2.9. Peculiarities of Orthography

2.9.1. Many words have a variable orthography.

2.9.2. In many words the orthography varies because of alternating forms, and so there are different derivatives; as in domos, house, but demspotes, despot, both from dem-/dom-, house.

2.9.3. In other situations, the meaning is different, while the words are written alike; as, gher, grasp, and gher, like

Sometimes, even the pronunciation is different; as, gna, which can be /g'na/, woman, or /g'nə/, to know

2.9.4. In some cases, however, it's the way we chose to write Europaio which affects how it is written. For example, the word Italia could have been written *Italja, but we chose to maintain the letter -i when possible. We only write j or w in some specific cases:

1. In roots and its derivatives; as,  trejes, jugom, sawel, newos, etc.; and also when the original root has different pronunciations; as, neu, shout, but nowentos (and not *nouentos), shouting

2. In lengthened stems; as in ser, protect, and serwa, preserve; and also in metathesized forms; as nerwos (from neuro-), sinew.

3. When there is a consonantal sound before or after a sonant; as, newn, nine; stajr, fat.

4. In endings (written generally with -i or -u), when the semivowel -i- is followed or preceded by another i, or the semivowel -u- is followed or preceded by another u; as in sunuwom, of the sons, or bolijos, big.

2.9.5. The old schwa is written with an a; as, pater, father; bhatis, appearance.

2.9.6. The forms with the copulative -qe are usually written by adding it to the preceding word, as in Latin -que, without dash.

2.9.7. The capital letters are used at the beginning of the following kind of words:

a. the names of days, months, seasons and public holidays

b. the names of people and places, including stars and planets

c. people's titles, such as Professor, Colonel or Director.

d. with North, South, East and West and its derivatives, in official or well-established place names.