June 4, 2017

A Game of Clans & A Clash of Chiefs


A Song of Sheep and Horses
Book One
A Game of Clans
collectores venatoresque, agricolae pastoresque

Population genomics, archaeology, and ethnolinguistics from modern humans to the Copper Age

Book Two
A Clash of Chiefs
rex militaris,
rex sacrorum

Population genomics, archaeology, and ethnolinguistics from the Bronze Age to the Middle Ages

Version: 1.2 (3 June 2019)

 A Game of Clans: collectores venatoresque, agricolae pastoresque and A Clash of Chiefs: rex militaris, rex sacrorum are the first and second volumes, respectively, of a series of books called A Song of Sheep and Horses, which includes linguistic data in the third volume, A Storm of Words, and supplementary maps and graphics in volume 4, A Feat of Crowds.

cover-clash-chiefsThese two volumes address the Proto-Indo-European Urheimat or homeland problem from a wide anthropological perspective, using archaeology and cultural and biological anthropology. More specifically, the first volume integrates the most recent genetic research with the prevalent anthropological theories on migration routes from the Palaeolithic to the advent of the Bronze Age. The second book integrates the most recent genetic research with the prevalent anthropological theories on migration routes from the Early Bronze Age to the Middle Ages.

Beyond a tentative physical location of Middle and Late Proto-Indo-Europeans and Early and Late Uralians, as well as early Indo-European (Italo-Celtic, Germanic, Balto-Slavic, Indo-Iranian, Greek, Thracian, Armenian, or Albanian) and Uralic (Balto-Finnic, Samic, Mordvinic, Ugric, or Samoyedic) communities, archaeology and population genomics can offer important hints about the actual material culture, society, economy, religious beliefs, and political organization of each of these ancestral groups.

Both volumes represent a thorough revision of the essay Indo-European demic diffusion model (see below).




Read online or download



Latest Revisions

You can share comments and corrections of any kind in form (spelling, expressions, sources) or content directly with the author at [email protected], or you can share them publicly in the appropriate forum thread for discussion. Changes will be made as soon as possible after notification:

  • 9 MAR 2019 :: (v. 1.2) PRINTED EDITION. New data from Iberia, the Mediterranean, and Estonia, as well as minor changes to different sections of both books.
  • 9 MAR 2019 :: (v. 1.16) New data on Sahara Neolithic. New date for Hajji Firuz outlier (now BA).
  • 6 MAR 2019 :: (v. 1.15) Additions and corrections related to the latest analysis of data from Wang et al. (2018). New information from recent archaeological and genetic papers. Images to illustrate certain sections.
  • 7 FEB 2019 :: (v. 1.1) Additions of information from latest papers and genomic data, as well as new images of steppe/steppe-forest regions.
  • 23 JAN 2019 :: (v. 1.09) Minor corrections to sections on Indo-Europeans and Uralians; added new data to East and West Semites and Greeks and Philistines.
  • 21 JAN 2019 :: (v. 1.08) Minor formal corrections; additions/corrections to sections on Uralic/IE; two images (BBC-CWC burials and Amesbury archer) added.
  • 19 JAN 2019 :: (v. 1.07) Minor changes to Introduction; formal corrections to other sections (use of dashes, punctuation, etc.).
  • 18 JAN 2019 :: (v. 1.06) Minor formal corrections.
  • 17 JAN 2019 :: (v. 1.05) Minor formal corrections to section on Nostratians and Old Europeans.
  • 15 JAN 2019 :: (v. 1.04) Numeration error section VIII.3; reference to SNP call in Balto-Slavic; correct name of cover image for Book 3.
  • 3 JAN 2019 :: (v. 1.03) Minor additions (references, details) in the section on Proto-Anatolians; numeration error section .
  • 2 JAN 2019 :: (v. 1.02) Minor errors in the section on Proto-Anatolians.
  • 1 JAN 2019:: (v. 1.01) Section Ugric and Samoyedic lacked numbering.

Older version: Indo-European demic diffusion model

Version:3.5 (29 October 2017)

Read the latest version, bookmarked and linked, with proper illustrations, at the official, collaborative website indo-european.info.

Third version, September 2017

Second version (with first revision), June 2017

The first version of February 2017 (before the publication of the Bell Beaker and Southeastern samples) is also available:

Latest Revisions to the Indo-European demic diffusion model

Please share corrections you wish to make in the Forum for discussion

  • 29/10/2017 :: (v. 3.5) Minor revision of the paper. Corrected information on PCA. Updated information on Sredni Stog. Certain maps updated. New research added.
  • 18/9/2017 :: (v. 3.0) Full revision of the paper. Updated information on admixture. Maps updated. New sections.
  • 10/6/2017 :: (v. 2.1) Minor corrections. Added information on Bell Beakers and Germanic.
  • 29/5/2017 :: (v. 2) Full revision of the paper. Added information on Bell Beaker and South-East European samples from recent papers and BioRxiv. Important changes to haplogroup nomenclature and maps.