop, stand, as Lat. sistere, in komsisto, consist, desisto, desist, eksisto, exist, ensisto, insist, entersistátiom, interstice, persisto, persist, resisto, resist, supsisto, subsist, and from Gk. histanai, with státis, a standing, as in apostátis, katastátis, epistátis, epist, knowledge (Gk. πιστμη), epistāmologíā, supostátis, hypostasis, ikonostátis, wiswostátis, metastátis, próstatā, komsto, establish, komstámn, system; sistos, web, tissue, mast (“that which is set up”), Gk. στς, sistoghŕbhmn, histogram, etc.; compound pórstis, post, “that which stands before” (por-, before, forth, see per), Lat. postis; extended stau, “stout-standing, strong”, as st, place, stow, Gmc. stōwō; o-grade Greek stuiā, porch, in stōuikós, stoic; suffixed extended stáuros, cross, post, stake (see also stáuros, bull), enstaurā, restore, set upright again, restaurā, restore, rebuild, restaurnts, restaurant; zero-grade extended stū́los, pillar, as in epistū́los, supostū́los, oktōstū́los, peristū́los, prostū́los; steuirós, thick, stout, old, as Skr. sthavira; suffixed secondary form steu-,  suffixed stéurā, steering, as Gmc. steurō, and denominative verb steurio, steer, as Gmc. steurjan (cf. Goth. stiurjan,  O.N. styra, O.Fris. stiora, O.E. steran, stieran, O.H.G. stiuren, Du. sturen, Ger. steuern), a verb related to stéuros, large domestic animal, ox, steer (see stáuros), and stéurikos, calf, stirk. Derivatives include Gmc. standan, Lat. stare, Osc. staíet, Umb. stahmei, Gk. histami, Skr. tiṣṭhati, Av. hištaiti, O.Pers. aištata, Pers. istādan, Phryg. eistani, Toch. tām/stām, Arm. stanam, O.Pruss. stacle, Lith. stoti, Ltv. stāt, O.C.S. stati, Russ. stat', Polish stać, O.Ir. , Welsh gwastad, Alb. shtuara; Hitt. išta, Luw. išta-, Lyc. ta-.

II.   PIE leg, collect, with derivatives meaning speak, gives Lat. legere, “gather, choose, pluck, read”, Gk. legein, “gather, speak”, from which MIE légtiōn, lection, lesson, legtós, read, legtósā, lecture, legéndā (from a gerundive), leyend, legibhilís, legible, légiōn, komlego, gather, collect, komlégtiōn, collection, dislego, esteem, love, dislegénts, diligent, eklego, elect, eklégtiōn, election, enterlego, choose, enterlegē, perceive, enterlegénts, intelligent, ne(g)lego, neglect, prāilego, prelect, sakrilegós, one who steals sacred things, sakrilégiom, sacrilege (see sak), selego, select, sortilégos, diviner (see ser) sortilégiom, sortilege; légsikom, lexicon, -logos, -logue, -logíā, -logy, katalego, to list, katálogos, catalogue, dialego, discourse, use a dialect, dialogue, dialégtos, dialect, légtis, speech, diction, dislegtíā, dyslexia, eklegtikós, eclectic, etc.; légnom, wood, firewood (“that which is gathered”), as Lat. lignum; lógos, speech, word, reason, as Gk. λγος, as in lógikā, logic, logikós, logic, logístikā, logistic, análogos, analogous, apologíā, apology, epílogos, epilogue, komlogísmos, syllogism, prólogos, prologue.

For PIE sak, sanctify, gives sakrós, holy, sacred, dedicated, as Lat. sacer (O.Lat. saceres), in sakrā, make sacred, consecrate, sakristános, sacristan, komsakrā, consecrate, eksakrā, execrate; compound sakrodhts, priest, “performer of sacred rites” (for dhōt, doer, see dhē), as Lat. sacerdōs, in sakrodhōtālís, sacerdotal; nasalized sankio, make sacred, consacrate, with p.part. sanktós, sacred, as Lat. sancire, sanctus, as in sanktidhakā, sanctify. Compare also Osc. sakrim, Umb. sacra, and (outside Italic) maybe all from IE *saq, bind, restrict, enclose, protect, as IE words for both “oath” and “curse” are regularly words of binding (Tucker).

Also, with the meaning of “holy”, PIE root kwen, gives suffixed zero-grade kwńslom, sacrifice, as Gmc. khunslam (cf. Goth. hunsl, O.N. hunsl, O.E. hūsl, hūsel, Eng. housel), Av. spanyah, O.Pruss. swints, Lith. šventas, Ltv. svinēt, O.C.S. svętŭ, Russ. svjatoj, Polish święty.

PIE ser, line up, gives Lat. serere, “arrange, attach, join (in speech), discuss”, as in sériēs, adsero, assert, desertós, desert, dissertā, dissertate, eksero, put forth, stretch out, ensero, insert; sérmōn, speech, discourse, as Lat. sermō; sŕtis, lot, fortune (perhaps from the lining up of lots before drawing), as in srtiásios, sorcerer, komsŕtis, consort (“who has the same fortune”); sérā, lock, bolt, bar, (perhaps  “that which aligns”).

III. For PIE dhē, set, put, place, gives some common terms referring to “(divine) law, right, fate” (cf. Eng. doom), cf. Gmc. dōn (cf. Goth. gadeths, O.N. dalidun, O.E. dōn, O.H.G. tuon, Eng. do, Ger. tun) Lat. faciō, Osc. faciiad, Umb. feitu, O.Gk. tithēmi, Skr. dadhāti, Av. daðaiti, O.Pers. adadā, Phryg. dak-, Thrac. didzos, Toch. täs/täs, Arm. ed, Lith. dėti, Ltv. dēt, Russ. det'; delat', Polish dziać; działać, Gaul. dede, Welsh dall, Alb. ndonj, Hitt. dai, Lyc. ta-. Common MIE words include dhētós, set down, created, as O.Ira. datah; suffixed dhtis, “thing laid down or done”, law, deed, Gmc. dēdiz (cf. O.E. dǣd, Eng. deed); dh, receptacle, Gk. θκη, Eng. theca, as in apodh, “store, warehouse”, then extended as pharmacy (and also to Spa. bodega and Fr. boutique, both left as MIE loans), as in apodhēkrios, apothecary, apodhkiom, apothecium, bubliodh (from Greek loan búbliom, book, from the Greek name of the Phoenician city Gubla, Búblos or Cúblos, Gk. βύβλος, as in Búblia, bible, lit. “the books”), library, ambhidhkiom, amphithecium, endodhkiom, endothecium, peridhkiom, perithecium;  o-grade dhō, do, as Gmc. dōn; suffixed and prefixed apdhmēn, belly, abdomen, Lat. abdōmen, perhaps “part placed away, concealed part”; suffixed dhmos, judgement, “thing set or put down”, and dhōmio, judge, as Gmc. dōmaz, dōmjan (cf. Goth. dōms, O.N. dōmr, O.E. dōm, dēman, Eng. doom, deem; also into Russ. Duma, from a Germanic source), also as abstract suffix -dhmos indicating state, condition, power (cf.  O.N. -domr, O.E. -dom, Du. -dømme, Eng. -dom); zero-grade komdho, put together, establish, preserve, as Lat. condere, in apskomdho, abscond, rekomdhitós, recondite, and suffixed  komdhio, season, flavor, as Lat. condīre, in komdhiméntom, condiment; suffixed zero-grade form dhakio, do, make, as Lat. facere, usually found as Latin combining form -dhaks, Lat. -fex, “maker”, -dhakiom, Lat. -ficium, “a making”, both Eng. -fice, and -dhakā, Lat. -ficāre, -dhakio, Lat. -facere, both normally Eng. -fy; some common words include -dhakients, -facient, dháktos, fact, dháktiōn, faction, dhaktr, factor, dhaktoríā, factory, addhaktā, affect, addháktiōn, affection, amplidhakā, aplify, artidháktos, artifact, artidhákiom, artifice, dwēiatidhakós, beatific, komdháktiōn, confection, komdhaktionā, confect, dedhakio, fail, dedhakiénts, deficient, nisdodhakio, nidify (see nisdos, nest), aididhakā, edify (from Lat. aidis, a building), aididhákiom, edifice, ekdháktos, effect, endhaktā, infect, jowostidhakā, justify, malidhaktr, malefactor, manudhaktó, manufacture (see mánus, hand), modidhakā, modify, gnotidhakā, notify, opidháks, workman (see op, work), opidhákiom, service, duty, business, occupation, performance of work,  (from Lat. opificium, later officium), op(i)dhak, office, (cf. Lat. opificina, later officina), perdhakio, finish, perdhaktós, perfect, ōsidhákiom, orifice (see ōs, mouth), ekdhakio, accomplish, ekdháktos, effect, ekdhakiénts, efficient, ekdhakks, efficacious, endhaktā, infect, pontidháks, pontifex (see IE pent), prāidháktos, prefect, prodháktos, profit, prodhakiénts, profiting (Eng. “proficient”), putridhakio, putrify (see pu, rot), qālidhakā, qualify (see qo), pertidhakā, petrify, rāridhakā, rarefy (from borrowing rārós, rare, Lat. rārus), regtidhakā, rectify (see regtós, right, straight), redhakio, feed, refect, redhaktóriom, refectory, reudhidhakio, redden, reudhidhakiénts, rubefacient, (see reudhós, red), sakridhakā, sacrify, satisdhakio, satisfy (see ), supdhakio, suffice, supdhakiénts, sufficient; from Lat. dhákiēs, shape, face (“form imposed on something”), are dhakiālís, facial, superdhákiēs, surface; further suffixed dhaklís, feasible, easy, as Lat. facilis (from O.Lat. facul), as in dháklitā, ability, power, science, also noun dhaklís, with the sense of faculty, facilities, disdháklitā, difficulty; dhās, divine law, right, as Lat. fas; reduplicated Greek dhidho, put, Gk. tithenai, as in dhátis, a placing, Gk. θσις, also thesis, and adjective dhatós, placed, as in dhatikós, thetic, anadhámn, anathema, antidhátis, diadhasis, epidhátos, supodhakā, hypothecate, supodhátis, hypothesis, metadhátis, par(a)endhidho, insert, parendhátis, parenthesis, prosdhátis, prothesis, prosthesis, komdhátis, synthesis; dhámn, “thing placed,” proposition, theme, Gk. θμα, as in dhamntikós, thematic; reduplicated Sanskrit dhedhē, place, Skr. dadhāti, p.part. dhatós, placed, Skr. -hita-.

In Proto-Indo-European, another common verb meaning “make” existed, qer, as Skr. karoti, “he makes”, as in Sómsqrtom, Sanskrit, Skr. sasktam; also, common derivatives Greek qéras, monster, or dissimilated qélōr, monster, peloria; also, suffixed qérmn, act, deed, as Skr. karma.

III.1. Indo-European op, work, produce in abundance, include ópōs, work, Lat. opus, with denominative verb opesā, operate, as Lat. operārī, as in óperā, opera (affected by Lat. rhotacism), komopesā, manuopesā, maneuver; openentós, rich, wealthy, opulent, as Lat. dissim. opulentus, ópnis, all (from “abundant”), Lat. omnis, as in ópnibhos, omnibus; optmós, best (“wealthiest”), as Lat. optimus; komópiā, profusion, plenty, also copy, as in komopionts(ós), copious.

III.2. For PIE pent, tread, go, compare Gmc. finthan, “come upon, discover” (cf. Goth. finþan, O.N. finna, O.E. find, O.S. findan, M.Du. vinden, Ger. finden); suffixed póntis, way, passage, found in Lat. pōns, “bridge” (earliest mening of “way, passage” preserved in priestly title pontidháks, pontifex, he who prepares the way”), also found in Russ. путь, “path, way” (as in ‘sputnik’, fellow traveler, which could be translated as MIE “kompontinikós”); zero-grade pnto, tread, walk, in peripntetikós, peripatetic, Gk. περιπατητικς; suffixed pńtos, from Iranian (cf. Av. pɑntɑ (nominative), pɑθɑ (genitive) way, Old Persian pɑthi-), into W.Gmc. through Scythian, as Gmc. patha- (cf. O.E. paþ, pæþ, Fris. path, M.Du. pat, O.H.G. pfad, Eng. path, Du. pad, Ger. Pfad).

III.3. For PIE pu, rot, decay (from older *puh, it becomes , puw- before vowels), compare pūlós, rotten, filthy, as Gmc. fūlaz (cf. Goth. füls, O.N fúll, O.E. fūl, O.H.G. fül, M.Du. voul, Ger. faul), pūtrís, rotten, as Lat. puter, púwos/m, pus, as Lat. pūs, Gk. puon, puos, also in enpuwo, suppurate, as in enpuwémn, empyema.

III.4. Indo-European root man-, hand, gives Lat. mánus, with derivatives manudiā, manage (from V.Lat. manidiāre, into O.It. maneggiare, Fr. manager, Eng. manage, Spa. manejar, etc.), manuālís, manual, manúdhriom, handle, manubrium (from instr. suffix -dhro-), manteno, maintain (see ten), manikóisā (from Lat. cura, Archaic Latin koisa, “cure”), manighestós, caught in the act, blatant, obvious, (see chedh), manuskreibhtós, handwritten (see skreibh), manuskréibhtom, manuscript; manúpolos, handful (for -polos, full, see pel), manupolā, manipulate; mankós, maimed in the hand; mankáps, “he who takes by the handpurchaser, (-ceps, agential suffix, “taker”; see kap), in ekmankapā, emancipate; mandā, “to put into someone's hand,” entrust, order, from Latin compound mandāre, (-dare,to give”, see , although possibly from “put”, see dhē), mandtom, mandate, kommandā, command, entrust, commend, kommándos, commando, komtrāmandā, countermand, demandā, demand, rekommandā, recommend.

III.4.a. PIE ten, stretch, gives derivatives suffixed tendo, stretch, extend, as Lat. tendere, in adtendo, attend, komtendo, contend, detendo, detent, distendo, distend, ekstendo, extend, entendo, intend, prāitendo, pretend, suptendo, subtend; portendo, portend (“to stretch out before”, a technical term in augury, “to indicate, presage, foretell”); suffixed tenio, Gk. teinein, with o-grade ton- and zero-grade tńtis, a stretching, tension, intensity, as in katatóniā, entńtis, entasis, epitńtis, epitasis, supotenióntiā (Gk. ποτενουσα), hypotenusa, protńtis, protasis, komtonikós, syntonic, etc.; reduplicated zero-grade tétnos [‘te-tn̥-os], stiff, rigid, as Gk. ττανος, also tetanus; suffixed téntrom, loom, as Skr. tantram (cf. Pers. tār); stative tenē, hold, keep, maintain  (from “cause to endure or continue, hold on to”), as lat. tenēre, in tenks, tenacious, tenor, apstenē, abstain, komtenē, contain, komtenuós, continuous, komtenuā, continue, detenē, detain, entertenē, entertain, tenánts, holder, tenant, lieutenant, manutenē, maintain, obhtenē, obtain, pertenē, pertain, pertenks, pertinacious, retenē, retain, suptenē, sustain; derivatives meaning “stretched”, hence “thin” include tnús, as Gmc. thunniz, thunwiz (cf. O.N. þunnr, O.E. thynne, W.Fris. ten, O.H.G. dunni, M.L.G. dunne, Du. dun, Ger. dünn, Eng. thin), tenús, thin, rare, fine, as Lat. tenuis, in adtenuā, attenuate, ekstenuā, extenuate, tenrós, tender, delicate, as Lat. tener, (en)tenresko, touch, intenerate; derivatives meaning “something stretched or capable of being stretched, a string” include Greek ténōn, tendon, o-grade suffixed tónos, string, hence sound, pitch, tone, and suffixed zero-grade tńia, band, ribbon.

III.4.b. PIE chedh, ask, pray, gives suffixed chedhio, pray, entreat, Gmc. bidjan (cf. O.E. biddan, Ger. bitten, O.E. bid), chédhom, entreaty, as Gmc. bidam (cf. Goth. bida, O.E. bedu, gebed, O.H.G. beta, M.Du. bede, Eng. bead, Ger. bitte); chestós (<*chedhto-), into Lat. -festus, giving chestós, hostile (from “inexorable”), manuchestós, manifest, caught in the act.

Some assign Lat. -festus to a common PIE dhers, dare, be bold, as Gmc. derzan (cf. Goth. gadars, O.E. dearr, durran, Eng. dare), Gk. thrasys, Skt. dadharśa, O.Pers. darš-, O.C.S. druzate.

III.4.c. PIE skreibh, cut, separate, sift (an extension of sker), used as scratch, incise, hence write, as Lat. scrībere, giving skreibhtós, written, skréibhā, scribe, skréibhtos, script, skreibhtóriom, scriptorium, skréibhtā/skreibhtósā, scripture, adskreibho, ascribe, kikromskreibho, circumscribe, komskreibho, conscript, deskreibho, describe, enskreibho, inscribe, prāiskreibho, prescribe, proskreibho, proscribe, reskreibho, rescript, supskreibho, subscribe, superskreibho, superscribe, tran(s)skreibho, transcribe; from Greek is skréibhos, scratching, sketch, pencil, as Eng. scarify.

III.5. Common PIE , satisfy, as zero-grade satós, sated, satiated, as Gmc. sathaz (cf. Goth. saþs, O.N. saðr, O.H.G. sat, M.Du. sat, Eng. sad, Ger. satt, Du. zad), verb satio, satisfy, sate, as Gmc. sathōn (cf. O.E. sadian, Eng. sate); suffixed zero-grade saturós, full (of food), sated, as Lat. satur, in sáturā, satire, Lat. satyra, and saturā, saturate, Lat. saturā; satís, enough, sufficient, as Lat. satis, satiā, satisdhakio, satisfy, satiatā, satiety; sadrós, thick, as Gk. hadros.

135.   Indo-European root (s)teu, push, stick, knock, beat, is behind suffixed studo, be diligent (“be pressing forward”), Lat. studere, giving stúdiom, eagerness, then “study, application”, as in studiā, study, M.L. studiāre; other derivatives include extended (s)teupo, push, stick, knock, beat, as Gk. typtein, typos, Skt. tup-, tundate, Goth. stautanpush”, O.N. stuttr, and common Germanic steupós, high, lofty, as Gmc. staupaz (cf. O.E. steap, O.Fris. stap, M.H.G. stouf, Eng. steep).

136.    PIE sūs, pig, swine, and derivatives swnos/-m, give Gmc. swinam (cf. Goth. swein, O.S., O.Fris. M.L.G., O.H.G.,O.E. swin, M.Du. swijn, Du. zwijn, Ger. Schwein), súkā, sugō (cf. O.N. sýr, O.E. , O.S., O.H.G. su, Du. zeug, Eng. sow, Ger. Sau), cf. Lat. sūs, suinus, Umb. sif, Gk. hūs, Skr. sūkara, Av. , Toch. -/suwo, Ltv. sivēns, O.C.S. svinija Russ. svin, Polish świnia, Celtic sukko (cf. O.Ir. socc, Welsh hwch, O.E. hogg), Alb. thi.

Related Indo-European pórkos, young or little pig, gives Gmc. farkhaz (cf. O.E. fearh, M.L.G. ferken, O.H.G. farah, M.Du. varken, Ger. Ferkel, Eng. farrow), Lat. porcus, Umb. purka, Gk. porkos, Kurd. purs, O.Pruss. parstian, Lith. paršas, Russ. porosja, Polish prosię, prosiak, Gaul. orko O.Ir. orc, Lusitanian porcos.

137.   PIE kákkā, shit, excrement, and verb shit, cf. Ger. Kacke, Lat. cacāre, Gk. kakkaō, Pers. keke(h), Arm. k'akor, Lith. kaka, Russ. kakat', O.Ir. cacc, Welsh cach.

Other words for “shit” are Gmc. skitan, from PIE skeit-, “split, divide, separate”, and Lat. ekskreméntom, from ekskerno, “separate”, therefore both revealing an older notion of a “separation” of the body.

For IE krei, sieve, discriminate, distinguish, compare kéidhrom/kéitrom, sieve, as Gmc. khrithram (cf. O.E. hridder, hriddel, Eng. riddle), Lat. crībrum; suffixed kréimēn, judgment, crime, as Lat. crīmen, as in kreimenālís, criminal, rekreimenā, recriminate, diskréimēn, distinction, diskreimenā, discriminate; suffixed zero-grade krino, sift, separate, decide, as metathesized Lat. cernere, in p.part kritós, (Lat. *kirtos) certain, komkrino, concern, komkrítos, concert, dekrítos, decree, diskrino, discern, diskomkritā, disconcert, ekskrino, separate, ekskritós, separated, purged, ekskritā, excrete, ekskriméntom, excrement, krititúdōn, certitude, krititúdōn, incertitude, swekrino, secern, swekritā, secret, swekrítarios, secretary; suffixed zero-grade krinio, separate, decide, judge, explain, as Gk. κρνειν, in krítis, crisis, kritikós, critic, kritriōn, criterion, diakritikós, diacritic, endokrinós, endocrine, eksokrinós, exocrine, supokritíā, hypocrisy, krítā, judge, haimntokrítā, hematocrit (MIE haimn-, haimnto-, blood, are loan words from Gk. αμα, -ατος, usually MIE *saimn).

a.     For Indo-European méigh, urinate, sprinkle, hence “mist, fine rain”, also “mix” cf. Gmc. mihstu- (cf. Goth. maihstus, O.N. míga, O.E. miscian, mistel, O.H.G.  miskan, Du.dial. mieselen, Swed. mäsk, Ger. mischen), maisk- (cf. O.E. māsc, meox Swed. mäsk, Ger. Maisc, Eng. mash), Lat. mingere, meiere, Gk. omeikhein, Skr. mehati, Av. maēsati, Kurd. méz, Gk. omeihein, Toch. -/miśo, Arm. mizel, Lith. myžti, Ltv. mīzt, Russ. mezga, Pol. miazga. Latin micturire comes from suffixed ghtus, in mightusio, want to urinate, micturate.

b.    PIE wem, vomit, gives O.N. váma, Lat. vomere, Gk. emeso, Skr. vamiti, Av. vam, Pers. vātāk, O.Pruss. wynis, Lith. vemti, Ltv. vemt.

c.     PIE sp(j)ew, spit, gave Gmc. spjewan (cf. Goth. spiewan, ON spýja, O.E. spiwan, O.H.G. spīwan, Eng. spew, Ger. speien), Lat. spuere, Gk. ptuein, Skr. ṣṭīvati, Av. spāma, Pers. tuf, Arm. t'us, Lith. spjauti, Ltv. spļaut, O.C.S. pljujǫ, Russ. pljuju, Pol. pluć, Osset. thu,

d.    kwas, cough, gave Gmc. hwostan (cf. O.N. hósta, O.E. hwōsta, O.H.G. huosto, Ger. Husten, Skr. kasāte, Toch. /kosi, Lith. kosėti, Ltv. kāsēt, Russ. kašljat', Pol. kaszleć, Ir. casachdach, Welsh pas, Alb. kollje, Kam. kâsa.

138.   The name of the Rhine comes from Ger. Rhine, in turn from M.H.G. Rin, ultimately from an IE dialect, originally lit.“that which flows”, from PIE rej, flow, run, as Gk. rhein, with derivatives including suffixed rinuo, run, as Gmc. rinwan, rinnan, (cf. Goth., O.S., O.E. O.H.G., rinnan, O.N. rinna, M.Du. runnen, Ger. rinnen), Gmc. ril- (cf. Dutch ril, Low German rille, Eng. rill); suffixed réiwos, stream, river, as Lat. rīuus.

139.   IE albhós, white, gives derivatives Lat. albus, Umb. alfu, Gk. alphos, Russ. lebed', Lyc. alb-. Other derivatives are álbhos, álbhis, “white thing”, elf (from “white ghostly apparition”), as Gmc. albaz, albiz (cf. O.N. alfr Eng. ælf, Gm. Alps, Eng. elf, also in Welsh elfydd, and in Álbherōn, Oberon from a Germanic source akin to O.H.G. Alberich, into O.Fr. Auberon), and fem. álbhiniā, elfin; Latin derivatives include albhinós, albino, álbhom, album, álbhomōn, albhómonā, albumen.

MIE Albhániā, Albania, comes from M.Gk. Αλβανία. Although the name of Albania in its language is different (Alb. Shqipëria,  “Land of the eagles”), it appeared only after the Turkish invasions, and the name Albhániā is internationally used today. Probably the terms for Albanian speakers of Greece and Italy (as Arvanite, Arber, Arbëreshë, etc.) are also derived from this older noun.

A proper IE word for “eagle” is órōn (from older *h3oron, cf. Hitt. arā-), as Gmc. arnuz (cf. Goth. ara, O.N. ari, O.E. earn, O.H.G. arn, Eng. erne, Ger. Aar), órnis, bird, as in Gk. ornitho-, and other derivatives from PIE root or-, large bird, cf. Gk. orneon, Arm. arciv, Old Prussian arelis, Lith. erelis, Ltv. ērglis, Russ. orel, Pol. orzeł, O.Ir. irar, Welsh eryr, Alb. orë.

Álbhā, Scotland, is a Scots- and Irish-Gaelic name for Scotland, as well as Álbhiōn, Albion, which designates sometimes the entire island of Great Britain and sometimes the country of England. The “white” is generally held to refer to the cliffs of white chalk around the English town of Dover, in the south of Great Britain.

Common MIE names are Skotts, Scot, Skott(isk)léndhom, Scotland, and Germanic Skottiskós, scottish.

For “white, shining”, compare also PIE argós, argís, as Goth. unairkns, O.E.. eorcnan(stān), Lat. arguō, Osc. aragetud, Gk. arguros, erchan, Skr. arjuna, Av. arəzah, Phryg. arg, Thrac. arzas, Toch. ārki/arkwi, Arm. arcat', Gaul. Argentoratum, O.Ir. argat, Welsh ariant, Hitt. arkiš. Common derivatives include Latin argéntom, silver, argent, argentinā, argentine; Greek argil(l)os, white clay, argil, argúros, silver, arginouís, brilliant, bright-shining; IE argús, brilliant, clear, in argúio, make clear, demonstrate, argue, Lat. arguere; suffixed argrós, white, Gk. argos.

140.   Frankish loan words frankós, frank, and Fránkos, freeman, a Frank, (cf. O.E. Franca, O.H.G. Franko, M.L. Franc,  Eng. Frank, Lith. franču, etc.), and Frankiskós, Frankish (cf. O.E. frencisc, Eng. French, Swe. Fransk, Du. frans, etc.), gives Fránkiā, France (as Fr. France, and not Frankā, which would be like Fr. Franche), and Frankiakós, or maybe secondary Frankosiskós (or Frankosistós), French, cf. Ger. Französisch, Rom. franţuzeşte, Russ. французский, Pol. francuski, etc. – the common Romance adj. from Lat. Francensis (cf. Fr. français, It. franzese, Spa. francés, etc.), *frankénts(is)? seems too a secondary formation.

Other country names in MIE:

a.     Spain: Phoenician/Punic ‘Î-šəpānîmthe isle of hares” (where initial “hi” is a definite article). The Phoenician settlers found hares in abundance, and they named the land in their Canaanite dialect. The Latin-speaking Romans adapted the name as Hispania. The Latin name was altered among the Romance languages through O.Fr. Espagne and espaignol (through M.L. Hispaniolus), and entered English from Norman French, hence MIE Hispániā, Hispania, and Hispanós, Hispaniard, Hispanikós, Hispanic, and modern European words Spániā, Spain, Spanós, Spanish, cf. Lat. hispānus, Gk. ispanós.

b.    Greece: From Gk. Γραικοί, Lat. Graecus (claimed by Aristotle to refer to the name of the original people of Epirus) is the general international name, hence MIE Graikós, Greek, Gráikiā, Greece. However, the proper old name is Sewlēnós, Hellene, Greek, (possibly from “luminary, bright”), as Gk.Ελληνος, Sewlēnikós, Hellenic, and Sewlás or Sewládā, Hellas/Ellas/Ellada, Greece, a word possibly related to Gk. έλ- (hel-) “sun, bright, shiny”, (cf. Gk. helios, “sun”, from IE sāwel), in turn possibly related to the tribe of the Selloi, Gk. Σελλοί.

c.     Denmark: The Dhánes, Danes (Lat. Dani), were the dominant people of the region since ancient times. The origin of their tribal name is unknown, although it could be a Latin borrowing from a Germanic name, and as Gmc. dan- is IE dhen-, it is possibly related to PIE dhen, “low, flat”, in reference to the lowland nature of most of the country (cf. etymology of Poland and Netherland). Dhan(ēm)márg(ā), Denmark, (“the March of the low landers”), with Gmc. gen. -ēm, is then from compound Dhan (in + marg, boundary, border.

PIE marg, boundary, border, gives derivatives marg(s), Gmc. mark-, “boundary, border territory”, also “landmark, boundary marker”, and “mark in general (and in particular a mark on a metal currency bar, hence a unit of currency), cf. Goth. marka, O.N. mörk, O.E. mearc, merc, O.Fr. marc, O.Fris. merke, Du. merk, Ger. Mark, Sca. mark, and margio, note, notice, Gmc. markjan (cf. O.N. merki, O.H.G. merken, O.E. mearcian), in remargio, remark; also, derived from Germanic, compare fem. márgā, “mark out, mark”, Gmc. markōn (cf. Frank. markōn, O.It. marcare), and “border country, march, marc”, Gmc. markō (cf. O.Fr. marche, M.Lat. marca), and. Other derivatives include márgōn, border, edge, margin, as Lat. margo, in (ek)margonā, emarginate; Celtic variant mrógis, territory, land, mrógos, district, (cf. O.Ir. mruig, bruig, Welsh bro, Corn. bro, Bret. broin), in compound from British Celtic Kommrógos, Welsh, “fellow countryman” (cf. Welsh Cymro), as in Kommrógiā, Wales, Welsh Cymru.

d. Rōmaníā, Romania, comes from R, Rome, hence the same MIE adjective Rōmānós for (ancient and modern) Roman and Romanian people (cf. Rom. români), although modern borrowings MIE Rōmāniós/Rōmānianós and Rōmānistós (cf. common endings Rom. -eană, -eşte) could be used for Romanian. Older variants of the name were written with -u, as Eng. Rumania  (probably a French-influenced spelling, from Fr. Roumanie), as Rom. rumâni.

141.    From PIE pej, be fat, swell, are derivatives zero-grade ptuitā, moisture exuded from trees, gum, phlegm, as in pītuitáriā, pituitary; pnus, pine tree (yielding a resin), as Lat. pīnus, in pniā, pine, piña, pniōn, piñon; suffixed pwōn, fat, as Skr. pvan, Gk. pīōn; suffixed pīweriós, fat, fertile, as Skr. pvarī, Gk. peira, in Pweriā, “fertile region”, cf. O.Ir. Īweriū (Ir. Eire, M.Welsh Iwerydd, Iwerddon, also in O.E. Īras, Eng. Ire[land]),  Gk. Pīeriā (a region of Macedonia, cf. Eng. Pierian Spring); extended o-grade póitos, plump, fat, in verb póitio, fatten, Gmc. faitjan, p.part. poiditós, fattened, giving póiditos, fat, as Gmc. faitithaz (cf. O.N. feitr, O.E. fætt, Du. vet, Ger. fett). Compare also Lat. pinguis (a mix of Lat. finguis, Gk. pakhus, and Lat. opīmus, Gk. pimelh).  Gk. pitys, Skr. pituh, pitudaruh, payate, Lith. pienas.

 Pine tree” in PIE is gelunā, found in O.N. giolnar, Gk. kheilos, Arm. jelun/čelun, Lith. pušis, Ir. giúis.

142.   IE reconstructed gńingos, “leader of the people”, king, as Gmc. kuningaz (cf. O.N. konungr, O.H.G. kuning, O.E. cyning, Du. koning, Dan. konge, Ger. könig), is related to O.E. cynn, “family, race”, Mod. Eng. kin (see gen); O.C.S. kuneguprince” (cf. Rus. knyaz, Boh. knez), Lith. kunigasclergyman”, and Finnish kuningasking”, are deemed loans from Germanic. MIE neuter gningodhmos is a loan translation of Eng. king-dom, Du. konge-dømme (see dhē), as gningorgiom is for Gmc. kuninga-rikjam (cf. Du. koninkrijk, Ger. Königreich, Da. kongerige, Swe. kungarike, Nor. kongerike). However, note that the proper O.E. word for “kingdom” was simply rīce, as PIE and MIE rgiom.

143.   The international name Montinécros, from necrós móntis, black mount(ain) (after the appearance of Mount Lovćen or its dark coniferous forests), was given by Italian conquerors, possibly from Venice. The term was loan-translated in Slavic (substituting their older name, Sla. Zeta) as Krsn Cor (or Krsnocóriā), from krsnós, black (cf. Sla. čurnu, O.Pruss. kirsnan, Lith. kirsnas, Skr.  ksna, from PIE kers), and cor, mount(ain).

PIE nominal root kers, heat, fire, gives kértā, hearth, “burning place”, as Gmc. kherthō (cf. O.E. heorð, O.Fris. herth, M.Du. hert, Ger. Herd); zero-grade kŕdhōn, charcoal, ember, carbon, as Lat carbō (in light of Gmc. kherth-, O.Ind. kūḍayāti), extended kremā, burn, cremate, as Lat. cremāre; sufixed extended Greek kerámos, potter's clay, earthenware, as in keramikós, ceramic; and in colour (apart from krsnós, black), compare extended verb krāso, color, as Russ. krasit’.

144.   MIE Swéones (maybe orig. Swíonis), Suiones, from Swéōn, swede, is a proper reconstruction for Gmc. swioniz, (cf. O.E. Sweon, Sweonas); in O.N. svear/svíar, the n disappeared in the plural noun, still preserved in the old adjective Swe. svensk, MIE Sweoniskós, swedish. The name became part of a compound, MIE Sweotéutā, “The Suione People” (see teutā), as O.N Svíþjóð, O.E. Sweoðeod (cf. Ice. Svíþjóð, Eng. Sweden, Ger. Schweden, Du. Zweden). The only Germanic nation having a similar naming was the Goths, who from the name Gmc. Gutans (cf. Suehans, “Swedes”) created the form gut-þiuda. The name Swethiuth and its different forms gave rise to the different IE names for Sweden (cf. M.Lat. Suetia, Gk. Σουηδία, Hi. Svī.dan, Pers. Sued, Lith. Švedija, Russ. Швеция, Pol. Szwecja, even Maltese Svezja, Heb. Shvedia, Jap. Suwēden, Kor. Seuweden, etc). Another modern (Scandinavian) compound comes from MIE Sweorgiom, “The Realm of the Swedes”, cf. O.N. Svíariki, O.E. Swēorīċe (cf. Swe. Sverige, Da.,Nor. Sverige, Fae. Svøríki, Ltv. Zviedrija, Saami Sveerje, Svierik). Another Germanic compound that has not survived into modern times is Sweoléndhom, “The Land of the Swedes”, as O.E. Swēoland.

145.   Germanic Finnléndhom, “Land of the Finns”, comes from the Norsemen's name for the Sami or Lapps, Finn or Finnós, Finn (cf. O.N. finnr, O.E. finnas). The word may be related to Eng. fen or find.

English “fen” is probably from an original IE pánio-, “marsh, dirt, mud”, as Gmc. fanja- (cf. Goth. fani, O.E. fen, fenn, O.Fris. fenne, Du. veen, Ger. Fenn), borrowed in It., Sp. fango, O.Fr. fanc, Fr. fange; compare also Skr. panka, O.Prus. pannean, Gaul. anam.

146.   A PIE base per-, traffic in, sell (“hand over, distribute”, see per), is behind enterpreso, negotiate, as in enterpréts, go-between, negotiator, interpret, verb enterpretā, interpret; prétiom, price, Lat. pretium, in pretiōsós, precious, adpretiā, appreciate, depretiā, depreciate; perno, sell, as in porn, prostitute, as Gk. πορνη, in pornogrbhós (or abb. pornós), pornographic, porno.

Other meanings of IE base per- (from per, see also verb pero), are try, risk (from “lead over”, “press forward”), and strike. Compare from the first meaning extended pros, danger, as Gmc. fēraz (cf. O.S.,O.N. fár, O.E. fǣr, Ger. Gefahr Eng. fear); suffixed pertlom, danger, peril, as Lat. perīclum; suffixed and prefixed eksperio, try, learn by trying, as in ekspertós, tried, ekspértos, experienced, expert, eksperiméntom, experiment, eksperiéntiā, experience; périā, trial, attempt, as Gk. πειρα, in peri, pirate, as Gk. πειρατς, emperiākós, empiric. From the second meaning is extended Latin pre-m-, pre-s, as in premo, press, presós, pressed, giving présiōn, pressure, depremo, depress, deprésiōn, depression, ekspremo, express, ekspresós, express, eksprésos, espresso, enpremo, impress, enpremtós/enpresós, impressed, enpremtā, imprint, obhpremo, oppress, obhpresós, oppressed, repremo, repress, represós, repressed, reprementā, reprimand, suppremo, suppress, suppresós, suppressed.

147.   Latin eksáliom, exilium, “banishment”, comes from eksál, Lat. exul, “banished person”, from eks, “away”, and PIE al, “wander”, as in Gk. alasthai.

148.   MIE parénts, father or mother, ancestor, as Lat parens, comes from verb paro, bring forth, give birth to, produce, Lat. parere, from PIE base per-, bring forth, as in parā, make ready, in prāiparā, prepare; for IE derivatives referring to young animals, cf. O.E. fearr, “bull”, O.H.G. farro, Ger. Farre, Gk. poris, Skr. prthuka, Lith. pariu, Cz. spratek.

149.   Indo-European ówis (older *h2owi-), sheep, gives Gmc. awiz (cf. Goth. awēþi, ON ǽr, O.E. ēow, O.H.G. ouwi, M.Du. ooge, Eng. ewe, Ger. Aue), Lat. ovis, Umbrian uvem, Gk. οις, Skr. avika, Toch. āuw, Arm. hoviv, O. Pruss. awins, Lith. avis, Ltv. avs, Russ. овца, Polish owca, O.Ir. ói, Welsh ewig, Hitt. awi, Luw. āwi-, Lyc. xabwa. A common Latin derivative is owinós, ovine.

150.   PIE root pek, pluck, gives pék, cattle; compare Gmc. fehu (Goth. faihu, O.N. , O.E. feoh, O.H.G. fihu, Eng. fee, fellow, Ger. Vieh), Lat. pecu, pecū, Gk. πεκω, Skr. paśu, Av. pasu, Arm. asr, O. Pruss. pecku, Lith. pekus, Alb. pilë. Common derivatives include pékudom, feudal estate, feud, from Med.Lat. feudum, from Gmc. fehu; pekū́niā, property, wealth, as Lat. pecunia, gives pekūniāsiós, pecuniary, pekūniós, impecunious; and suffixed pekū́liom, riches in cattle, private property, gives pekūliālís, peculiar, and pekulā, peculate.

151.    PIE egnís, fire, referred to fire as a living force (compare áqā-após), different to the inanimate substance pwr, and gave known IE derivatives as Lat. ignis, Skr. agni, Lith. ugnis, Ltv. uguns, OCS ognĭ, Russ. огонь, Polish ogień, Alb. enjte; Hitt. agniš. However, in Modern Indo-European (due to the disappearance of such old distinctions) both words have usually come to mean the same, with many dialects choosing only one as the main word for a general “fire”.

152.   Proto-Indo-European bhrūs, brow, is found in Ger. brū- (O.E. brū, Nor. brún, Ger. Braue, Eng. brow), Gk. οφρύς, Skr. bhrus, Pers. abru, Toch. pärwā/pärwāne, O.Pruss. wubri, Lith. bruvis, O.C.S. bruvi, Russ. бровь, Polish brew, Cel. briva (>bhr, bridge), O.Ir. bru; Ancient Macedonian abroutes.

153.   For Indo-European kerd, heart (old inflection Nom. kerds, Acc. kérdm, Gen. krdós, cf. Anatolian kart-s), compare suffixed kérdōn, as Gmc. khertōn (cf. Goth. hairto, O.S. herta, O.N. hjarta, O.E. heorte, O.H.G. herza, Du. hart, Eng. heart, Ger. Herz), Lat. cor (stem cord-, from krd), Gk. kardia, Skr. hdaya, Av. zərə, Arm. sird/sirt, O. Pruss. seyr, Lith. širdis, Ltv. sirds, O.C.S. srĭdĭce, sreda, Russ. serdce, Pol. serce, O.Ir. cride, Welsh craidd, Bret. kreiz, Kamviri zâra. Common MIE words are from Latin zero-grade krdiālís, cordial, adkrdā, accord, komkrdā, concord, diskrdā, discord, rekrdā, record; further suffixed zero-grade Greek kŕdiā, heart, also stomach, orifice, gives krdiakós, cardiac, endokŕdiom, endocardium, epikŕdiom, epicardium, megalokŕdiā, perikŕdiom, pericardium; from compound kred-dha-, “to place trust” (an old religious term, from zero-grade of dhē, do, place), is kreddho, believe (a separable verb) as Lat. credere (cf. Fr. croire, It. credere, Spa. creer, Pt. acreditar, crêr, Rom. crede), in kredhénts, credence, kredhibhilís, credible, krédhitos, credit, kred dhō, “I believe”, credo, kredholós, credulous.

West Germanic “believe” comes from IE komloubhio, “to hold dear”, esteem, trust, as Gmc. galaubjan (cf. O.E. geleafa, ge-lēfan, gelyfan, Du. geloven, Ger. glauben), from PIE verbal root leubh, care, desire, love, as L. lubet (later libet), Osc. loufit, Skt. lubhyati, Lith. liaupsė, O.C.S. ljubŭ, Pol. lubić, Alb. lum. Common derivatives include leubhós, dear, beloved, as Gmc. leubaz (cf. Goth. liufs, O.N. ljutr, O.E. leof, O.Fris. liaf, O.H.G. liob, Eng. lief, Ger. lieb), also o-grade lóubhā, permission, as Gmc. laubō (cf. O.E. leafe, Eng. leave); from zero-grade lúbhā, love, is Gmc. lubō (cf. Goth. liufs, O.N. ljúfr, O.E. lufu, O.Fris. liaf, O.H.G. liob, Eng. love, not found elsewhere as a noun, except O.H.G. luba, Ger. Liebe); also zero-grade stative lubhē, be dear, be pleasing, as Lat. libēre (O.Lat. lubēre); also, lúbhīdōn, pleasure, desire, as Lat. libīdō.

North Germanic verb “tro” comes from IE deru, faith, trust, as Eng. trust.

Slavic verb for believe, werio, comes from werós, true, cf. Russ. верить, Pol., wierzyć, Sr.-Cr. vjerovati, Slo. verovati, etc.

154.   IE kwōn, dog, gives derivatives Gmc. khundas (from kun(t)ós, originally Genitive, cf. Goth. hunds, O.E. hund, O.N. hundr, O.H.G. hunt, Eng. hound, Ger. Hund), Lat. canis, Gk. kuōn, Skr. śvan, Av. spā, Pers. sag, Phryg. kunes, Thrac. dinu-, Dacian kinu-, Toch. ku/ku, Arm. šun, O.Pruss. sunis, Lith. šuo, Ltv. suns, Russ. suka, Pol. suka, Gaul. cuna, O.Ir. , Welsh ci, Alb. shakë; Hitt. śuwanis, Lyd. kan-. Derivatives kwonikós, cynic, from Gk. κυνικς; variant Lat. kánis gives kanāsiós, pertaining to dogs, kanrios, canary, kaninós, canine.

155.   Compare the well-attested derivatives of PIE numerals from one to ten:

I. The usual IE word for one is óinos, (earlier *h1oinos) one, only, attested as Gmc. ainaz (cf. Goth. ains, O.N. einn, O.E. ān, O.H.G. ein, Dan. een, O.Fris. an, Du. een), Lat. ūnus (O.Lat. oinus), Osc. uinus, Umb. uns, Gk. ονη, O.Pruss. aīns, Lith. vienas, Ltv. viens, O.C.S., (ѥд)инъ, ино-, O.Russ. [од]инъ, [од]ина, Polish [jed]en, Gaul. oinos, O.Ir. óin, Welsh un, Kamviri ev, Alb. një/nji, Osset. иу (iu). Slavic prefix ed- comes from IE ek, “out”.

PIE root oi-, earlier *h1ói, (which gives oinos) had other rare compounds, as óiwos, one alone, unique, as Gk. oi(w)os, Av. aēva, O.Pers. aiva, óikos, (maybe óiqos) one, as Hitt. aika-, O.Ind. éka-, Hindi एक(ek), Urdu ای (ik), Rro. yek, Pers. یِ (yek), Kashmiri akh. It had also vowel grades ei-, i-, as in ijo-, Gk. iō.

Derivatives include alnóinos, “all one”, alone, from alnós óinos, as W.Gmc. all ainaz (cf. Eng. alone, Ger. alleine, Du. alleen), nóin(os), “not one”, none, from ne óinos,  as Gmc. nain-az (cf. O.S., M.L.G. nen, O.N. neinn, O.E. nan, M.Du., Du. neen, O.H.G., Ger. nein, Eng. none), Lat. nōn (cf. also Lat. nec unus in It. nessuno, Spa. ninguno, Pt. ninguém); from Latin are óiniōn, union, oinio, unite, oinitós, united, óinitā, unity, oinitā, unite, adoinā, join, komadoinā, coadunate, oinanamós, unanimous, oinikórnis, unicorn, oiniwérsos, universe; suffixed oinikós, one, anyone, and sole, single, as Gmc. ainigaz (cf. O.S. enig, O.N. einigr, O.E. ænig O.Fris. enich, Du. enig, Ger. einig, Eng. any), Lat. ūnicus, also in óinkiā, one twelfth of a unit, as Lat. ūncia.

For ordinal MIE prwós [pr̥:-wós], first, also dialectal preismós, prowtós, pristós [pr̥-is-‘tos] (see more derivatives from per, forward, through, in front of, before, early, hence “foremost, first”, cf. Hitt. para, Lyc. pri), compare Gmc. furistaz (cf. O.N. fyrstr, O.E. fyrst, O.H.G. furist, fruo, Eng. first, Ger. Fürst, früh), Lat. primus, Osc. perum, Umb. pert, Gk. prōtos, Skr. prathama, Av. paoiriia, pairi, Osset. fyccag, farast, Toch. parwät/parwe, O.Pruss. pariy, Lith. pirmas, Ltv. pirmais, O.C.S. pĭrvŭ, Russ. pervyj, Polish pierwszy, O.Ir. er, Welsh ar, Alb. i parë, Kam. pürük.

PIE root sem-, one, together, united (Nom. séms/sōms, Gen. s(e)mós/somós, and as prefix sm̥), which refers to the unity considered as a whole, and appears usually in word compounds, as in seme, at once, at the same time, sémel, one time, as Lat. simul, ensémel, at the same time, ensemble; sémele, formerly, once, etc. Compare Gmc. sam- (cf. Goth. sama, O.N. sami, O.E. sum, O.H.G. saman, Eng. some, Ger. [zu]sammen), Lat. semel, Gk. heis, Skr. sakt, Av. hakeret, O.Pers. hama, Toch. sas/e, Arm. mi, Lith. sa, Russ. сам, O.Ir. samail, Welsh hafal, Alb. gjithë, Kam. ~; Hitt. san, Lyc. sñta.

Derivatives include Greek full grade semdekmkomlabikós, hendecasyllabic (from MIE borrowing kómlabā, syllable, Gk. sullambanein, to combine in pronunciation, from kom and Gk. lambanein, to take), semodhesísmos, henotheism (see dhēs), suposem, hyphen (see supo); smkmtóm, see kmtóm, hundred; suffixed sémel, at the same time, Lat. simul, as in semeltaniós, simultaneous, adsemelā, assemble; sem(g)olós, alone, single, Lat. singulus; compound sémper (see per), always, ever (“once and for all”), Lat. semper; o-grade som, together, Skr. sam, and zero-grade extended sḿmn, together with, at the same time, as Gk. hama; o-grade suffixed somós, same, as Gmc. samaz (cf. O.N. samr, Eng. same), Gk. homos, in somo-, homo-, somio-, homeo-, sómilos, crowd, somilíā, discourse, homily, Gk. μιλα; somlós, like, even, level, in somlós, anomalous, somlogrbhikós, homolographic; lengthened sōmís, fitting, agreeable, (< “making one”, “reconciling”), as Gmc. somiz (cf. O.N. sœmr, Eng. seem, seemly), also in sōmo-, self, Russ. sam(o); zero-grade sm̥-, as Gk. ha-, a-, “together” (the ‘a copulativum’, ‘a athroistikon’) as e.g. in a-delphosbrother”, from sm-celbhos literally "from the same womb" (cf. Delphi), cognate to English same (cf. Symbel), or Skr. sa-, present e.g. in the term for the language itself, viz. s(o)ms-qrtā, Skr. sa-s-kput together”; smplós, simple, Lat. simplus, Gk. haploos, haplous, also smplks, “one fold”, simple, as Lat. simplex, in smplkitā, simplicity; suffixed sḿmos, one, a certain one, also -smmos, like, as Gmc. sumaz (cf. O.E. sum, -sum, Eng. some, -some); smmlós, of the same kind, like, similar, as Lat. similis, adsmmlā, assimilate; usually reconstructed *sḿteros, one of two, other, as Gk. heteros (older hateros), although sńteros (cognate with Lat. sine) should be used.

Compare also smi, half, generally as first member of a compound, as Gmc. sēmi- (cf. O.E. sām-, in compounds samblind, samlæred, “half-taught, badly instructed”, samstorfen), Gk. hēmi, and Lat. semi- and sémis, half.

II.   The forms for “two” alternate dwo/do, with duw-/du-, cf. Gmc. two- (cf. Goth. twai, O.N. tveir, O.E. twā, O.H.G. zwene, Eng. two, Ger. zwei), Lat. duo, Osc. dus, Umb. tuf, Gk. δύο, Skr. dva, Av. duua, Pers. duva, Pers. do, Toch. wu/wi, Arm. erku, O.Pruss. dwāi, Lith. du/dvi, Ltv. divi, O.C.S. dŭva, Russ. два, Pol. dwa, Gaul. vo, O.Ir. , Welsh dau, Kamviri , Alb. dy; Hitt. -, Lyc. tuwa. See also ámbhos, both.

Common PIE “second” was  alterós (from PIE al, beyond) and anterós, “the other of the two, the second, other”, cf. Gmc. antharaz (cf. O.S. athar, O.N. annarr, Ger. ander, Goth. anþar), Lat. alter, Lith. antras, Skt. antarah, both senses still found in some modern languages, cf. Da. anden, Swe. andra, Nor. andre, Ice. annar

To avoid ambiguity, some languages have renewed the vocabulary, as in  suffixed participial Lat. seqondós, following, coming next, second (from PIE seq, follow), borowed in English second, while others have made compounds imitating the general ordinal formation in their dialects (cf. Ger. zweite, Du. tweede, Gk. δεύτερος, Skr. dvitīya, Fr. deuxième, Ir. dóú, Bret. daouvet, etc.), hence MIE dwoterós, dwitós, dwiós, etc.

Slavic languages have undergone a curious change, retaining the same words for “other” and “second” (and therefore the ambiguity), but using a word for “friend” (hence “other”), from IE deru, be firm, solid (hence also “be trustworthy”), compare O.Sla. дроугъ, giving Russ. друг, O.Pol. drug, Sr.-Cr., Slo. drȗg, Cz., Slk. druh, O.Pruss. draugiwaldūnen, Lith. draũgas, sudrugti, Lath. dràugs, and even Germanic (cf. verbs Goth. driugan, O.N. draugr, O.E. dréogan, Eng. dial. dree, “endure”, and as noun Goth. gadraúhts, O.H.G. trucht, truhtin).

III. For PIE root tritrei- (cf. Hitt. tri-, Lyc. trei), giving IE tréjes, three, compare Gmc. thrijiz (cf. Goth. þreis, O.N. þrír, O.E. þrēo, O.H.G. drī, Eng. three, Ger. drei), Lat. trēs, Umb. trif, Osc. trís, O.Gk. τρείς, Gk.Cret. τρέες, Gk.Lesb. τρς, Skr. tráyas, tri, Av. thri, Phryg. thri-, Illyr. tri-, Toch. tre/trai, Arm. erek', O.Pers. çi, Pers. se, O.Pruss. tri, Lith. trs, Ltv. trīs, Sla. trьje (cf. O.C.S. trĭje, O.Russ. трие, O.Cz. třiе, Polish trzy), Gaul. treis, O.Ir. treí, Welsh tri, Alb. tre. Modern derivatives include zero-grade trístis (from tri+st, see stā), “third person standing by”, witness, as Lat. testis, in trístā, witness, trístāments, testament, tristíkolos, testicle, adtristā, attest, komtristā, contest, detristā, detest, obhtristā, obtest, protristā, protest, tristidhakā, testify; suffixed o-grade form trójā, group of three, gives Russian tróikā.

For ordinal trit(i)ós, trtijós, compare Gmc thridjaz (cf. Goth. þridja, O.N. þriðe, O.E. þridda, O.Fris. thredda, O.S. thriddio, O.H.G. dritto, M.L.G. drudde, Du. derde, Ger. dritte), Lat. tertius, Gk. tritos, Skt. trtiyas, Avestan thritya, Lith. trecias, O.C.S. tretiji, O.Ir. triss, with common derivatives including trítiom, tritium.

IV. Alternating forms of four are qetwor, qtwor, qetur, qetr, qetwr. Unlike one, two, three, the inflected forms of “four”, i.e. m. qetwóres, f. qetwesóres, n. qetwr, are not common to all IE dialects; compare Gmc. fe(d)wor (cf. Goth. fidwor, O.N. fjórir, O.S. fiwar, O.Fris. fiuwer, Frank. fitter-, O.E. fēower, O.H.G. feor, Eng. four, Ger. vier Dan. fire, Sw. fyra), Lat. quattuor, Osc. petora, Umb. petor, Gk.Hom. τέσσαρες, πίσυρες, Gk.Ion. τέσσερες, Gk.Dor. τέτορες, O.Ind. catvā́ras, catúras, Av. čathwar, čaturam, Pers. čahār, Kurd. čwar, Thrac. ketri-, Toch. śtwar/śtwer, Arm. č'ork', O.Pruss. keturjāi, Lith. keturì, O.Ltv. сеtri, O.C.S. četyri, Russ. четыре, Pol. cztery, Gaul. petor, O.Ir. cethir, Welsh pedwar, Bret. pevar, Alb. katër, Kam. što; Lyc. teteri.

For ordinal adjective qeturós, qetwrtós (also qeturtós), compare Gmc. fedworthaz (cf. O.E. fēortha, fēowertha, O.H.G. fiordo, M.Du. veerde, Ger. vierte, Eng. fourth), Lat. quārtus, Lith. ketvirtas, Russ. четвёртый, Cz. čtvrtý, Ir. ceathrú, Welsh pedwaredd.

V.    For Indo-European pénqe, five, compare Gmc. finfe (cf. Goth. fimf, O.S. fif, O.N. fimm, O.E. fīf, O.H.G. funf), Lat. quinque, Osc. pompe, Umb. pumpe, Gk. πέντε, Skr. pañca, Av. pača, O.Pers. panča, Phryg. pinke, Toch. päñ/piś, Arm. hing, O.Pruss. pēnkjāi, Lith. penki, Ltv. pieci, O.C.S. pętĭ, Russ. пять, Polish pięć, Gaul. pempe, O.Ir. cóic, Welsh pump, Alb. pesë, Kam. puč; Luw. panta.

For ordinal penqtós, compare Gmc. finfthaz (cf. Eng. fifth, Du. vijfde, Ger. fünfte, Sca. femte, etc.), Lat. quintus, Gk. πέμπτος, Lith. penktas, Russ. пятый, Cz. pátý, Ir. cúigiú, Welsh pumed, Bret. pempvet, etc.

VI. For PIE “six”, sweks and seks (also weks in Arm. vec', originally then probably PIE *sweks), compare Gmc. sekhs (cf. Goth. saihs, O.S. seks, O.N., O.Fris. sex, O.E. siex, O.H.G.