8.1. Particles

8.1.1. Adverbs, Prepositions, Conjunctions and Interjections are called Particles. They cannot always be distinctly classified, for many adverbs are used also as prepositions and many as conjunctions.

8.1.2. In a more strict definition, however, Particles are usually defined as autonomous elements, usually clitics, which make modifications in the verb or sentence, but which don't have a precise meaning, and which are neither adverbs nor preverbs nor conjunctions.

8.1.3. Europaio has some particles (in the strictest sense) which mark certain syntax categories:

a. Emphatics or Generalizers: they usually affect the sentence or a single word, generally a pronoun, but also a noun or verb. The particle ge/gi, ghe/ghi usually strengthens the negation, and emphasizes different pronouns.

NOTE. The origin of this particle is probably to be found in PIE -qe, acquiring its coordinate value from an older use as word-connector, from which the intensive/emphatic use is derived.

b. Verb Modifiers:

I. The old (and probably unused in IE III) ti have a middle sense value, reflexive.

II. The modal -man, associated with the Indicative, expresses potentiality (with the Present) and Irreality (with the Past).

NOTE. It is probably the same as the conjunction man, if, and related to ma, but.

III. The negative particle me, originally associated with the Indicative or forms indifferent to the moods.

c. Sentence categorizers: these particles indicate the class of sentence, wether negative or interrogative.

I. The absolute interrogatives were introduced in European dialects by special particles, n being the most general of them.

NOTE. The origin could be the non-declarative sense of the sentence, so that it comes from the negative ne /n.

II. Negation has usually two particles, etymologically related:

- Simple negation is made by the particle ne, lengthened in some dialects with -i, -n, -d, etc.

- Mood negation or prohibitive is the particle me.

d. Sentence Connectives: they introduce independent sentences or connect different sentences, or even mark the principal sentence among subordinates.

I. so and to, which are in the origin of the anaphoric pronoun we studied in § 6.5.

II. nu, which has an adverbial, temporal-consecutive meaning.

III. An introductory or connective r, which is possibly the origin of some coordinate conjunctions.