May 31, 2017

A Grammar of Modern Indo-European, First Edition

Current Version: A Grammar of Modern Indo-European, Third Edition

Last Version of the 1st Printed Edition:3.86 (Jan 2009)

Creative Commons License

A Grammar of Modern Indo-European, First Edition
by Carlos Quiles, Fernando López-Menchero
is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

A Grammar of Modern Indo-European is a complete reference guide to a modern, revived Indo-European language. It contains a comprehensive description of Proto-Indo-European grammar and offers an analysis of the complexities of the prehistoric language and its reconstruction. Written in a fresh and accessible style, this book focuses on the real patterns of use in a modern Europe’s Indo-European language. The book is well organized and is filled with full, clear explanations of areas of
confusion and difficulty. It also includes an extensive index, glossary of linguistic terms and numbered paragraphs designed to provide readers easy access to the information they require. An essential reference source for the learner and user of Indo-European, this book will be the standard work for years to come.

Download a Free PDF / HTML Copy

3.1) Ebook in PDF and human translations:

Ebook in HTML, machine-translated texts & web translations (v. 3.20)

You can use Google’s PDF conversion to read an HTML document of the latest version, or you can read the full HMTL version of the Indo-European Grammar at (slow!). We recommend you to read the following parts, though:

  1. Preface & Introduction: GermanSpanishFrenchItalianDutchPolishPortuguese
  2. Writing System & Words:GermanSpanishFrenchItalianDutchPolishPortuguese
  3. Nouns & Adjectives:GermanSpanishFrenchItalianDutchPolishPortuguese
  4. Verbs & Particles:GermanSpanishFrenchItalianDutchPolishPortuguese
  5. Syntax & Phonology:GermanSpanishFrenchItalianDutchPolishPortuguese
  6. Etymological Notes:GermanSpanishFrenchItalianDutchPolishPortuguese

Latest Revisions to the Indo-European Grammar

Please share corrections you wish to make in the Forum for discussion

  • 10/1/2009 :: (v. 3.86) One word missed in the Proto-Italic version of Schleicher’s Fable.
  • 09/1/2009 :: (v. 3.85) First full revision heading for version 4. All sections revised, but for Etymological Notes.

—– Revisions made before Pre-Version 4.0 ——

  • 30/7/2008 :: (v. 3.45) Introductory section titles revised. Scheicher’s Fable posted in more proto-languages to fill the extra page created by rev. 3.43.
  • 29/7/2008 :: (v. 3.44) Greek loan word “Proto-” translated to Europe’s PIE “prmo-“. Etymology notes section revised accordingly.
  • 28/7/2008 :: (v. 3.43) Introduction to the Proto-Indo-European timeline revised, some notes added: on the terms “Indo-European”, “European”, “Europe’s Indo-European”. About the criticism to the “language revival” concept used for proto-languages: added information on trends to call Modern Hebrew “Israeli” due to differences with “Ancient Hebrew”.
  • 25/7/2008 :: (v. 3.42) Introductory section on Armenian; “Graeco-Armenian” question revised.
  • 15/7/2008 :: (v. 3.41) Minor corrections, including Greek laryngeals’ transcription, like aner and onomn, now showing Northern (i.e. non-laryngeal) version ner and nomn
  • 06/5/2008 :: (v. 3.40) Meaningful corrections, including translation of proper names (Carlos and France), IE ari(j)os, etymology of Gk. theos, ekklesia, geo, verbal forms, etc.
  • 12/4/2008 :: (v. 3.37) Minor corrections, including phonetics, s-mobile, IE meitos, preismos.
  • 16/3/2008 :: (v. 3.36) Numbers section improved. Indo-European day (Eur. dínom, not déinom), and daylight (Eur. dhṓchōs, from dhech, not dághōs, from agh) corrected.
  • 12/3/2008 :: (v. 3.35) Indo-European Schleicher’s Fable and the Italic, Celtic and Proto-Greek reconstructions revised.
  • 18/1/2008 :: (v. 3.34) Latin “Penultimate rule” corrected. IE rodo‘s proper meaning “gnaw”. Classification of lineqmi(linqo)-type verbs moved to a new suffixed athematic conjugation.
  • 1/1/2008 :: (v. 3.33) Schleicher’s Fable in Indo-European and its Proto-Languages reconstructions revised following our own publications.
  • 30/12/2007 :: (v. 3.32) Newer revision of Personal Pronouns.
  • 18/12/2007 :: (v. 3.31) Full and thorough revision of Personal Pronouns, thanks to Fernando López-Menchero and his own work on the Proto-Indo-European Personal Pronouns.
  • 16/10/2007 :: (v. 3.30) Revision of Nouns, Third Declension, –u: Locative and Instrumental in –ei and –i. Added etymological note about PIE (a)re-, thanks to Fernando López-Menchero.
  • 15/10/2007 :: (v. 3.25) Mistakes in Verb tables: imperatives written in first and second rows.

—– Revisions made before First Printed Edition ——

  • 20/7/2007 :: (v. 3.24) Some translation (like reconstructable) and syntax mistakes corrected. Few information added or changed.
  • 14/7/2007 :: (v. 3.22) Notes: Mali-gnos, “malign”, (as dweni-gnos, “benign”), comes indeed from zero-grade gnos, not from chnos.
  • 13/7/2007 :: (v. 3.21) Added important missing information to the pronouns, or just corrected. Thanks to the contributions of PhD. Olivier Simon and to the work of Fernando López-Menchero about the Indo-European Indefinite and Demonstrative Pronouns.
  • 12/7/2007 :: (v. 3.20) First Printed Edition, Final Version – Changes in Content and Design.
  • 27/6/07 :: (v. 3.15) First Printed Edition, Release Candidate III – Minor Changes in Content and Design.
  • 23/6/2007 :: (v. 3.10) First Printed Edition, 2nd Major Version (Release Candidate II) – Minor Changes in Frontpage, Major Changes in Content and Design.
  • 04/6/2007 :: (v. 3.02) Anglískos has obviously root accent, i.e. Ángliskos, as Téutiskos, and so on. Also, Europáios is irregular, following the different modern IE languages, as it could be ‘purer IE’ Európaios or later ‘Graeco-Latin’ Europaíos (Europaéus).
  • 03/6/2007 :: (v. 3.01) Feminine in (v. 2.0) page 86 instead of “femenine”, thanks to M.Barnett.
  • 02/6/2007 :: (v. 3.0) Major changes have been made, some chapters rewritten and some others added. Thanks to the collaboration of Fernando López-Menchero, including a table on the Proto-Indo-European Noun Morphology and a thousand other corrections sent via email.

—– Revisions made before Version 3.0 ——

  • 06/5/2007 :: (v. 2.16) Minor style changes – more links are added for quick references.
  • 05/5/2007 :: (v. 2.15) Major Style Revision of footnotes, now added to the end of each section, to facilitate the reading of the grammar – thanks to Adam Cooper.
  • 04/5/2007 :: (v. 2.13) Added comment about “European” as an adjective and noun in Indo-European languages from Europe
  • 30/4/2007 :: (v. 2.12) Minor corrections on long vowels, palato-velar g, etc.
  • 29/4/2007 :: (v. 2.11) Latin endings -tas/-tati-, reduced as MIE -ta, as e.g. Lat. Uniuersitas, Uniuersitat-, “University”, -> MIE Oiniwersita
  • 26/4/2007 :: (v. 2.10) We enter Full Second Edition of MIE Grammar. Added Remaining Major Sections about PIE Verbal Inflection, MIE Conjugations and IE Particles, already revised. Aorist-Imperfect Question solved.
  • 22/4/2007 :: (v. 2.04) Some minor style and hyperlink errors arranged.
  • 19/4/2007 :: (v. 2.03) Second Declension Paradigm added.
  • 16/4/2007 :: (v. 2.02) PDF is made smaller with the same quality, and some wrong images are now correctly seen.
  • 14/4/2007 :: (v. 2.01) Some more words and their etymologies and derivatives added. Minor corrections in noun declension. Some more information about the authors.
  • 13/4/2007 :: (v. 2.0) Full Revision of Europaio: A Brief Grammar of the European Language. Changes listed in the Revions’ log within the book.

—– Revisions made before Version 2.0 ——