7.2.4. Verb Creation

1. With Verb Creation we mean not only the way verbs are created from Nouns and Verbs by adding suffixes, but also to the reduplication of the stems.

2. There are generally two kinds of suffixes: Root and Derivative; they are so classified because they are primarily added to the Roots or to Derivatives of them. Almost every suffix we have seen (like -u, -i, -n, -s, etc.) is a root suffix.

Derivative suffixes can be:

a. Denominatives, which help to create new verbs from a noun; as -ie/-io.

b. Deverbatives, those which help to create new verbs from other verbs; -ei- (and root vocalism o), -i-, -s-, -sk-, -a-, -e- etc.

3. Reduplication is usual in many modern languages. It usually indicates intensity or repetition in nouns, but in the Europaio verb system it has two different meanings:

a. A Deverbative, opposed to root verbs, generally in the Present, especially in intensives; as, bherbher from bher, bear, or galgal, from gal, call; etc.

Note. It is doubtful wether these are remains of an old system based on the opposition Root/Deverbative, prior to the more complicated developments in suffixes and endings; or, on the contrary, it is the influence of the early noun derivations, in turn older than the verb system itself.

b. Essentially, though, reduplication has lost its old value and marks the different stems, wether Present, Imperfect or Perfect. There are some rules in reduplication:

- In the Present, it can be combined with roots and accent; as, bhibher, gigno, etc.

- In the Perfect, it appears with root vocalism and special endings; as, bhebher-a, gegno-tha, etc.

- Full reduplications (of intensives) are opposed to simple (of the Present, Imperfect and Perfect), formed with an initial consonant and an i in the Present, or an e in the Perfect - and sometimes the imperfect.

- In other cases, reduplicated stems can be opposed, for example, to the Imperfect to form Perfects or vice versa, or disambiguate other elements of the stem or ending.