1. The Four Stems

1. The Stems of the Present can be:

a. Roots: especially thematic, but also athematic and semithematic.

b. Reduplicated roots: especially athematic.

c. Consonantal stems: all thematic. They can end in occlusive, or -s and its lengthenings (with or without morphological meaning), like -ske/o; as in prk-sko, ask for, inquire, from zero-grade prek, ask.

d.  In vowel: thematic in -i-, -u-, and athematic in -a, -e.

e. In nasal: athematic (especially in -neu / -nu, -na / -na) and thematic.

2. The Stems of the Imperfect are opposed to the present with certain suffixes:

a. Athematic Roots: opposed to root- and reduplicated-Presents.

b. Thematic Roots: opposed to athematic Presents.

c. Reduplicated Roots: thematic, opposed to athematic reduplicate Presents.

d. With -s and its lengthenings: thematic and athematic.

e. With -t and -k are rare, as lat. feci.

f.  With -e, -a, -i, -u and its lengthenings.

3. The Stems of the Perfect end usually in -o or -o, reduplication (not general) with root vowel e and some especial endings.

4. The Future Stems can be those of the Present, but the Europaio has created its own future, generally with -s, wether thematic or athematic.

NOTE. The future is thus also formed with the present in some situations, as in English I go to the museum, which can mean I am going to the museum or I will go to the museum. The Present is, thus, a simple way of creating (especially immediate) future sentences in most IE languages, as it was already in IE III times.

5. To sum up, there are four inflected Stems, but each one has in turn five inflected forms (Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, Optative and Participle), and one not inflected (Infinitive). This inflection is obtained with desinences (included Ø) which indicate person, time and voice. The person is thus combined with the other two.

NOTE. An example of the four stems are, for leiq, leave: leiqe/o- (or nasal lineqe/o-) for the Present, liqe/o for the Imperfect, (le)loiq for the Perfect, and leiqse/o for the Future.